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THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



DAMAGE BOOK 



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g]<OU 168548 



CLOP^EDIA 
TANNICA 











TEENTH EDITION 

RVEY OF UNIVERSAL 
vIOWLEDGE 

VOLUME 
23 

SE TO ZYGOTE 



THE 1 





'A BRITANNICA COMPANY. LTD 
LONDON 

DIA BRTTANNICA. INC. 
JNEWYORK 




INITIALS Al 

wr 



NAMliDF COlfTfl 
THE ITICLES 






IS IN VOLUME XXIII 
BY THEM. 



A. A. M. 


A. A. MlCHEL&J 


'H.D., ScJ 


*.T>. 


i 




Distinguisli| i 
iPhysics),.!). 


^rvice Profeil 
I 


f>hysica, University of Chicago. Nobel Prizeman ^Velocity of Light 


A.B. 


AUBREY Frrxcfc; 


> Brrr m 




) 




Author of m 


alfnriJtepM 


\ese; etc. 


1 Vincente, Gil. 


A. B. G. 


ALFRED BRADL* 


OUCIT, M.AJ 


;.D. 


/ -] 




Sometime A 
University 


rd Scholar ol 


\ John's Collcg 


f., Oxford, English Lector in the |- Westphalia, Treaty of. 


A. C. Ho. 


SIR ALEXANDEM 
Director of 

Rivers as SMk 


lOLSTON, K] 
r Examinati 

of \Valer Suj. 


S. f C.V.O., i\| 

Metropolitan 
; Rural WateM 


' Water Board, London. Author of V Water Purification. 

Supplies and their Purification; ctc.J 


A. D. I. 


A. D. IMMS, MD.Sc. 


F 


| 




Chief EntoA^ist, K ithamst 
Formerly F Zoologist to 
University tihaba<j. Aufc 


Experiment.'' 
Govern^ 


Station, Harpenden, Hertfordahire. LWasp: 
of India and Professor of Biology, Weevil. 
^xtbook of Entomology; etc. J 


A. D. L. 


ALEXANDER DtMp LINDSAY! ( 
Master of BB College, (1/r 


F 


!>. [ Workers, Education of. 

:<? Philosophy of Bcrgson; etc. J 


A. D. M. 


A. D. MiTCHET.Msn r r ri 




^ wr . 


Assistant &Wto' th^jLta, 
Chemistry, Wrsity of Lo n 


, 1 Water; 
cat Society. Assistant Examiner m X^ ^ n p art ) t 
of Chemistry. ' 


A. F. B. 


ALDRED FARRE K ER, M. 








Professor of V e IijdustMj, f 
tries; etc. M 




Author of Wool and Textile Indus- ^Woollen Manufacture; 
J Yarn. 


A. F. Be. 


ARCHIBALD FRA*CKI- , Illf 
Major, KoyaB Arti'lleiltir 




, T , 1 Waterloo Campaign, 1815* 

f Introduction to the History of Todies. ) 


A. F. Hu. 


A. F. HuTcmsov. I 




\ Wallace, Sir William (in 




Sometime Rcf tho llmch 




I part). 


A. GeL 


SIR ARCHIBALD (^ F,R.I 







( '.eologist. Dh-.Gcnc! 
Director of theum of;* 
ical article: G^ SIR 

A, G. P. ARTHUR GEORGE 

Emeritus Profjformerh 
Faculty of TcAgy. 
1025. Joint Alof The. 

A. Hn. ARTHUR HARDEN,! p r 

Head of Bioclii I 
London Univef 

A. Ho. SIR ADAIR HOSE, 

Principal Assisj 

A. J. L. ANDREW JACKSON 

Late Librarian,] 

A. K. C. ANANDA K. COOM> 

Keeper of Ind 
Author of The 

A. L. B, ARTHUR LYON Bcr 

Professor of 
ma tics and I 
tics; Measuremel 
War; etc, |.\ t 

A. L. Q. A. L. QUAINT ANCK, 

Associate Chief, 

A. L. S. ANDR L. SIMON. M 

Of Messrs. Pomi 
Wine Trade. 

A. L. WL A. L. WlDGERY, 



A. Mor. A. MORA, 

Director of PlywdtV 



Sutvcy of the United Kingdom and lyesuviuS (in part). 
onAm, 1881-1901. S^thebiograph- 



cry and Dyeing, Dean, 19*2-4 of the 
};\vy Medallist of the Royal Society, 
olouring Matters. 

istitutc. Professor of Biochemistry, > Vitamins* 

] War Pensions. 

sions. ' 

1 Venezuela (in part). 
University. ' 

' ^* *\A Hi A *i 1 

['Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. VYaksaS. 
'tonal Idealism; Art arul Swadeshi. J 

mdon. Formerly Professor of Ma the- 1 Wages: Statistics of United 
eadsng. Author of Elements of 5w- f Kingdom. 
Bourse of Prices and Wages During the\ 



hington. 

of The Blood of the Grape; 

Ltd., London. 



(in part). 



Wales (i* party 
| Veneer. 



VI 
A. N. 

A. P. Hi 
A. P. W. 

A. P. WL 

A. Sa. 

A. S. P.-P. 

A. Sy. 

A. W. Hu. 
A. W. K. 

A. W f R. 

A. W. W.-E. 
A.Yo. 

B. F. C. A, 
B. F. F. 

B. H. L. H. 
B. H.-S. 

B. S. R. 

C. A. C. B. 
C. A. S. 

C. E. Co. 
C. E. T. 
C. F. A. 

C. G. D. 
C. Go. 
C. H. H. 



INITIALS AND NAM 

ALLAN NEVINS, A.M. 

Professor of American History, Cornell Uni 
Emergence of Modern America; etc. 

ARTHUR P. HIROSE. 

Manager, Market Analysis Department, McC 
of Domestic Klectric Refrigeration. 
COLONKL ARCHIBALD PERCIVAL WAVELL, C.M. 
Late the Black Watch. General Stall Officer 
Attach6 on the Caucasus Front, Nov. 1916- 
Brigadier General, General Staff, with Egypt 

A. P. WILLS. 

Professor of Mathematical Physics, Columbia University 

SIR JAMKS ARTHUR SALTKR, K.C.B. 

Director of the Economic and Finance Section of the Leag 
Secretary to the Reparations Commission, 1920 - Secretar 
ment of the Supreme Economic Council, 1919- Secretary 
Transport Council and Chairman of Allied Maritime Lra 
Author of Allied Shipping Control: An Experiment in Interna 

ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.P., D.C.L., F- 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Ldu 
in the University of Aberdeen, 1 911-3; Edinburgh, *9 2I ~3 
in tlte Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; etc. 

ARTHUR SYMONS. f , 

English poet and critic. Author of Studies i\ Two Ltten 
Charles Baudelaire; etc. See biographical artic 1 ! : SYMONS, 

REV. ARTHUR \VOLLASTON HUTTON, M.A. 

Author of Life of Cardinal Newman; Life of Car, 

ARTHUR WILLIAM KIDDY. 

City Editor of The Morning Post and 

spondent in London of The Neiv York , 

zine, London. IoN.L.L.1 

SIR ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, K.C., K hor of T1 
Puisne Justice, Supreme Court and P 
1901-5; Ceylon, 1905-15. Chief Justice^ Chemi 
Editor of Encyclopaedia of English a7>nstitute 

REV. ARTHUR WADE WADE-EVANS. 

Vicar of Pottersbury since 1926. Authci n iversit\ 

ALLYN YODNO, PH. P. 

Late Professor of Political Economy in 

B. F. C. ATKINSON, PH.D. Author o 

Under Librarian, University College, O 
LIEUTENANT B. F. FELLERS. Stirling. 

Instructor in the Department of Engli 
Point. 

CAPTAIN B. H. LIDDELL HART, FJ 

Military historian and critic. Military o 
of the Military and Military History sec 

MAJOR BROOKE HECKSTALL-SMITH. ' 

Secretary to the Yacht Racing Associatij^^jg* 
Yachting Editor of The Fit-Id^ 1900-28, ^ rgan ic 
correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, L 



,v-HiU Publisl Company. Auil 



Nations. 
he British 
e Allied Marit 




(-Washington, George. 
[| Washing Machines. 



of the. 



{ Vector Analysis. 



War c ntroi of Shipping. 



Gifford LcctT { 
^or of Ufan's He C 



Law. 



Days and 



R. 



AY*; >X eriai<ne > 

/ Villiers de 



* 

U Financial (re- 
t0'* Bankers' ga- I 



leral, Ma-ius, ( 
r act ice of lit 



.War Finance- (Cost 
World War). 



of the 



* 



IwS: 
WZ' 

AcadeiWest j West Point. 



-legrafiditor 
cdia 



] 

C 



B. SEEBOHM ROWNTREE. 

Chairman of Rowntree and Co., Ltd. 
Way to Industrial Peace; The Human 
author of Unemployment: A Social Stud 

CHARLES A. C. BROWN. 



Lister Ir 



-H' of Pen; 



Institute of Agriculture and Engineering 

C. A. SMITH, M.A. * Corne " 

Secretary of the Faculty, University of ^.S., F.C 

CHARLES E. COFFIN. ^^NW 

President of the American Whist Leagu. >' s * 

CECIL EDGAR TILLEY, B.Sc., Pn.D., F.G. ,> * ^f *Lc 
Lecturer in Petrology, University of Gat^^ ^ 

CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. ^a; The t 

Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Mi 
The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

C. G. DARWIN, M.A..F.R.S. >4gy, Was 

Tait Professor of Philosophy in the VI n 
Lecturer, Christ's College, Cambridge. 

C. B. GOULDEN, M.A., M.CH., M.D., F.I 
Specialist in Ophthalmology, London V 
London Ophthalmic Hospital. | 

CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, AIM., Pn.p J 
Professor of History in Columbia Univdi 
ican Historical Association.! t I 




Wisconsin, University of. 
Whist. 



\ 



s (in part). 
'owandZeeman Effect. 



Author 



or Sight (in part). 
o Amer- Uictor (,' farf)f 



C. H. W. 

C. J. 
C. K. W. 



C. L. K. 

C.L.S. 
C. Mi. 

C. M. Kn. 
C. M. L. 

C. Mn. 
C. Ra. 
C. R. B. 



C. R. Bl. 
C. R. Fi. 

C. Sey. 

C. W. Ro. 

D. C. B. 

D. C. S. 

D. C. So. 
deBr. 
D. F. T. 

D. G. H. 
D.Hu. 




v 



Vienna, Congrats 



Whittington, 



"] 

f f 

J 



Coundl > 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUT 

CAMILLA H. WEDGWOOD, B.A. 

Department of Anthropology, Sydney University, N.S.W. Formerly Lecturer 
Sociology, Bedford College, London. 

CHARLES JAMES. 

Professor of Chemistry, New Hampshire University, Durham, N f ew Hampshire. 

CHARLES KINGSLEY WEBSTER, M.A., Lirr.D. 

Wilson Professor of International Politics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth. Pro- 
fessor of Modern History, Liverpool University, 1914-22, Secretary, Military sec- 
tion, British Delegation, Conference of Paris, 1918-9. Author of British Diplomacy, 
1813-5; The Congress of Vienna, 1814-5. Contributor to the Cambridge History 
of British Foreign Policy. 

CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HiST.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, 1905-12. Sometime member of the staff of 
Dictionary of National Biography. Ford Lecturer in English History, University of 
Oxford, 1923-4, Author ol Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow 'a 
Survey of London. 

CORNELIUS L. SHEAR, PH.D. 

Principal Pathologist in Charge, Office of Mycology and Disease Survey, Bureau of fVine (in part)* 
Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. 

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Tn. 

Formerly Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author 
Publizistik im Zcitalter Gregor VII., Qucllen sur Geschichte des Papstthums; etc. 

C. M. KNOWLES, LL.B. ) Workmen's CompeijAdfe 

Barrister-at-law. Assistant Legal Adviser, Home Office, London. ) (in part). ^: . 

CHARLES MOSTYN LLOYD, M.A. "] i * 

Barristcr-at-law. Lecturer and Head of the Department of Social Service and [\ 
Administration in the London School of Economics, University of London. Assistant f 
Editor of The New Statesman. J 

CHRYSTAL MACMILLAN, M.A., B.Sc. 

Barrister-at-law, Middle Temple. 
CORNEUA M. RAYMOND, A.B. 

Director, Bureau of Publication, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. 

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S. 

Professor of History, University of Birmingham. Late Fellow of Merton and Uni- 
versity Lecturer in History and Geography, Oxford. Formerly on Council of Royal 
Geographical Society and of Hakluyt and African Societies, and a member of the 
Ho,usc of Laymen. Member of Advisory Committees of British Labour Party for 
International Affairs and for Education. Member of Executive of Birmingham 
Labour Party. Author of History of Russia; Nineteenth Century Europe. 

CARLETON R. BALL, M.S., D.Sc. 1 

Principal Agronomist in Charge, Office of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau of f Wheat (in part). 
Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. J 

CARL RUSSELL FISH, M.A., Pn.D. ] 

Professor of American History in the University of Wisconsin. Author of Develop- > Wisconsin. 

mcnt of American Nationality; American Diplomacy; etc. J 

CHARLES SEYMOUR, PH.D., LITT.D,, LL.D. T 

Provost and Sterling Professor of History, Yale University. Author of Electoral Re- I Washington Conference; 
form in England and Wales; The Diplomatic Background of the War; The Intimate f Wilson, Thomas T "~ " 
Papers of Colonel House; Woodrow Wilson and the World War; etc. J 



Workhouse 
*VIMW 



[Women, Legal Position of 

} (in part). 

) Vassar 
) vassar 



Vespucci, Amerigo; 
"Zemarchus. 



tn n **\ ^/\ 
Battle of). 



MAJOR-GENERAL CHARLES WALTER ROBINSON, C.B., D.C.L. 
Author of Strategy of the Peninsula War; etc. 

DANIEL CARTER BEARD, C.E. t " 

Instructor in Animal Drawing, Woman's School of Applied Design, 1893-1900. Chief ..Woodcraft 
Scout, Department of Woodcraft, Culver (Ind.) Military Academy, organizer and j 
chief, 1911 5. Author of American Boys Book of Camplore and Woodcraft. ^ 

REV. CANON DAVID CAPELL SIMPSON, M.A., D.D. ^ 

Oriel Professor of Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford University. Canon of I Wisdom, Book of J 
Rochester Cathedral. Fellow of Oriel College. Reader in Semitic Languages and f Wisdom Literature. 
Old Testament, Manchester College, Oxford. J 

DAVID CHURCHILL SOMERVELL, M.A. 

Assistant Master, Tonbridge School, Tonbridge, Kent. 

Due DE BROGLIE. 

Officer of the Legion of Honour. Mernbre de 1'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY, M.A., Mus.Doc. ] ^ 

Reid Professor of Music in Edinburgh University. Author of Essays in Musical Victoria! Tomxn 
Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, Tlie Goldberg Variations and analyses of f Ludovico da; 
many other classical works. Editorial Adviser, Music section, I4th Edition, wcyc/0- Wagner (in 
podia Britannica. J 

DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A., C.M.G., D.LITT. *) 

Late Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1889 fXanthus, 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-5; Assiut, 1906-7. Director of the British School at Athens, 
1897-1900. Late Director of the Cretan Exploration Fund. J 

DARD HUNTER. ^| 

Author of many articles on printing, paper-making and water-marking. Author of X Watermarks. 
Primitive Papermakinz; Old*Paperrnaking; The Literature of fapermaking, 1390-1800.) 



) Y 
J A- 



viii INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

D. M. S. W. DAviO MEREDITH SHARKS WATSON, M.Sc., F.R.S. "1 . . 

r Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College, London. [Zoological Regions; 
/ Author of many papers on Vertebrate Palaeontology and connected subjects in Pro- 1 Zoology. 
cccdings of the Zoological Society; Journal of Anatomy; etc. J 

D. No. , DAISUKE NOHARA. t Yokohama Specie Bank, 

' Manager, Yokohama Specie Bank, Ltd. ) Ltd., The 

D. R.-M DAVID RANDALL-MAC!VER, M.A., D.Sc., F.S.A. 1 

Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester fVillanovans. 
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Mediaeval Rhodesia; etc.J 

D. F DAVID THEODORE FYFE, M.A., F.R.I.B.A. 1 Western Asiatic 

Lecturer in Architecture, and Director of the University School of Architecture, r A -^u:* *r!L 
Cambridge. J Architecture. 

D. W, K. DUDLEY W. KNOX. 1 

Captain, United States Navy. History Section, Naval Records and Library, Navy /-War of 1812, The. 
Department, Washington. Author of The Eclipse of American Sea Power. j 

E. A. CAPTAIN EDWARD AJLTHAM, C.B., R.N. ") 

Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, Royal United Service Institution since 1927. [ 

Senior Naval Officer, Archangel River Expedition, 1918-9. Secretary and Editor of VWilson, Sir Arthur Knyvet 

the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. Editor of the Naval section, i4th 

Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica. J 

B. A. A. E. A. ATKINS, M.I.MECH.E. 1 Wire* 

Member of the Iron and Steel Institute and the Institute of Welding Engineers. L'ii7: rA l T 
Director of Research, The Pearson and Knowles and Ryland Bros. Research Labora- [ ^ Springs 

E. A. Al. EDWIN ANDERSON ALDERMAN, LL.D., Pu.B., D.C.L. "1 

President, University of Virginia. Author of Southern Idealism; The Spirit of the V Virginia, University of. 
South; etc. J 

E. Bra. Emeu BKANDENBURG. "] 

Lecturer in Philosophy and History at the Prussian Akadeniie der Wissenschaften, [-William II. 
Berlin. J 



Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, D.Lnr. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Gesckichte des 

Alterthumt; etc. v * 

J Yazdegerd. 

E. B. Hu. E. E. HUGHES, M,A. 1 Wai^R fir h 

Professor of History, University College of Swansea, Wales. \ WaleS (lh p 

E. E. K. E. E. KELLETT. \ Webster 

Author of Suggestions, Literary Essays; The Appreciation of Literature. J irwaKM, 

E.P. A. E. F. ALBEE. "| 

President of the Keith-Albee Circuit, New York. Vice-President, Actors' Fund of > Vaudeville. 
America. President, Keith-Albee Vaudeville Exchange. J 

E. F. H. ELDRED F. HITCHCOCK, C.B.E. "> 

Government Wool Statistician. Assistant Director of Raw Materials and formerly >Wool, War Control of. 
Deputy Director, Wool Textiles, War Office, London. * J 

E. F. LA. LIEUT.-COLONEL E. F. LAWSON, D.S.O., M.C. t T.D. . ? v pftmftnrv 

General Manager, The Daily Telegraph, London. f leomanry. 

E. F, P. ELLEN F, PSNOLETON, A.M., Lirr.D., LL.D. f Welleslcv College 

President of Wellcsley College, Member of Jury of Award for American Peace. ) weueslc y College. 

E. G. SIR EDMUND GOSSE, M.A., C.B., LLJ3 M HON.LITT.D. 




. 

Collected Poems; Books on the Table; etc. See the biographical article: GOSSE, SIR 
EDMUND. J 

E. G. EOT. EDWIN G. BORING, A.M., PH.D. i Visceral Sensations 

Professor of Psychology, Harvard University. { Visceral Sensations. 

E. G. Bow. E. G. BOWEN, M.A. "| 

Late Cecil Frosser Post-Graduate Scholar of the University of Wales and author of VWales (in part}. 
varioua scientific papers. J 

E. H. EBUL HATSCHEK, F.I.P. "1 

Lecturer on Colloids at the Sir John Cass Technical Institute, London. Editor on Lviscositv 
behalf of British Association Colloids Committee of a collection of classical papers f y * 

entitled The Foundation of Colloid Chemistry. J 

E. Hoi. E. HOLLO WAY, A.M. "| 

Professor of English, Adelphi College, Brooklyn, New York. Author of Whitman: An ^Whitman, Walt. 
Interpretation in Narrative. Editor of Leaves of Crass. ) 

E. Ja. EDOAB JADWIN, HON.D.E. i Washington 

Major-General, Chief of Engineer^ United States Army, Washington. 3 * ' 

E. J. T, EDWARD J. THOMAS, PH.D. 1 Zend-Avesta (in fiar 

Translator, Vedic Hymns. Author of The Life of Buddha as Legend and History. ) * ena Ave5Wl ^ m pan 

E. L. P. R. ELSA LIWKOWXTSCH, PH.D., B.Sc.(Hons.), A.R.C.S. | Whale OU (in part). 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS ix 

E. M. G. E. M. GULL, M.A. 1 t f _ , 

Formerly Secretary, Associated British Chambers of Commerce in China and > Wei-Hai-WeL 

Hongkong. J 4 

E. M. Ha. E. MURRAY HARVEY. ^ t 

Commercial Secretary at Belgrade, 1920-8. Author of Report on Economic Conditions > Yugoslavia (in part). 

in Yugoslavia. - J 

E. M. He. EDWIN MUSSER HERR, PH.D., D.Sc. \ Westinghouse Electric and 

President, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, New York. J Manufacturing Company. 

E. M. Wa. REV. EDWARD M. WALKER, M.A. 1 

Pro-Provost of Queen's College, Oxford. Author of Greek History^ Its Problems and >Xenophon. 
Its Meaning; etc. J 

E. N. da C. A. EDWARD NEVILLE DA COSTA ANDRADE, D.Sc., PH.D., F.lNST.P. ] 

Ouain Professor of Physics in the University of London. Author of The Structure of I wit-, r\f**A rttomK** 
The Atom; Airs; The Atom; etc. Editor of the Physics section, I 4 th Edition, Encyclo- f wuson Cloua UumDen 

p&dia Britannic a. J 

E. 0. EDMUND OwrfN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 1 

Formerly Consulting Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital and to the Children's Hospital, XVenereal Diseases (in part). 
Great Ormond Street, London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. J 

E. Pu. MONSIGNOR ENRICO Pucci. "I 

Domestic Prelate to the Pope; now on the staff of the Corriere d' Italia. Author of ^Vatican, The. 

La Pace del Lalerno. j 

E. S. R. EDWARD STANLEY ROSCOE. ") 

Barristcr-at-law. Official Law Reporter in the Admiralty Court, 1883. Admiralty 



Registrar, 1904. Assessor, North Sea enquiry, 1905. Registrar of Prize Court, 1914. r Wreck (in part). 
Author of Admiralty Law and Practice; The Measure of Damages in Actions of Main- 



lime Collision. 



1 
J 



E. V. A. EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. ) Wireless Telegraphy (in 

Wheatstone Professor of Physics, King's College, London University. 1 part). 

Radiological Research Department, Woolwich. jX-Rays, Nature of (in part), 

F. A. B. FRANCIS ARTHUR BATHER, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 1 

Assistant Keeper of Zoology, British Museum, 1924-8. Rolleston Prizeman, Oxford, 1 n^ i i wr i ^ 

for research in Biology, 1892. Author of " Echinoderma" in A Treatise on Zoology; pOOJOglcal Nomenclature. 

Trias sic Rchinoderms of Bakony; etc. J 

F. A. M. W. CAPTAIN F. A. M. WEBSTER. \Walking Races; 

Joint-Kditor of The Blue Magazine, London, and writer on athletics. j Weight Throwing. 

F. Bl. F. BLUETHGEN. ) Vereinigte Glanzstoff- 

Director of the Vereinigte GlanzstofT-Fabriken A. G. J Fabriken A. G. 

F. Bu. FRED BULLOCK, LL.D., F.C.I.S. ^) 

Of Gray's Inn, Barrister-at-law. Secretary and Registrar, Royal College of Veterinary LV^*^I.. . e-* / ^ ^ 

Surgeons. Author of Handbook of Veterinary Surgeons; Law Relating to Medical, f vcwnn y odence (tn part). 

Dental, and Veterinary Practice. J 

F. C. Ba. FREDERICK CHARLES BARTLETT, M.A. "| 

University Reader in Experimental Psychology, and Director of the Psychological ^Vision (in part). 
Laboratory, Cambridge. J 

F. G. H. T. FRANCIS G. H. TATE, F.C.S. { w . . . ..... . 

First Class Chemist, Government Laboratory, London. J wmsKy or WHiSKey, 

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. ) , 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. J wesse *- 

F. G. P. FREDERICK GYMKR PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.S.A. "j 

Professor of Anatomy, University of London. President, Anatomical Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St. Thomas' Hospital and the ? Veins. 
London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at Royal 
College of Surgeons. J 

F. H. FRED HORNER. ^ 

Consulting Engineer. Contributor to The Times Engineering Supplement; Engineer- V Wood-working Machinery. 
ing; Machinery. J 

F. Kei. " FRANK KEIPER, M.A., M.E., LL.B. ] 

Patent Attorney. Inventor of the roller interlock used on all voting machines. L 
Lecturer on inventions and patents. Author of Pioneer Inventions and Pioneer \ 
Patents. J 

F. M. S. F. M. STENTON. ~\ 

Professor of History, University of Reading. Editor of the History (Mediaeval) sec- >Witan or Witenagemot 

tion, 1 4th Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica. J 

F. M. Su. FRANK MACY SURFACE, M.A., PH.D. ' ^ 

Assistant Director in Charge of Domestic Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domes- 1 War Control of Food (in 
tic Commerce, Washington. Author of American Pork Production During, the World \ part). 
War; The Grain Trade During the World War. J 

F. N. F. FRANK N. FREEMAN, M.A., PH.D. ^ 

Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Chicago. Author of The Teaching >Vteual Education. 
of Handwriting; Visual Education; Mental Tests; etc. J 



x INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

F. N. M. COLONEL FREDERIC NATUSCH MAUDE, C.B., R.E. "I 

Author of Cavalry: Its Past and Future; Evolution of Strategy; War and the World's x 
Life; Campaign of Leipzig; of Jena; of Vim and many other technical essays. J 

P. R. C. FRANK RICHARDSON CANA, F.R.G.S. i 

Editorial Staff, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903-11 and 1914-5. Staff of The Times, I ^ wi AIII 
London, since 1916. Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union; 77/ f ~ amD 21 > 
Great War in Europe; The Peace Settlement. Zanzibar; 

J Zululand (in part). 

F. T. H. F. T. HARVEY, F.R.C.V.S. } Veterinary Science 

Kxaminer in Veterinary Medicine to the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. ( (/;; part). 

F.'T. M. SIR FRANK THOMAS MARZIALS, K.C.B. ) Zola, Emile Edourd Charles 

Accountant General of the Army, 1898-1904. Editor of "Great Writers" series. ( Antoine. 

F. W. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR FABIAN WARE, K.C.V.O., K.B.E.. C.B., C.M.G. | 

Formerly Director-General of Graves Registration ana Enquiries. Permanent Vice- f War Graves. 
Chairman, Imperial War Graves Commission. J 

F. W. Ta. F. WILBUR TANNER, M.S., Pn.D. ] 

Professor of Bacteriology, also Head of the Department of Bacteriology, University f Yeast, 
of Illinois. Author of Bacteriology and Mycology of Foods. J 

G. A. C. REV. GEORGE ALBERT COOKE, D.D. ""I 

Regius Professor of Hebrew and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Oriel ^Zenobia (in part). 
Professor of the Interpretation of the Scripture, Oxford, and Canon of Rochester.; 

G. B. GAMALIEL BRADFORD, Lirr.D. \ m^^^ r r^ Q tt1 

Author of Damaged Souls; Darwin; See the American; etc. ' ( weDSier > ^anieL 

G. B. B. GEORGE BARR BAKER. ] 

Chairman of The Central Press Association, New York. Formerly Director of Amer- lTi7 ar Relief Wnrlr 
ican Relief Administration, and Member, Executive Committee,. Commission for f -R-eiiei wont. 
Relief in Belgium. J 

G. C. H. GEORGE CHARLES HUSMANN. ) v . /. * 

Specialist in Viticulture, United States Department of Agriculture. \ vine ^ m r an >* 

G. C. R. GUY COLWIN ROBSON, M.A. ) Whelk 

Assistant Keeper in the Department of Zoology, British Museum. \ 

G. D. H. C. GEORGE DOUGLAS HOWARD COLE. 1 

University Reader in Economics, Oxford. Author of The Payment of Wages; Self- ^Wage-Systems in Industry. 
Government in Industry; Guild Socialism Restated; etc. J 

G. F. Z. GEORGE FREDERICK ZIMMER, A.M.lNsr.C.E. 1 Wazon Tionl 

Consulting Engineer and Joint -Editor of Engineering and Industrial Management. ) ** ippiers. 

G. G. A. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR GEORGE G. ASTON, K.C.B. "1 

Lecturer on Naval History, University College, I -ondon. I r ormerly Professor of Forti- I V i. / . .^ 
iication at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Author of Sea, Land and A ir f I "s 051 * ( lfl P an )> 
Strategy; Memories of a Marine; The Navy of To-day. Editor of The Study of War.} 

G. Go. GERALD GOULD, B.A. ^ 

Associate Editor of The Daily Herald, 1919-22. Fellow of University College, London, >Wells, Herbert George. 
1906, and Merton College, Oxford, 1909-16. J 

G. G. W. GEORGE GRAFTON WILSON, PH.D., LL.D. ^ 

Professor of International Law, Harvard University. Author of International Laiv >Visit and Search (in part). 
Situations and Topics; Hague Arbitration Cases; etc. J 

G. H. G. G. H. GUTTERIDGE, M.A. ] 

Professor of History at Berkeley, California. Author of The Colonial Policy of Wil- \ whia nnH TWt 
Ham II I. in America am I the West Indies (Choate Memorial Prize Essay); Life of f w m ^ ana lor y* 
David Hartley t the American Patriot. J 

G. H. W. GEORGE H. WARBURTON. ^ 

Editor of the Sixth Edition of Oils, Fats and Waxes by E. Lewkowitsch and C'hief V Whale Oil (in part). 
Chemist of the Lewkowitsch Laboratories. J 

G. Kr. GUSTAV KRAEMER. "I Vereinigte Industrie- 

Of the Vereinigte Industrie-Unternehmungen Aktiengcscllschaft. > Unternehmungen 

J Aktiengesellschaft. 

G. McL. Wo. GEORGE MCLANE WOOD. ] 

Editor, United States Geological Survey, Washington. Secretary, Chesapeake and I v i / +. \ 
Potomac Telephone Company. Author of Texts for United States Geological Survey [ venezuel a ( part)- 

' and press notices. J 

G. M. McB. GEORGE M. McBniDE/B.A., PH.D. ^) v . .,. - 

University of (California at Los Angeles, Calif. Author of Agrarian Indian Com- Wir eZ ? 6 i? V*f ar ')>' 
munities of Highland Bolivia. J Wes t Indies (in part) . 

G. P. E. GEORGE PEARSE ENNIS. ~\ 

Member, American Water Color Society, Guild of American Painters, Society of rWater-ColoUT Painting. 
Painters, etc. Director and Secretary, Grand Central School of Art, New York. J 

G. T, M. GILBERT T. MORGAN, O.B.E., F.I.C., D.Sc., F.R.S. "] 

Director, Chemical Research Laboratory, Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research. Formerly Mason Professor of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, I 75 * 
Professor in the Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Royal College of Science for Ireland r^^co^unL 
and Professor of Applied Chemistry, Technical College, Finsbury. Editor of the 
Chemistry section, I4th Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica. J 

G. W, T. REV. GRIFFITHS WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. } Waqidi; 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old >Ya'qfcbI* 
Testament' History at Mansfield College, Oxford. ,. J 2xiliir. 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS x 

H. C. HUGH CmSHOLM, M.A. 1 WflltPr Tnhn (in tarti 

Editor of the nth and I2th Editions of The Encyclopedia Britannica. \ wairer > J onn V" P&n). 

H. C. L. H. C. LONG, B.Sc. "] Vetch Y toir/) 

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, London. Author of Common Weeds of the Farm rri_ f / *\ f \ 
and Garden; Plants Poisonous to Livestock; Poisonous Plants on the Farm. J wneat \ in P<*ri). 

H. C. Sc. HENRY C. SCHNEIDER, M.E. (Windmills and Wind Power 

Charge of Windmill Department, Morse and Company, Chicago, 111. ) (in part). 

H. De. REV. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. I Vitus St 

Joint-Editor of the Bollandist publication, Ada Sanctorum. ) ' 

H. E. C. H. E. Cox, M.Sc., PH.D., F.I.C. ) 

Public Analyst for the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead, London. ( 

H. F. HELENA FRANK. ) Yiddish Language and 

Translator from the Yiddish of Stories and Pictures by Perez; Yiddish Talcs; etc. J Literature (in part). 

H. F. Br. HORATIO ROBERT FORBES BROWN, LL.D. ] 

Editor of the Calendar of Venetian State Papers for the Public Record Office. Author > Venice (/;/ part). 
of Life on^the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addington Symonds, A Biography; etc. J 

H. F. By. HARRY FLOOD BYRD. ) Virginia 

Governor of Virginia. ) guua. 

H. H. C. SIR H. HARDINGE CUNYNGHAME, K.C.B., M.A. ^ 

Harrister-at-law. Assistant Under-Secretary, Home Office, 1894-1913. Vice-Prcsi- V Watches (/// part). 
dent, Institution of Electrical Engineers. J 

H. He. HALLDOR HERMANN SSON. "] 

Professor of Scandinavian Languages and Curator of the Fiske Icelandic Collection, I T 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Author of numerous works on Icelandic Literature f 
and History. J 

H. H. G. HERBERT H. GRIMVVOOD. ) Wood-Carvin* (in 

Principal, School of Wooclcarving, South Kensington. ) * ^ 

H. H. L. B. HUGH HALE LEIGH BELLOT, M.A., D.C.L. ] 

Late Associe de 1'lnstitut de Droit International, Hon. Secretary, International Luvv yjg:* an( 4 Search (in 
Association, and Grotius Society, Acting Professor of Constitutional Law, University fw f T .^ , y 
of London and Secretary of the Laws of War Committee. Author of Commerce in wat ^ r S, lemtonai. 
War; The Pharmacy Acts; Permanent Court of International Justice. J 

H. J. F. G. H. J. F. GOURLEY, M.ENG., M.lNST.C.K., F.G.S. ] w t SUDD I V 

Director of Sir Alexander Btnnie Son and Deacon, Water Engineers. j ouppiy. 

H. Jn. HENRY JACKSON, O.M., Lrrr.D., F.B.A. ] 

Late Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity ( Xenocrates, of Chalcedon 
College. Author of Texts to Illustrate the History of Greek Philosophy from Thales to [ (in part). 
A rist-otle. J 

H. J. R. HERBERT JENNINGS ROSE, M.A. 

Professor of Greek, University of St. Andrews, Fife. Fellow and Lecturer of Exeter 
College, Oxford, 1907-11. Associate Professor of Classics, McGill University, 1911-5. Lyesta 
Professor of Latin, University. College of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1919-27. Author of ' 
The Roman Questions of Plutarch; Primitive Culture in Greece; Primilwf Culture in 
Italy; A Handbook of Greek Mythology. 

H. La. HERBERT LAPWORTII, D.Sc., M.lNST.C.E., F.G.S. 

President of the Institute of Water Engineers; Chartered Civil Engineer. 

H. L. J. HENRY LEWIS JONES, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. ] 

Formerly Medical Officer in Charge of the Electrical Department and Clinical Lee- 1 v j 
turcr on Medical Electricity at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Author of f 
Medical Electricity; etc. J 

H. L. St. HERBERT L. STONE. ] 

Editor of Yachting, New York. Author of The America's Cup Races; The Yachtsman's ^Yachting (/;/ part). 
Handbook. J 

H. Lu. HERMANN LUTZ. ' "| 

German political and historical writer. Author of Der Weg zum Kriege; Lord Grey f War Guilt (/// part), 
und der Weltkrieg. J 

H. M. S. HERBERT MARTIN SNOW, M.V.O. ) Wagons-Lit, Compagnie 

Agent-General, Cie dcs Wagons-Lits. ) Internationale des. 

H. M. V. HERBERT M. VAUGHAN, F.S.A. ^| 

Late of Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici xWales (in part). 
Popes; etc. J 

H.N. H. NISBET, F.T.I. Ivelveteen- 

Textile Technologist and Consultant. Author of Grammar of Textile Design. J V fta 

H. No. HIDEYO NOGUCHI, M.D. 1 

Japanese Bacteriologist. Discoverer of parasite of yellow fever (1918). See the r Yellow Fever. 
biographical article: NOGUCHI, HIDKYO. J 

H. Sp. HOWARD SPENCE. } Walnut 

Managing Director, Peter Spence & Sons, Ltd., Manchester Alum Works. f 

H. T. P. H. T. PARSON. J Wonlworth Co P W 

President, F. W. Woolworth Company, New York. } wooiwortn UO., *. W. 

H. W. C. IX HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. ] Wace Robert' 

Late, Director, Dictionary of National Biography, Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Walter nf Tnvintrv 
Oxford, and Regius Professor of Modern History. Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1895- fwmiam L; 

I9 2 ' J William of'Newburgh. 



xii INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

H. W. Ga. HEATHCOTE WILLIAM GARROD, C.B.E., M.A., F.R.L.S. "] 

Professor of Poetry, Oxford University, and Fellow of Merton College. Author of > Wordsworth, William. 

Wordsworth. J 

H. W. R. REV. HENRY WHEELER ROBINSON, M.A., D.D. ] 

Principal of Regent's Park College, London. Professor of Church History and the l7 e chariflh 
Philosophy of Religion, Rawdon College, Leeds, 1906-20. Author of Hebrew Psy- r^ ecnanan ' 
chology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays); etc. J 

H. W. V. T. HAROLD WILLIAM VA/EILLK TEMPERLEY, O.B.E., M.A., LITT.D., F.B.A. "I 

University Reader in Modern History and Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. Military I v^i-caiHae TV frr f 
Adviser at the Peace Conference, Paris, 1919. Edited, A History of the Peace Con- f versauies Dreary Oi. 
ference of Paris (Vols. I. to VI. ). J 

I. A. R. IRMA A. RICHIE R. ) Vivarini; 

Artist and writer. j Zurbaran, Francisco de. 

I. H. H. IDA HUSTED HARPER. j 

Author of Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony. Joint-Author of History of Women's r Women's Suffrage (in part}. 
Suffrage. J 

I. J. C. ISAAC JOSLIN Cox, A.B., PH.D. 1 

Professor of History, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. Author of Nicaragua ^Wilkinson, James. 

and the United States; etc. J 

J. A. St J. A. STRAHAN, LL.D. ] 

Barrister-at-Law. Emeritus Professor of Jurisprudence, University of Belfast. LWJII /*. T^o4-, * / ^ A 
Reader of Equity, Inns of Court, London. Author of The Bench and Bar of England; f WIU or lestament V* P a ")- 
etc. J 

J. B. P. J. B. PEARMAN. 1 

Secretary of the Avi Publishing Company, Incorporated, New York. Author of Heel [-Wrestling (in part), 
and Toe Walking. J 

J. D. Be. J. D. BERNAL, M.A. ? X-Rays and Crystal 

Lecturer in Structural Crystallography, Cambridge. j Structure. x 

J. E. E. BRIGADIER-GENERAL SIR T. E. EDMONDS, C.B., C.M.G., F.R.G.S. ] World ^ ar //,. Mrt \ . 

Officer in charge of Military Branch, Historical section, Criminal Investigation De- Lvr^e TV,^ i^i i 
partment, London. Serve<l in South African and European Wars. Author of Official f *P res i/ 1 * 68 ol 
History of the War; etc. J Y P res Battles of, 1915. 

J. E. L. J. E. LLOYD, M.A., D.Lnr. "] 

Professor of History, University College of North Wales, Bangor. Author of A His- l-a/oW (" * i\ 
lory of Wales to the Edwardian Conquest. Editor of Hubert Lewis's Ancient Laws of f Yvaies **" P llrl > 
Wales. J 

J. E. Ta. TAMES EDWARD TAUSSIG. j wu*,u T>-I, r\ 

President, Wabash Railway Company and also of the Ann Arbor Railroad Company, f WaDas * Railway Company. 

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D F.R.HiST.S. W ega Carpio, Lope Felix de 

Late Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, University of Liver- >- /* h fx 
pool. Author of a History oj Spanish Literature. J v ?""> 

J. F. W. JOHN FORBKS WHITK, M.X', LL.D. 1 Velazquez (in part) 

Joint-Author of Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A. \ veiazquez (in pa i>. 

J. Gal. JKAN GALLOTTI. 1 . . 

Inspecteur dcs Arts Indigenes au Maroc. Charge du cours d'histoire de Tart Musul- >Wood-Carving (/;/ part). 
man a la Facult6 des Lettres de Bordeaux. J 

J. G. K. JOHN GRAHAM KERR, M.A., F.R.S. 1 Vertebrata' 

Regius Professor of Zoology, University of Glasgow. Author of Primer of Zoology; > v erte brate Embryology. 
Textbook of Embryology; etc. J J aj" 

J. G. R. JOHN GEORGE ROBERTSON, M.A., PH.D. ] 

Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London, Director of l^jeland Christoph Martin. 
the Department of Scandinavian Studies. Author of History of German Literature; ( ' 

Schiller After a Century; etc. J 

J. H. JOHN HILTON. } Wage Statistics: Internation- 

Director of Statistics, Ministry of Labour, London. ) al Comparisons (in part). 

J. Har. JIRO HARADA. ] 

Of the Imperial Household Museums, Japan. Formerly Professor in the Nagoya 

College of Technology, and in the 8th Higher School. Imperial Japanese Government ?-Wood-Carving (in part). 
Commissioner to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, 
1915. Author of The Gardens of Japan. J 

J. H. Mi. JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. " ] 

Sometime Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge, and Art Director of the South I Verona (in part); 
Kensington Museum. Author of The Engraved Gems oj Classical Times; Illuminated [Wren, Sir Christopher. 
Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. } 

J. H. P. SIR J. HERBERT PARSONS, C.B.E., M.B., HoN.D.Sc., F R.C.S., F.R.S. ] 

Surgeon. Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital. Ophthalmic Surgeon, University 1 vicmn /\r QiaHt (in 
College Hospital; Member of Medical Research Council. Fellow of University Col- f vlslon or ai ni v wl 
lege, London. Author bf The Pathology of the Eye; etc. J 

J. I. H. JOHN I. HARDY. \ w . ,. . t} 

Senior Animal Fiber Technologist, United States Department of Agriculture. } v v"*t- 

J. L. G. JAMKS LOTTIS GARVIN, Lixx.D. I w r 

Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia BriKinnica. Editor of The Observer. London, ( War 

J. L. W. ^^J^-^^ m(l _ , \ Wolfram von Eschenbach. 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS xiii 

J. M. Ca. JAMES MORTON CALLAHAN, A.M., PH.D. *] 

Head of Department of History and Political Science and Dean, West Virginia Uni- VWest Virginia. 
versity. Author of History of West Virginia; The South in the Making of the Nation.) 

J. M. F. R. J. M. F. ROMEIN. ) Vistula 

Member of the Transit Section of the League of Nations, Geneva. > * 

J.M.La. J. M. LANDIS, A.B., LL.B., S.J.D. l^^r^L^i 'r . M 

Professor of Legislation, Harvard Law School. \ Of Testament (in part) ; 

' J Writ (in part). 

J. O. LIKU TENANT-COLONEL JOSIAH OLDFIELD, M.D., F.R.S.M., D.C.L. ^ 

Warden of and Senior Physician to the Lady Margaret Fruitarian Hospital, Sitting- > Vegetarianism. 
bourne. Author of Diet in Rheumatism; Flesh-Eating a Cause of Consumption. } 

J. O. B. JOHN OLIVER BORLKY, O.B.E., M.A., F.L.S. ) Whale FishpriRR 

Discovery Committee, Colonial Cilice, London. J wnaie * lsnenes - 

J. P. JOHN PERCIVAL, M.A., Sc.D. "] 

Professor of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading. Author of The Wheat > Wheat (in part). 
Plant; etc. J 

J. P.-B. JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BKODHURST. 1 Vernis Martin 

Consulting Editor of The Guardian, London, formerly Editor. j ' 

J. R. B. J. R. BOND, M.B.E., M.Sc, N.D.A. ^ v t h , . } . 

Agricultural Organiser for Derbyshire. Contributor to the Journal of the Ministry of }- w , . v , . ^ '( 
Agriculture. J wneai V* P art )- 

J. R. Co. JOHN ROGERS COMMONS, A.M., LL.D. -] w affes . statistics of United 

Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin. Author of Legal Foundations of - ' oiausacs OI un Wa 

Capitalism; History of Labor in the United States (with associates) ; etc. 



J. S. SIR JOSIAH STAMP, G.B.E., D.Sc., LL.D., F.B.A. 

Chairman and President of the Executive, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 
Director of the Bank of England. Member of the British Royal Commission on 
Income Tax, 1919; of the Committee on Taxation and National Debt, 1924. British 
Representative on the Reparation Commission's Committee on German Currency 
and Finance, 1924, and Member of the Committee of Experts, Paris, 1929. Author 
of Wealth and Income of the Chief Powers; Wealth and Taxable Capacity. 

J. Sw. JOSEPH SWIRE, F.R.G.S. ^ 1 William; 



Wealth, National; 
-Wealth and Income, 
Distribution of. 



Member of the Institute of International Affairs, and a Member of the Balkan /- A ,- 

Committee. J Zo u > Ahmed. 

J. Te. REV. JOHN TELFORD, B.A. ] 

Wesleyan Methodist Connexional Editor since 1905. Editor of Wesleyan Methodist [Wesley (Family); 
Magazine, Preacher's Magazine; etc. Author of Life of John Wesley; Wesley's Chapel [Wesley, John. 
and Wesley's House; Portraits and Sayings of Charles Wesley. J 

J. V. B. JAMES VERNON BARTLET, M.A., D.D. 1 

Professor Emeritus of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The i-Vinet, Alexandra Rodolphe. 

Apostolic Age. j 

J. V. D. LlF.UTENANT-COLONEL J. V. DKLAHAYE, D.S.O., M.C.(retircd). 1 

C. R. A. North Russian Expedition, 1919. British Military Representative, Baltic i-Woolwich (in part). 
States, 1920. Staff College, 1921-2; General Staff, War Office, 1925-8. J 

J. Wil. JAMES WILLIAMS, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. ' ] 

Barrister-at-law, UncoJn's Inn. Formerly All Souls Reader in Roman Law, VJni- I -nr-i, T f f 

versity of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Author of Law of the Universities; f nm or iesiaraeni 
Wills and Succession; etc. J 



K. G. KARL FRIEDRICH GELDNER. ( Zend-Avestfl a,, hart\ 

Emeritus Professor of Indian Philology, University of Marburg, Germany. *ena /wesia yn pan). 

K. G. J. KINGSLEY GARLAND.JAYNE. j 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. >Xavier. 

Author of Vasco da Gama and His $iu;ces$ors. - J 

L. A. T. LAURENCE A. TURNER, F.S.A., HoN.A.R.I.B.A. ] 

Past Master, Art Workers' Guild. Past President* Master Carvers' Association. >Wood-Carving (in part). 

Author of Decorative Plaster Work in Great Britain. J 

L. C. L. LIONEL CHARLES LIDDELL, M.V.O. "1 

Sometime British Consul at Lyons and Copenhagen, successively Secretary of the I War Trade Advisory 

Restriction of Enemy Supplies Committee, and the Grand Committee on Trade in | Committee. 

the War, 1914-8. J 

Vickers, Limited; 



L. C. M. SIR LEO CHIOZZA MONEY, F.R.STAT.S., K.K.G.S. 

Author and Journalist. Member of the War Trade Advisory Committee, 1915-8. 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Shipping, 1916-8. Chairman of the Ton- 
nage Priority Committee, 1917-8. Editor of the Economics, Engineering and Indus- 
tries section, I4th Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica. 



Wall Paper Manufacturers, 

Ltd.; 

Westminster Bank, Ltd.; 
White Star Line; 
Yorkshire Electric Power 

Company. 



L. G. B. LOTTIE G. BISHOP. ....... {Yale University. 

Executive Secretary, Yale University. ) * 

L. J. S. L. J. SPENCER, M.A., Sc.D., F.G.S., F.R.S. } Witherite- 

Keeper of the Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensing- V w o ii gtonite 
ton. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. f A/vl ., " ' 
Editor of the MineralogicaL Magaainc. J ^ eoutes - 

L. Li. L. LIEGLER. ) Vienna (in barti 

Author of Karl Krans und sein werk. \ Vienna V P ar *>- 

L. O. H. LELAND OSSIAN HOWARD, PH.D., M.D., LL.D., Sc.D, ] 

Principal Entomologist, United States Department of Agriculture. Author of Mos- ^Woolly Apple Aphis. 

quitoes: How They Live; The Insect Book. ) 



xiv INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

L. Ro. LKNNOX ROBINSOX. "] 

Manager of the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, 1910-4, 1919-23. Director, Abbey Theatre, !-YeatS, William Butler. 
1923. Editor of Golden Treasury of Irish Verse; Poems of Thomas Parnell. J 

L. St. * LEONARD STEIN. 

Political Secretary to World Zionist Executive. Author of Zionism. 

L. T. T. LEONARD T. TROLAND, B.S., A.M., Pir.D. ] 

Assistant Professor of Psychology, Harvard University and Director of Research, Ivi<ciifl1 
Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, Boston. Author of The Present Status of ( vls>Uttl 
Visual Science; etc. J 

L. V. LUIGI VlLLARI. ] 

Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907. Acting-Consul at I Victor Emmanuel II. J 
Boston, 1907-10. On the Secretariat of the League of Nations, 1920-3. Author of (Victor Emmanuel III. 

Italian Life in Town and Country; The Fascist Experiment; The Awakening of Italy.) 

L. W. LITCIKN WOLF. ... ] 

President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Represented Anglo-Jewish I 7: nn : crn / , ,\ 
Community at Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Author of Diplomatic History of the r^ lomsm ( tn P al ' 1 )' 
Jewish Question. J 

L. Wa. LINA WATERFIELD, O.B.E. \ 

Correspondent for the Observer (London), in Rome. Member of the Academy of ^Venice (/;/ part). 
Perugia. Author of Home Life in Italy; The Story of Rome; etc. J 

L. W. H. COLONEL LAWRKNCK WIIITAKKR HARRISON, D.S.O., F.R.C.P. "] 

Special Medical Officer (Venereal Diseases), Ministry of Health, London. Director I Venereal Disease (/// parl); 
of Venereal Department and Lecturer on Venereal Diseases, St. Thomas' Hospital, f WaSSermann Reaction. 

London. J 

M. A. M. MARGARET ALICE MURRAY, F.S.A., F.R.A.L 1 

Assistant Professor of Egyptology, London University. Fellow of University College. [-Witchcraft. 
Author of Witch Cult in Western Europe; etc. J 

M. E. W. MARY P:\IMA WOOLLEY, Lrrr.D., L.H.D., LL.D. ( Women, Education of (in 

President of Mount Holyoke College, South Hadlcy, Mass. ) part). ^ 

M. G. F. DAME MILLICENT G. FAWCETT, G.B.E., J.P., HoN.LL.D. 1 

Author of Some Eminent Women of Our Time; Women's Suffrage; Josephine Butler; /^ Women's Suffrage (/// part). 
etc. See the biographical article: KVWCKTT, DAME MII.LICENT C.ARRKTT. J 

M. I. N. MARION I. NEWBIGIN, D.Sc. } 

Editor of The Scottish Geographical Magazine. Author of .1 Geographical Study of the ^Yugoslavia (/// payt). 
Peace Terms; Mediterranean Lands; etc. J 

M. J. C. M. J. CURRY. } Western Pacific Railroad 

Vice-President, The Western Pacific Railroad Company, New York. \ Corporation, The. 

M. J. T. MARGARET JANSON TUKE, M.A. ? Women, Education of (in 

Principal, Bedford College for Women, London University. \ part). 

M. S. D. MABEL S. DOUGLASS, \.ft., Lrrr.D. } Women, Education of (in 

Dean, New Jersey College for Women, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. ) part). 

M. Sh. , MARY SHERMAN. "1 Women's Club* The General 

President, General Federation of Women's Clubs, 1924-8. Now Chairman, American f 7 *' * Urenerai 

Home Department, General Federation. J ^eaeration Ot. 

M. SL MAX SlLBERSCHMIDT, PH.D. \ 7 r : rh / , h . f \ 

Assistant Professor, Cantonal Technical School, Winterthur, Switzerland. J ^uricn (ui pan). 

N. C. NEVVCOMB CARLTON. \ Western Union Telegraph 

President of the Western Union Telegraph Company. J Company, The. 

N. E. C. NORMAN E. CRUMP. " ] 

Statistical Correspondent to the Financial Times. Member of the Council of the [-Yen. 
Royal Statistical Society. Joint Author of Clare's A. B. C. of the Foreign Exchanges.} 

N. G. G. NICHOLAS G. GEDYE, O.B.E., B.Sc., M.Ixsi.C.E. 



Consulting Civil Engineer. Formerly Chief Engineer, Tyne Improvement ( ()in ~ I w e ; r - 
mission. Served B.E.F. Lieutenant-Colonel (late K.E.). Acting Director, Civil/- . . ' 
Enginecr-in-Chicf's Department, Admiralty. Chief Civil Engineer for Docks, Mar- ^ Ulder Zec ( l " f>"rl). 
hours and Inland Waterways, Ministry of Transport. J 

N. Ma. MAJOR-GEN F.RAL SIR NEILL MALCOLM, K.C.B., D.S.O. (retired). ] 

Served N. W. Frontier, India, South African War and World War. Editor of The f Wilson, Sir Henry Hughes. 
Science of War. ) 

N. M. P. NORMAN MOSI.KY PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. \ 

Author of Cotton in British West Africa; The Tin Resources of the British Empire; The rZinc (in part). 
Mineral Resources of Burma; Non-Ferrous Metals and Other Minerals: etc. J 

N. Z. NATHANIEL ZALOWITZ. j Yiddish Language and 

Editor, English section, Jewish Daily Forward, Chicago. } Literature (/;/ part). 

O. C. S. O. C. STINK, Pir.D. 1 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- [-Wheat (in part). 
iugton. Editor of Journal of Farm Economics; Agricultural Ilistorv. ) 

O. H. T. R. (VII. T. RISHUETH, M.A., F.R.G.S. ' \ Victoria (in barfi ' 

Professor and Head of the Department of Geography, University College, fw<l* A n P \1' ,. 
Southampton. ' J west ^n Australia (/;/ 

O. W. ORVILLE WRIGHT, LL.D., Sc.D., M.A. ) 

Chairman, Advisory Commission, Daniel Guggenheim School of Aeronautics, New Lwvj^ht * 
York University. Was the first to fly (with his late brother) in a heavier-than-air | s ' 

machine. J 

P. B. PiK.RRE BKRNUS. 1 ... 

Foreign Editor of the Journal des Dcbats. Paris correspondent of the Journal de >Viviani, Ren6. 
Geneve. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. ' J 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS xv 

P. C. M. PETER CHALMKKS MITCHELL, C.B.E., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 1 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. Author of Outlines of Biology; The r Zoological Gardens. 

Childhood of A nimals, J 

P. Ge. PIETKR GEYL, LITT.D. 1 William m>, e 

Professor of Dutch History and Institutions, University of London. j wuuam unc M 

P. Gm. PERCY GROOM, M.A., D.Sc., F.R S. " 1 

Professor of the Technology of Woods and Fibres, Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, London. Author of Trees and Their Life Histories; etc. J 

P. H. W. PERCY HENRY WINFIELD, B.A., LL.D. ] 

Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Rouse Ball Professor of English Law, University of >Writ (in part). 
Cambridge, and Fellow of St. John's College. J 

P. L. PERCY LONGHURST. "] 

Hon. Secretary, National Amateur Wrestling Association. Hon. Secretary and Treas- I Wr*ct1inr 
tirer, International Amateur Wrestling Federation. Author of Wrestling; Ju Jitsu; f wre5UU1 g 
.Self Defence; etc. J 

P. M. C. PAUL M. CHAMBERLAIN, B.S., M.E. 1 

Consulting Mechanical Engineer. Author of various monographs on engineering and r Watches (in part). 
horological subjects. J 

P. Rn. P. RENOUVIN. 7 Tir flr 

Lecturer in the Historical Origins of the World War, University of Paris. i war 

P. Vi. SIR PAUL VINOCRADOFF, D.C.L., LL.D. 1 

Late Corpus ProfevSsor of Jurisprudence in the University of Oxford. Formerly Hon. I Village Communities; 
Professor of History in the University of Moscow. Author of Villeinage in England; [Villeinage. 
English Society in the nth Century; etc. J 

P. Z. C. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR PERCY Z. Cox, G.C.M.G., O.C.I.E., K.C.S.I., F.R.G.S. ~] 

Acting British Minister to Persia, 1918-20; High Commissioner in Mesopotamia, I yezd 
1920-3; Secretary, Foreign Department, Government of India, 1914; Consul and | 
Political Agent, Muscat, Arabia, 1899-1904. J 

R. An. Ro -- i^'- donal ArdlK , S) 1>aris . 1 Vendee, Wars of the. 

R. C. D. ROMESH CHUNDER DUTT, C.I.E., F.R.S.L., M.R.A.S. ] 

Late Barrister-at-law, Middle Temple. Author of Economic History of India in the xVidyasagar, Iswar Chand 
Victorian Age, 1837 1 900; etc. * J 

R. E. C. DAME RACHEL ELEANOR CROWDY. ) wvrt QI T ffi 

Chief of Social Questions and Opium Traffic Section, Secretariat, League of Nations.) wmte Slave iramc. 

R. F. R. FIRTIT, M.A., PH.D. } 

Member of the Polynesian Society. Author of Primitive Economics of the AViv 1 Zealand [-Wealth, Primitive. 
Maori. J 

R. H. Ra, ROBERT HERON RASTAI.L, Sc.D., F.G.S. 

University Lecturer in Economic Geology. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Member of Council of the Geological Society, 1915, and Mineralogical Society, 1918. ^Wolframite Of Wolfram. 

Attached to War Office, 1915 9. Author of Geology of the Metalliferous Deposits. 

Editor of the Geology section, I4th Edition, Encychpcdiia Britannica. * 

R. L. P. REGINALD LANE POOL, M.A., PH.D., LL.D., F.B.A. . ] 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Lecturer in Diplomatics in the University, 

1896-1927. Keeper of the University Archives, 1909-27. Curator of the Bodleian >-Wycliffe, John (in part). 

Librarv, 1914-26. Author of Wycliffe and Movements fur Reform. Editor of Wydiffe\ 

dc CivHi Dominio Liber /. and De Dominio Divino. J 

R. McKe. ROLAND McKEE, B.S. ) Vetch ,- n . ^ 

Senior Agronomist, United States Department of Agriculture. ) r 

R. N. B. ROBERT NISBET BAIN. ^ Vladimir, St; 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia The Politi- \ Vorosmarty, Mfhaly ; 
col History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613- fWallqvist, Olaf; 
172$; Slavonic Europe The Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1706.} WitOWt. 

R. N. R. B. R. N. RUDMOSE BROWN, D.Sc. "| 

Head of Department of Geography, University of Sheffield. Member of the Scottish [wrpr*l idon/l 
Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, and of the Scottish Arctic Expeditions to Spitsbergen, [ vvran K ei ASiana. 
1909-12, 1914 and 1919. Author of Spitsbergen. J 

R. Pa. SIR RICHARD ARTHUR SURTEES FACET, Hox.A.R.I.B.A., F.lNST.P. "I 

Barrister. Assistant Secretary, Admiralty Board of Invention and Research, 1915-8. I y o : ce Sounds 
Author of papers in Proc. Royal Society and Physical Society on the nature and arti- [ volce Oouna5 
ficial production of speech sounds. J 

R. P. B. RUDOLF P. BERLE, A.M., LL.B. ] Workmen's Compensatio 

Attorney, Hale and Dorr, Boston, Mass. Formerly Law Secretary to the Justices of > /.- /,-.*\ 
the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. J u p j * 

R. Pn, RALPH PEARSON. 

Lecturer, New School of Social Research, New York. Author of Fifty Prints; Hw 
to See Modern Pictures; etc. 

R. Po. ROSCOE POUND. A.M., PH.D., LL.D. ^ Tir^^o T ttw ot D^M^I r 

Carter Professor of Jurisprudence and Dean of Law School, Harvard University. L w omen, i-egai I'osmon c 
Author of Interpretation of Legal History; Law and Morals; etc. ' J ^ m P an )> 

R. St MRS. RAY STRACHEY (Mrs. Oliver Strachey). ^ 

Author of Life of Frances Wittard; Short History of the Women's Movement. Con- ^Women's Suffrage (in p( 
tributor to Hannsworth's Universal History; Nation and Athenaeum. J 



xvi INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

R. Van O. MAJOR R. VAN OVERSTRAETEN, D.S.O. ") 

Member of the Order of Leopold and of the Legion of Honour. Aide-de-Camp to ^Yser, Battle of the (in part). 
His Majesty the King of the Belgians. Graduate of the Belgian Staff College. J 

R. W. F. H. ROBERT WILLIAM F. HARRISON. 1 . . 

Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, > Violin (in part). 
London. J 

R. W. P. RAYMOND WILLIAM POSTGATE. ] 

Author and Journalist. Editorial staff of the I4th Edition of the Encyclopedia Britan- [win,** T/>hn 
nica. Author of The Bolshevik Tlieory; Revolution from 1789 to 1906; The Builders' f ""*** J*""*- 
History; ed. Pervigilium Veneris. ) 

R. W. S.-W. ROBERT WILLIAM SETON-WATSON, Lirr.D. ^ 1 

Masaryk Professor of Central European History in the University of London. Lv u - os i flv ; fl // />, 7r A 
Founder and Joint-Editor of The New Europe, 1916-20. Joint-Editor of The Slavonic r iU * UBA * vltt \ ?<*"> 
Review. Author of The Rise of Nationality in the Balkans; The New Slovakia; etc. J 

S. A C. STANLEY A RTHUR COOK, Lrrr.D. ] 

University Lecturer in Hebrew and Aramaic. Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew and I . 

Syriac, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, fZephaiuah. 
London University, 1904-^8. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Co-editor of | 
The Cambridge Ancient History. Author of Religion of Ancient Palestine. J 

Sh. THOMAS SHAW, BARON SHAW OF DUNFERMLINE, P.C., K.C., M.A., LL.B., D.C. I Vergniaud, Pierre Victurnien 

Lord of Appeal. Lord Advocate for Scotland, 1905-9. J (in part). 

Assistant, Department of Phonetics, University College, London. ] ce ' m t ar ' 

S. K. L. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, A.B., PH.D. 1 

M useurn of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York. Author of Tulum: A n Lvah^an 
.-I rctiaeological Study of Eastern Yucatan; Pottery of Costa Rica and Nicaragua; Pottery | **"' 
Types ana Their Sequence in El Salvador. ) 

S. L. Ph. SIDNEY LOVET.L PHIPSON, M.A. I witn*: (* *nr/\ 

Late Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Author of The Law of Evidence. J witness (m part). ^ 

S. T. H. W. CAPTAIN S. T. II. WILTON, R.N. (retired). ) World War (i n 

Formerly Assistant Director of Naval Ordnance, Admiralty, London. J """" war v* 

S. Wi. SPENSER WILKINSON, HoN.Lnr.D. 1 

Chichele Professor of Military History, University of Oxford, 1909-23. Fellow of All >War. 
Souls. Author of The Coming of War; First Lessons in War; etc. J 

~ Veil; Velletri; 



T. A. THOMAS ASHBY, D.LITT., F.B.A., F.S.A., HuN.A.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Director of the British School at Rome. Author of Turner's Visions of 
Rome; The Roman Campagna in Classical Times; Roman Architecture. Revised and 
completed for press a Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (by the late Professor 
J. B. Plattner). Author of numerous archaeological articles. 



Venetia; Vercelli; 
^Verona (in part); 
Vesuvius (in part); 
Vicenza; Viterbo; 



Volterra. 

T. Ad. THOMAS ADAMS. ] 

Director of Plans and Surveys of Regional Plan of New York. Sometime Town 
Planning Adviser to the Commission of Conservation of Canada and Adviser to I 
Cabinet of Federal Government on Post-War Housing Schemes. First Town Plan- f 
ning Inspector of Local Government Board (now Ministry of Health) of England 
and Wales, 1909-14. J 

T. A. J. THOMAS ATHOL JOYCE, M.A. , O.B.E, ] 

Deputy Keeper, Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Author of South >West Indies (in part). 
American Archaeology; Central American Archaeology; etc. J 

T. E. R. P. REV. THEODORE EVELYN REKCE PHILLIPS, M.A., F.R.A.S., F.R.MET.Soc. "] 

Secretary, Royal Astronomical Society, 1919-26; President, 1927 and 1928. Director lyenus. 
of The Jupiter section of the British Astronomical Association; President, 1914-6. f 
Jolnt-Euitor of The Splendour of the Ileav&n3; etc. J 

T. E. Wi. THOMAS E. WILSON. 1 WUson & Co., Inc. 

President, Wilson and Company, Chicago, III, > 

T. F. H. TALBOT F. HAMLIN, B.A., B.ARCH. | 

Instructor in the History of Architecture, Columbia University, New York. Chair- 1 Vault; 

man, City Plan Committee of the Merchants 1 Association, New York. Author of [Window. 

The Enjoyment of Architecture; The American Spirit in Architecture. J 

T. J. E. MAJOR T. J. EDWARDS. ] 

Secretary to the Honours and Distinctions Committee, The War Office, London. Uy^ar Office 
Author of The Perforated Map; The Non-Commissioned Officer's Guide to Promotion f 

) 



in the Infantry. 

T. P. N. T. PERCY NUNN, M.A., D.Sc. 1 Vocational Training (in 

Principal, London Day Training College; Professor of Education, University of f . ^ 
London. " J V w *h 

T. W. THOMAS WOODHOUSE. I Wire Rone 

Head of Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. } * ' 

T, W.-D. THEODORE WATTS-DUNTON. 1 w vc heriev William (in 

English Man of Letters. Author of The Renascence of Wonder; The Coming of Love; L^ycneney, >"iam yn 
etc. See the biographical article: WATTS-DUNTON, WALTER THEODORE. J P an J- 

T. W. F. THOMAS WILLIAM Fox. 1 

Late Professor of Textiles in the Univeraity of Manchester. Author of Mechanics o/VWeaving (in part). 
Weaving. J 

V. Co. VAUGHAN CORNISH, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.CJ. \ 

President, Geographical Association. 1028, and of the Geographical Section of the > Waves of the Sea. 
. British Association, 1923. Author o/ Waves of the Sea; Waves of the Sand and Snow.) 



INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS xvii 



V. E. N. V. E. NEGUS, M.S., F.R.C.S. 

Hon. Lecturer of Laryngol 
at King's College Hospital Medical School. 



J> O.^JC\JV0, AJ..U., A .A 1 *.. VX.kJ. I 

Hon. Lecturer of Laryngology, King's College, University of London, and Lecturer f Voice (in part). 
ital MecT 



V. M. C. MRS. V. M. CAMBRIDGE. ^1 

President of the Middlesex Ladies' Athletic Club. Hon. Editor of The British Olympic > Winter Sports. 

Journal. - J 

W. A. B. C. REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., HON.PH.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-9; etc. 

W. A. Bn. W. A. BENTON, F.C.S. 1 Weichin* Machines 

Second Chief of the Research Department of Messrs. W. T. Avery, Ltd., Birmingham. J wei Knmg iviacnmes. 

W.A.H. W. A. HANTON, M.SC.TECH. } . 

Head of the Weaving section, Textile Department, Manchester College of Tech- > Weaving (in part). 
nology. J 

W. A. J. F. WALTER ARMITAGE JUSTICE FORD, B.A. \ Tir i f 

Professor of Singing at the Royal College of Music and University of Reading. ( v > 

W. A. P. W. Auso N PHX.UPS, M.A. 

Lecky Professor of Modern History, Dublin University. Contributor to The Cam- y 
bridge Modern History; etc. J 

W. Cro. WILLIAM CROCKER, A. B., D. PH. 1 Weeds 

Director of the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Yonkers, N. Y. ) 

W. Da. W. DALTON. \ 

Author of Bridge Abridged, or Practical Bridge. J 

W. E. WILLIAM ECCLES, D.Sc., F.R.S. "| 

President of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1926-7. Formerly Professor of 1 Wireless Telegraphy (m 
Applied Physics arid Electrical Engineering, City and Guilds of London Technical f part}. 
College, Finsbury, and University Reader in Graphics, University College, LondonJ 

W. E. Br. WINIFRED ELSIE BRENCHLEY, D.Sc., F.L.S., F.E.S. ^ 

Botanist, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden. Fellow of University Col- >Weed Destruction. 
lege, London. Author of Weeds of Farmland; etc. J 

W. E. E. W. ELMER EKBLAW, M.A. ^ Wyandotte Cave; 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Assistant Editor, Economic Geography. Special > Yellowstone National Park; 
field of research, agricultural geography and arctic geography. J Yosemite. 

W. E.Wh. W. E. WIIITEHOUSE, M.Sc. ] 

Lecturer in Geography, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Formerly Gil- fZiirich (Canton). 
christ Scholar in Geography. J 

W. F. C. WILLIAM FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A. ^| Wflrnmt (in * ari \ . 

Late Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple, and Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, ^?T > * *{' 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading. J Witness (in part). 

W. F. R. WILLIAM F. RASCHE, B.Sc., M.A., PH.D. ? Vft r fl tionfll Training (in tart) 

Director of Personnel, General Motors Truck Corporation, Pontiac, Mich. ] Vocational Training (in part). 

W. F. Sn. WILLIAM FREEMAN SNOW, M.A., M.D. ^ 

President, National Health Council. Lecturer, Columbia University. General > Venereal Diseases (in part). 
Director of American Social Hygiene Association. J 

W. H. Bev. SIR WILLIAM HENRY BEVERIDGE, K.C.B. "] 

Barrister-at-law. Director of London School of Economics and Political Science. I War Control of Food (in 
Second Secretary, Ministry of Food, 1916-8; Permanent Secretary, 1919. Author of f part). 
British Food Control; etc. J 

W. H, Cr. WALTER HILL CROCKETT. 1 Ve rmont 

Editor of publications, University of Vermont, Burlington. ! 

W. He. WILLIAM HENRY. \ 

Late Founder and Chief Secretary of the Royal Life Saving Society. Joint-Author >Water Polo. 
of Swimming; etc. J 

W. J. Gr. WILLIAM JOHN GRUFFYDD, M.A. ] w h 

Professor of Celtic, University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. 
Author of History oj Welsh Literature (1450-1600); etc. 

W. K. McC, WILLIAM KIDSTON MCCLURE, C.B.E. } 

Attached, British Embassy, Rome, as Press Officer. Formerly Correspondent of The L 
Times (London) in Rome. War Correspondent for The Times on the Italian front, r 
^7- Author of Italy's Part in the War; Italy in North Africa; etc. J 



W. L. B. WILLIAM LEWIS BLENNERHASSETT, D.S.O., O.B.E. ^ 

Formerly Acting British Vice-Consul at Kovno, Lithuania. Member of the London >Vilna or Wilno (in part). 
Stock Exchange. J 



W. M. WILLIAM MILLER, M.A., F.R.HisT.S., ] 

Hon. LL.D. in the National University of Greece. Hon. Student of the British 

Archaeological School of Athens. Correspondent of The Morning Post (London) in >Zaimis, Alexander* 
Athens and Rome. Author of The Latins in the Levant; The Ottoman Empire and Its 
Successors; etc. J 

Wm. Sp. WILLIAM SPHARAGEN. ) Txr , ,. 

Technical Secretary and Editor, American Welding Society. j weioing. 

W. O. S. WILLIAM OSCAR SCROGGS, PH.D. ^ 

Editorial Staff, New York World. Professor of Economics and Sociology, Louisiana ^Walker, William* 

tsfnfo I Tni\7reif\r irT-3 n I 



xviii INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 

W. S. L. W. S. LEWIS, M.Sc., F.R.G.S. 1 vun r , * t\ 

Professor of Geography, University College, Exeter. J Vienna (in part). 

W. S. L.-B. WALTER SYDNEY LAZARUS-BARLOW, M.D., F.R.C.P. ^ 

Member of the Cancer Committee, Ministry of Health. Formerly Professor of Ex- 1 
penmen tal Pathology, Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London University. L 
Author of A Manual of General Pathology; Elements of Pathological Anatomy and r 
Histology for Students. Editor of the Medicine section, I4th Edition, Encyclopedia 
Britannica. J 

W. S. Ro. WILLIAM SPKNCE ROBERTSON, Pn.D. . "| 

Professor of History in the University of Illinois. Author of Rise of the Spanish- ^Venezuela (in part). 
American Republics; etc. J 

W. T. C. WILLIAM THOMAS CALMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S. 1 Wfttcr Flefl . 

Keeper of the Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History). Author r-wr j T 
of "Crustacea" in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology. J WOOd-Louse. 

W. V B. W. VALENTINE BALL, O.B.E., M.A. 1 

Barrjster-at-law. Master of the Supreme Court, King's Bench Division. Author of >Venue (in part). 
The Law of Libel as Affecting Newspapers and Journalists; Bankruptcy; etc. J 

W. Y. S. WILLIAM YOUNG SELLAR, LL.D. ") 

Late Professor of Humanity, Edinburgh University. Author of The Roman Poets of ^Virgil (in part), 
the Republic. J 



THE 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA 
BRITANNICA 

FOURTEENTH EDITION 



VOLUME 23 
VASE TO ZYGOTE 




IASE, a vessel, particularly one of orna- 
mental form or decoration; the term is 
often confined to such vessels which are un- 
covered and with two handles, and whose 
height is greater in proportion to their 
width. (See POTTERIES AND PORCELAINS.) 
VASELINE is a term frequently, but 
inaccurately, applied to the paraffinum 
molle of the British Pharmacopoeia, also 
known as petrolatum and petroleum jelly, a commercial product of 
petroleum largely employed in pharmacy, alone and as a vehicle 
for external application of medicinal agents, especially when local 
action rather than absorption is desired; as a protective coating 
for metallic surfaces and for other purposes. "Vaseline" is the 
registered trade mark of The Chesebrough Manufacturing Co. 
(Cons'd), used upon a line of products perhaps the best known 
of which is petroleum jelly. 

"Vaseline" petroleum jelly consists of a semi-solid mixture of 
hydrocarbons, having a melting-point usually ranging from a little 
below to a few degrees above 100. It is colourless, or of a pale 
yellow colour, translucent, fluorescent, and amorphous. It does 
not oxidize on exposure to the air, and is not readily acted on by 
chemical reagents. It is soluble in chloroform, benzene, carbon 
bisulphide and oil of turpentine. It also dissolves in warm ether 
and in hot alcohol, but separates from the latter in flakes on 
cooling. 

VASILKOV, a town of the Ukrainian S.S.R., in 50 12' N., 
30 18' E., lying south of Kiev. Pop. (1926) 20,743. It is an 
agricultural centre. Founded in the tenth century, it was laid 
waste by the Mongols 1239-42, captured by Lithuania in 1320, and 
later by the Poles. In 1686 it was annexed to Russia. 

VASSAL, the tenant and follower of a feudal lord (see 
FEUDALISM). The etymology of the word after much discussion 
remains obscure. Under the Frankish empire the vassi dominid, 
essentially servants of the royal household, were great officers 
of State, sent on extraordinary missions into the provinces, to 
supervise local administration in the interests of the central power. 
Sometimes they were sent to organize and govern a march, 
sometimes they were rewarded with benefices, and as, with the 
growth of feudalism, these developed into hereditary fiefs, the 

word vassus or vassallus was naturally retained as implying the 
relation to the king as overlord, and was extended to the holders 
of all fiefs whether capital or mediate. In course of time the 



word came to acquire a military sense, and in mediaeval French 
poetry vasselage is commonly used in the sense of "prowess in 
arms," or generally of any knightly qualities. In this sense it 
became acclimatized in England, but in countries which were not 
feudally organized in Castile, for instance vassal meant simply 
subject, and during the revolutionary period acquired a distinctly 
offensive significance as being equivalent to slave. 

See Diclionnaire de Vancienne langue franfaise (1895), and Du 
Cange, Glossarium, s. "Vassus." 

VASSAR COLLEGE, a non-sectarian institution for the 
higher education of women, two miles east of Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 
and 75 m. from New Ycvk city. In 1861 it was incorporated as 
Vassar Female college, a name which was changed in 1867 to 
Vassar college. Immediately after the incorporation, the founder, 
Matthew Vassar, transferred to a board of trustees of his own 
selection about $400,000, increased by his will to almost twice that 
amount, and 200 ac. of land on which the college was to be built. 
Three buildings were erected and the college was opened on Sept. 
20, 1865, but before that time Milo P. Jewett, selected by Mr. 
Vassar as the first president, had resigned, and John Howard Ray- 
mond, one of the trustees, was chosen by the board as his suc- 
cessor. To Dr. Raymond fell the task of creating the curriculum, 
selecting the entire faculty and planning the organization of the 
first adequately endowed and equipped college for women. After 
his death in 1878 Samuel L. Caldwell was called to the presidency. 
He resigned in 1885 and after one year, during which James 
Ryland Kendrick served as provisional president, James Monroe 
Taylor began a long and successful administration (1886-1914). 

The number of students increased until in 1906 it was decided to 
limit them to 1,000; new chairs were established, and many impor- 
tant policies adopted; the preparatory department was abolished 
and the department of wardens created. In 1915 Henry Noble 
MacCracken, who is president now (1929), began his administra- 
tion. While maintaining the early high standards and preserving 
the spirit and ideals of the founder, he has accepted the changed 
conditions of the times and adopted modern educational policies. 
Increasing powers of self-government have been granted to the 
students. They share with the faculty the responsibility of main- 
taining the good name of the college, and, through the student 
curriculum committee, they participate in the discussion of educa- 
tional problems. Voluntary chapel has been substituted for 
compulsory attendance at religious . services and a Community 
Church has been established. The curriculum has been revised so 



VASTO VATICAN 



that more freedom is given each student in choosing her course of 
study and more guidance is given by faculty advisers in making 
her choice. A new department is that of euthenics, a word that 
has been defined as the science of efficient living. Its purpose is 
to apply the arts and sciences to the improvement of living con- 
ditions of the individual and the race, and since 1926 there has 
been held on the college campus a summer institute of euthenics 
for graduates of Vassar and other colleges, both men and women. 

The college opened with a faculty of eight professors and 20 
instructors and an enrolment of 353 students. The first graduat- 
ing class was that of 1867, and comprised four members, to whom 
were given temporary certificates stating that they were "entitled 
to be admitted to the first degree of liberal arts," the propriety 
of awarding the degree of bachelor to women being questioned at 
that time; in 1868 these certificates were replaced by diplomas 
bestowing the degree of A.B. At present (1929) the college has a 
faculty of instruction numbering 153, 96 of whom are of pro- 
fessorial rank, besides 33 other officers of academic administration. 
The first lady principal was Hannah W. Lyman (1865-1870 ; in 
1913 the office was abolished and in its place was organized the 
department of wardens, consisting of the warden, who has a house 
on the campus, and an associate warden in each residence hall. The 
wardens are responsible for material living conditions and the 
social life of the college. In 1923 the trustees voted to continue 
the policy adopted in 1905 of limiting the number of students but 
to increase the enrolment to 1,150. Candidates are accepted each 
year according to fitness for college, not to priority of applica- 
tion, the only exception being that candidates who filed their 
applications before March i, 1923, are entitled to admission on 
a non-competitive basis. All applicants must present 15 acceptable 
entrance units and pass entrance examinations. 

The college confers the baccalaureate degree in arts (A.B.) 
upon the completion of the regular courses of four years, and a 
second degree in arts (A.M.) upon bachelors of arts of Vassar or 
any approved college who have completed by examination and 
thesis a course of advanced non-professional study. In 1928, the 
endowment was more than $6,500,000 and the funds available for 
scholarships about $720,000. The present equipment includes 
about 40 buildings exclusive of faculty houses, and the total area 
of the college grounds is 1,000 ac.-, inclusive of a farm of 600 acres. 
The library contains over 150,000 voi'imes. Just west of the 
campus is the Alumnae house which serves as headquarters for 
the activities of the alumnae association, including also the 
offices of the educational secretary and of the Vassar Quarterly, 
and as a centre for returning graduates. The most recent addi- 
tions are the Georgia Avery Kendrick house which provides apart- 
ments and single rooms for about 25 members of the faculty; 
Gushing hall, named in honour of Florence M. Gushing, a member 
of the class of 1874 an( l the first woman elected to the board of 
trustees; the Mildred R. Wimpfheimer Nursery school which 
accommodates 35 children and provides facilities for child study; 
and the Minnie Cumnock Blodgett hall of euthenics with class- 
rooms, laboratories and facilities for research. There is an open 
air theatre, capable of seating 3,000 people; an old English gar- 
den; and an outdoor botanical laboratory designed to contain 
specimens of all plants growing in Dutchess county. 

Student government, especially in social matters, is in effective 
operation, and all undergraduates are members of the Students' 
Association empowered by the faculty. (C. RA<) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Benson J. Lossing, Vassar College and its Pounder 
(New York, 1867), Life and Letters of John Howard Raymond (New 
York, 1881) ; Frances A. Wood, Earliest Years at Vassar (Pough- 
kccpsie, N.Y., 1909) ; James Monroe Taylor, Before Vassar Opened 
'(Boston, 1914); James Monroe Taylor and Elizabeth H. Haight, 
Vassar (New York, 1915); Elizabeth H. Haight, editor, The Autobi- 
ography and Letters of Matthew Vassar (New York, 1916), The Fifti- 
eth Anniversary of the Opening of Vassar College (Vassar College, 
1916) ; Elizabeth H. Haight, Life and Letters of James Monroe Taylor 
(New York, 1919) ; Vassar College, 1860-1877, a list of books and 
articles about Vassar College printed between 1860-1877; Reports of 
Officers (issued annually). 

VASTO (anc. Histoiduiit)* a fortified town of the Abruzzi, 
Italy, in the province of Chieti, about a mile from the Adriatic, 
32m. direct S.E. by E. of Chieti and 131 m. by rail from Ancona, 



525 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1921) 11,071 (town); (commune) 
14,366. It is surrounded by mediaeval walls, and commands views 
extending to the Tremiti islands and Monte Gargano. 

The ancient Histonittm was a town of the Frcntani, and an 
Oscan inscription of the period of its independence speaks of 
censors there, probably officers of the community of the Frentani, 
It appears to have flourished in Roman times and also lay on the 
line of the ancient road which prolonged the Via Flaminia to the 
south-east, and reached the coast here after having passed through 
Anxanum (Lanciano). It is subject to severe earthquakes. 

VATICAN, THE, the official residence of the pope, situated 
upon the Vatican hill in the city of Rome. The article which 
follows contains sections on history, art, services, organization, 
representatives' court, and "Vacancy of the Holy See." See also 
ROME, PAPACY, etc. 

HISTORY 

The Vatican hill, a low eminence on the right bank of the Tiber 
at the north-west end of Rome, first began to occupy a place in 
world history at the death of the Apostle Peter. In Roman times 
it was a district occupied by villas and gardens. It probably took 
its name from the vaticinia which were pronounced there in the 
neighbourhood of a famous temple of Apollo. The principal 
building in the ager vaticanns at the time of St. Peter was the 
circus constructed by Caius Caligula and therefore called Caianum. 
It was here that in A.D 64 and 65 the "great multitude" of Chris- 
tians mentioned by Tacitus (Annals xv., 44), who were accused 
by Nero of having caused the burning of Rome, were martyred 
with cruel tortures, which the Roman historian describes in detail. 

Tradition. According to the most wide-spread and authori- 
tative tradition, the martyrdom of St. Peter took place in A.D. 67. 
The disciples obtained possession of his body, as Roman law 
allowed them to do, and buried it in a tomb near the Via Cor- 
nelia, which ran past the Circus not far from the place of mar- 
tyrdom. The fact of St. Peter's coming to Rome and his martyr- 
dom there, which is attested by strong historical evidence, is 
strikingly confirmed by a discovery made in 1912 during the 
excavations which were made under the Basilica of St. Sebastian 
on the Appian Way. A number of incised inscriptions (graffiti) 
were discovered on the walls containing invocations to St. Peter 
and St. Paul in Greek and Latin. This entirely corresponds to the 
tradition that the bodies of the two Apostles were transported to 
that spot and remained there some time, possibly for concealment, 
during the period when the persecutions were at their height. The 
tradition which places the martyrdom of St. Peter on the Vatican 
hill is also the oldest and the best established; another view, ac- 
cording to which it took place on the Janiculum near to where the 
Church of St. Peter-in-Montorio now stands, is now to a large 
extent discredited amongst scholars. An inscription was placed 
in 1923 on the site of Caligula's Circus on the small piazza south 
of the Vatican basilica beside the sacristy. The inscription, which 
was engraved by order of the Collegium Cultornm Martyrum, 
indicates that the first Roman martyrs suffered death at that spot 
"under the leadership of the Apostle Peter." 

Constantino's Basilica. The first successors of St. Peter de- 
sired to be buried near his tomb; for this reason his third suc- 
cessor, St. Anaclete, was obliged towards the end of the first 
century A.D. to construct, around the cella which contained the 
body of the Apostle, a memoria large enough to contain not only 
St. Peter's tomb but those of his successors. It was only in the 
third century that it began to be the custom for the popes to be 
buried in the catacombs. The Emperor Constantino I. gave free- 
dom to the Church in 313, and showed it all possible marks of 
favour. He presented the pope with the palace of the senator 
Plautius Lateranus as a residence. This palace had become im- 
perial property as a result of its confiscation by Nero. Con- 
st antine also built the Basilica of the Saviour, now St. John 
Lateran, which became "the cathedral of the pope" and "the 
Mother Church and the head of all churches of the city and of 
the world" (Urbis et Orbis). According to tradition it was in 
324 that he began the construction of a splendid basilica on the 
Vatican hill over St. Peter's tomb. This church was enriched 
with valuable ornaments, including a great golden cross. The tomb 



VATICAN 



itself remained untouched. Constantino's basilica was not com- 
pleted until 349, in the reign of Constantius. In order to build 
it, it was necessary to demolish what remained of Caligula's 
Circus. Nothing was left of the Circus except the central obelisk, 
which was moved to the centre of the piazza of St. Peter's in 
1586 by order of Sixtus V. 

Nothing unfortunately remains of Constantine's basilica or of 
the splendid monuments with which it was adorned in the course 
of nearly twelve centuries, with the exception of a few remains 
preserved in the crypts (grotte) of the present basilica. The 
Museum Petrianwn was built next the basilica during the pon- 
tificate of Benedict XV., and was opened in 1925 under Pius XI. 
All the monuments relating to the history of St. Peter which 
existed in various places have been collected in this museum. 

Although the history of the present basilica can easily be 
traced, that of the ancient basilica is extremely difficult to dis- 
cover. Constantine's basilica had five naves; its walls were 
adorned with paintings and mosaics, which were much admired 
by pilgrims; its five doors opened on a great square atrium called 
Paradisus, which was surrounded by a colonnade and in which 
there gradually accumulated the tombs of all the popes, em- 
perors, kings and princes who expressed a wish to be buried near 
St. Peter's tomb. 

The most notable of the buildings erected after the Basilica 
are the Mausoleum, constructed early in the 5th century for the 
burial of Honorius and Theodosius II., in which other members 
of the imperial family were also buried, the oratory of St. 
Andrew, which was dedicated by Pope Symmachus (498-514) 
and destroyed by Pius VI. in 1776 to make room for the present 
sacristy, the Campanile built by Stephen II. (75 2 ~757), the 
oratory of Sta. Maria Antiqua whose image is preserved in the 
crypt of the present basilica, and the oratory of John VII. (705- 
707), which was built to contain the Veronica or Portrait of Our 
Lord. The remnants of the decorations of this oratory are pre- 
served in the Museum Petrianum. 

One of the ornaments of Constantine's basilica was the fountain 
which was placed in the middle of the atrium for the refreshment 
of pilgrims. It dated from the end of the 4th century, but was 
repeatedly improved and restored. Nothing remains of it to-day 
except two bronze peacocks and* the central pine-apple, also of 
gilded bronze, from which the water sprang. This pine-apple is 
mentioned by Dante in the 3ist canto of the "Inferno." The 
basilica was decorated with mosaics of various periods. Among 
the most important were that placed on the fagade of the oratory 
of St. Mary-in-Turri under Paul I., that situated near the entrance 
of the basilica, which represented Our Lord between St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and which is at present in the crypt, and that rep- 
resenting St. Peter walking on the water, which was executed 
by Giotto early in the XlVth century by order of Cardinal 
Stefaneschi. The latter mosaic, which fs known as the Navicella^ 
was destroyed when the ancient basilica was demolished. 

Emperors and Kings, Of the historical events of which the 
Vatican Basilica was the scene during the Middle Ages, the most 
famous, and that which had the most influence on the history of 
the world, was the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, which 
was founded when Leo III., on Christmas Day 800, crowned 
Charlemagne as emperor of the West with solemn rites. After 
that time some of the emperors came to Rome to receive their 
crown from the pope in St. Peter's. The last to do so was Fred- 
erick III., who was crowned by Nicholas V. on March 19, 1452. 
Perhaps the most solemn coronation was that of the Emperor 
Conrad, who came to Rome accompanied by Canute, king of 
England,' Denmark and Norway, and Rudolph, king of Bur- 
gundy, and was anointed by John XIX. on Easter Day 1027. 
Napoleon I. intended to be crowned in St. Peter's after having 
been anointed by Pius VII. at Notre Dame in Paris, but his inten- 
tion was not carried out owing to his dispute with the pope. 

Many kings and princes have made pilgrimages to St. Peter's 
tomb in the Vatican Basilica. In particular, a number of Anglo- 
Saxon sovereigns made this pilgrimage, for not far from the 
Vatican basilica was the Schola Saxonum or hospice for English 
pilgrims. The hospice no longer exists, but it has given its name 



to the Church of the Holy Spirit in Sassia, which stands near 
St. Peter's. The first king of the West Saxons to visit Rome 
was Caedwalla, who was only a catechumen when he arrived at 
Rome under the pontificate of Sergius I. (689-701). He was bap- 
tised in St. Peter's, but died a few days later and was buried in 
the atrium of the cathedral near the tomb of the Emperor Otho II. 
King Ina came to Rome in 720 and visited St. Peter's. It was 
he who founded the hospice for Saxons. Queen Frothogitha came 
in 787, Ceolwulf, king of Northumberland, in 758, Ethelwulf in 
855 he restored and enlarged the Saxon hospice and Alfred, 
Ethelwulf s son, was sent as a child by his father to be anointed 
by Leo IV. and later, in token of his devotion to the Vatican 
basilica, required each family in his kingdom to pay a silver coin 
to the pope every year. This was the origin of "Peter's Pence." 

The basilica of St. Peter has several times been sacked and 
devastated. At the time of the barbarian invasions Alaric and 
Genseric gave orders that it should be respected, but it was not 
always spared during the civil wars. On some occasions it was 
occupied by anti-popes, who endeavoured to resist the legitimate 
pope. The most terrible devastation suffered by the basilica 
was, however, that of 846, during the Saracen invasion. It was as 
a result of this event that Pope Leo IV. (847-855) built round 
the basilica and the Vatican hill a wall called the Leonine Wall 
after him. The same name has been given to the part of Rome 
enclosed by the wall. Terrible damage was again done in 1527 
by the Lutheran soldiers of Charles V., commanded by the 
Constable of Bourbon, at the time of the famous sack of Rome. 

The New Basilica* When Nicholas V. became pope, Con- 
stantine's basilica was falling into ruin. Vain attempts had been 
made during the preceding centuries to restore the edifice, more 
particularly by the popes who reigned after the return to Rome 
following the Western Schism, The basilica leaned so much to 
one side that the famous architect Leo Baptista Alberti ascer- 
tained that the southern wall was 1*75 metres out of the perpen- 
dicular. Drastic action was clearly necessary. Nicholas V., on the 
advice of Alberti, decided that the best, or indeed the only 
remedy, was to demolish Constantine's basilica, and to build a 
new one on the same site. The demolition of the apse was begun, 
but was suspended by the death of this humanist pope. 

On April n, 1506, Julius II. laid the first stone of the 
new basilica, which accruing to Bramante's original design, was 
to have been in the form of a Greek cross. Work was carried 
on with great activity until the end of the pontificate of Leo X. 
(1521) under the direction of Raphael, who succeeded Bramante 
in 1514, and that of Giuliano da Sangallo, Fra Giocondo da 
Verona, Baldassare Peruzzi and Antonio da Sangallo. After the 
death of Leo X. the work was carried on with less energy until in 
1546 Paul III. entrusted its direction to Michelangelo. Michel* 
angelo returned to Bramante's plan, which had been modified by 
the intervening architects, and added the famous dome, which he 
himself designed. The work again slackened after the death of 
Michelangelo (1564), when it was carried on by Vignola, Pirro 
Ligorio and Giacomo della Porta. Sixtus V., however, took the 
matter up with his usual energy, and appointed his favourite archi- 
tect, Domenico Fontana, to act with Giacomo della Porta. In 
1590, Michelangelo's great cupola, slightly modified by Giacomo 
della Porta, was completed after only 22 months* work. In 1603, 
during the reign of Clement VIII., the new basilica was completed, 
according to the original plan, in the form of a Greek cross. Some 
remains of the ancient basilica were still left standing. Paul V. 
decided in 1605 to demolish them. He adopted Carlo Maderno's 
plan of giving the basilica the form of a Latin cross by extending 
the eastern arm. The facade, which was designed by Maderno, 
was completed in 1612. The new basilica was solemnly consecrated 
by Urban VIII. on Nov. 18, 1626. 

The majestic beauty of the basilica is completed by the 
splendid piazza which gives access to it. In the centre is an 
obelisk, and on the two sides are two beautiful fountains con- 
structed by Maderno in the reign of Paul V. The piazza is sur- 
rounded by the two marvellous semi-circular colonnades erected 
by Bernini in 1667 under Alexander VII. They consist of 284 
columns of Travertine marble placed in four rows and surmounted 



VATICAN 



by a balustrade on which are 140 statues. The general effect pro- 
duced by the piazza is unequalled throughout the world. 

The Papal Palace*!- On the left of the basilica (to the spec- 
tator's right) is the imposing group of the papal palaces. Sym- 
machus was the first pope to reside in the Vatican, on account of 
the occupation of the Lateran by the anti-pope Laurentius. He 
built two episcopal residences, one to the left and the other to the 
right of the basilica. At the end of the schism, however, he re- 
turned to the Lateran. Leo III. improved the left-hand residence 
for the reception of Charlemagne in 800. Gregory IV. (827-844) 
built a new residence to be used by the pope when he desired to 
spend several days near St. Peter's in order to officiate in the 
cathedral. Eugenius III. (1145-53) began another palace, which 
was continued by Celestinus III. (1191-98) and completed by 
Innocent III. (1198-1216). Other buildings were constructed by 
Innocent IV. (1243-54) and Nicholas III. (1277-80). The latter 
pope undertook a great deal of building, and may be regarded as 
the real founder of the Vatican as the residence of the popes. He 
laid out the Vatican gardens, which were surrounded with walls 
and towers. When the Holy See was transferred from Rome to 
Avignon, the Vatican and the Lateran were abandoned and fell 
into dilapidation. Urban V. resided in the Vatican during his 
temporary return from Avignon in 1367, and Gregory XI. estab- 
lished himself there when the papacy was finally transferred back 
to Rome. The Lateran was then abandoned, and the Vatican be- 
came the official residence of the popes ; from the time of Paul V. 
to that of Pius IX. they also resided in the Quirinal. 

From the 15th to the 17th centuries, During the Renais- 
sance period the Vatican became a centre of ,art and culture. The 
celebrated humanist, Nicholas V. (1447-55), included all the 
buildings on the left of the basilica in a single palace surrounded 
with walls and towers, one of the latter of which is still intact. 
On the ground floor he placed the library, which he enriched with 
manuscripts collected from all countries. The library was enlarged 
by Sixtus IV. (1471-84) and was transported to the premises 
which it now occupies by Sixtus V. in 1588. Nicholas V. com- 
missioned Fra Angelico in 1449 to paint frescoes in a chapel in 
his apartment. Pius II. (1458-64) and Sixtus IV. (1471-84) 
enlarged and completed the buildings begun by Nicholas V. Sixtus 
IV. built the Sistine chapel, which was completed in 1483 and 
adorned with frescoes by Cosimo Rc^selli, Sandro Botticelli, 
Domenico Ghirlandajo and Pietro Perugino. Half a century later 
Michelangelo also painted frescoes in the Sistine chapel. Paul 
II. (1464-71) built colonnades round the court in front of the 
palace of Nicholas V. and constructed the staircase giving access 
to the storey on which the library is situated. Innocent VIII. 
(1484-92) erected a new structure next to the entrance to the 
papal palace and adjoining the atrium of the basilica. On the 
side of the Vatican hill which looks towards Monte Mario, he 
built another palace which was magnificently decorated by Pin- 
turicchio and Mantegna. Little trace now remains of this palace, 
which was replaced under Pius VI. by new structures intended to 
be used as museums. Alexander VI. (1492-1503) commissioned 
Pinturicchio and Mantegna to paint frescoes on the first floor of 
Nicholas V.'s palace. These frescoes are one of the glories of the 
Vatican. Julius II. (1503-13) ordered Michelangelo to paint 
the ceiling of the Sistine chapel, and invited Bramantc to come 
to Rome. This architect, as well as designing the new Vatican 
basilica as stated above, undertook the systematic arrangement 
of all the Vatican palaces, reaching from that of Innocent VIII. 
on the Belvedere to that of Nicholas V. adjoining the basilica. 
This was the origin of the immense and magnificent rectangular 
structure which surrounds the court of the Belvedere, and in 
which in course of time the papal art collections were deposited. 
This palace was only completed under Pius V. (1559-65). Bra- 
raante himself designed the three tiers of galleries or loggie which 
were later extended around the three sides of the court of St. 
Damasus, formed by the papal palaces. Julius II. also commis- 
sioned a number of the most famous artists of the day to decorate 
the rooms or stanze in the Vatican. Raphael was one of the artists 
so employed at the suggestion of Bramante. Considering him to 
be superior to all the rest, the pope dismissed the other artists 



and entrusted Raphael alone with the direction of the work, which 
was continued under Leo X. (1513-21). Raphael died in 1520, 
and the decoration of the stanze was completed by his pupils 
under Clement VII. (1523-34). Paul III. (1534-49) recalled 
Michelangelo and commissioned him to paint the famous "Last 
Judgment" on the end wall of the Sistine chapel. This painting 
was completed in 1541. Michelangelo also painted the "Martyr- 
dom of St. Peter" and the "Conversion of St. Paul" in the Pauline 
chapel which the pope had just had built from the designs of 
Antonio da Sangallo. The same architect built the Sala Regia, 
which was decorated with frescoes by several painters, including 
Giorgio Vasari, under Paul III. and Gregory XIII. (1572-85). 
Next to this hall were two large rooms which were also adorned 
with frescoes by the order of Paul IV. (1555-59) and Pius V. 
(1566-72). These rooms were afterwards thrt>wn into one by 
Bernini and formed the Sala Ducale. The decoration of the lower 
part of the walls was only completed under Benedict XV. (1914- 
22), who had them covered with coloured marbles. Pius IV. 
0559-65) commissioned Pirro Ligorio to build him a summer ca- 
sino in the Vatican gardens. Pius V. ordered the brothers Antonio 
and Ignaaio Danti to paint maps of the various countries of the 
world on the walls of the third loggia. These maps throw an inter- 
esting light on the history of geographical knowledge. Gregory 
XIII. ordered the same painters to decorate another large gallery 
in one of the wings of the Belvedere palace with maps of the 
various districts of Italy. He constructed the "Tower of the 
Winds" above the same wing in -memory of the reform of the* 
calendar. He extended the three loggie which shut in the Court of 
St. Damasus on the northern side and had them decorated with 
paintings. He also decorated the Sale del Paramenti which formed 
a continuation of the Sala Ducale. 

Sixtus V. had a great palace built from the designs of Domenico 
Fontana. This is the palace in which the pope* reside at the 
present day. The loggie, which look out over the court of St. 
Damasus, were decorated by Mantovani under Pius IX. (1846- 
78). Sixtus V. also cut the Belvedere Court in two by building a 
middle wing connecting the two lateral wings. He transferred the 
library to this wing, the rooms of which were decorated by Cesarc 
Nebbia, Paride Nogari and other artists. Clement VIII. (1592- 
1605) completed the great palace which had been begun by Sixtus 
V., and commissioned Paul Brill and other painters to decorate 
the Clementine Hall and the Hall of the Consistorium. Paul V. 
built two other palaces, one adjoining the palace of the Borgia, 
and the other on the site of the palace of Innocent VIII., which 
was falling into decay. At this period, however, the popes began 
to prefer the Quirinal to the Vatican. The Quirinal palace was 
begun by Gregory XIII., continued by Sixtus V., and completed 
by Paul V. The popes at first used it for a summer residence on 
account of its high and healthy situation. They gradually came 
to occupy it more continuously until 1848, and they only resided 
in the Vatican from time to time when ceremonies were to be 
celebrated at St. Peter's or on other specially solemn occasions. 
Urban VIII. (1628-44) commissioned Bernini to erect the monu- 
mental staircase, known as the Scala Regia, which gives access to 
the Vatican palaces. The Scala Regia was recently restored by 
order of Pius XL 

The 18th and 19th Centuries. From that period until the 
end of the i8th century few additions of any importance have been 
made to the Vatican. As there was not sufficient room for the 
valuable art collections of the Vatican, Clement XIV. (1769-75) 
built a new wing parallel to that of Sixtus V. in the Belvedere 
Court to contain the museum of sculpture. Pius VI. (1775-99) 
and Pius VII. (1800-23), -notwithstanding the difficult conditions 
which prevailed during their rule as a result of the French Revolu- 
tion and the reign of Napoleon I., continued and completed the 
arrangement of the Vatican museums and galleries with a magni- 
ficence which may be compared to that of the period of the Medici. 
Even to-day it is difficult to decide whether to admire most the 
magnificence of the collections or the beauty of the buildings in 
which they are housed. The greatest artists of the day Cam- 
poresi, Simonetti, Stern and the immortal Canova took part in 
this great work. Later Gregory XVI. (1831-46) founded the 



VATICAN 



PLATE 




INTERIORS OF THE VATICAN PALACE 



1. View of the Stanza dell' Incendio showing the "Incendio del Borgo" 

painted by Raphael (1483-1520) and his pupils in 1517 

2. Loggia of Gregory XIII., one of the many galleries in tho palace 

3. Interior of the Sistino chapel built for Sixtus IV. by Giovanni di Dole! 

(d. 1486) in 1473-81. The ceiling frescoes were executed by Michel- 
angelo (1475-1564) In 1508-10 

4. The Throne room in the private apartments of His Holiness 

5. The Sala Regia, reception room for ambassadors. F?escoes arc by Vasari 

(1512-74), Salviati (1510-63) and Zuccari (1529-66) 



6. The Torso del Belvedere in the Museo Pio Clementlno, a division of the 

famous Vatican Museums organired by Clement XIV. and Pius VI. 
The torso was found In the Campo dei Fiori during the pontificate 
of Julius II. and bears the signature of the Athenian Appollonlus 

7. "The Salon of Raphael" in the Vatican Pinacoteca constructed by PiusXin 

1909. It contains the Madonna di Foliqno.The Coronation of the Virgin 
and the Theological Virtues and Mysteries, all painted by Raphael 

8. Sala Rotunda, a circular room of Greek and Roman sculpture In the 

Museo Pio Clementine designed by Simonetti (184092) after the 
Pantheon. The table in the centre Is of porphyry 



VATICAN 



Etruscan Museum, and Pius IX. the Egyptian Museum. The 
latter pope commissioned Podesti to paint frescoes in the Hall 
of the Immaculate Conception next to Raphael's stanze, built the 
grand staircase, which gives access to the Court of St. Damasus, 
and the other which leads from that court to the papal apart- 
ments. Leo XIII. (1878-1903) entrusted Seitz and Torti with 
the decoration of the Gallery of the Candelabra. Pius X. moved 
the collection of paintings to a new gallery looking over the 
Belvedere Court. 

The Vatican Gardens. Adjoining the group of palaces on 
the west are the Vatican gardens (Giardini Vatican!) , in which 
the popes were accustomed to take their walks following the 
decision not to leave the Vatican after the entry of the Italian 
troops into Rome in 1870. The gardens are traversed by part of 
the old wall of Leo IV., which includes three great towers. The 
Vatican Astronomical Observatory (Specola) is installed in these 
towers. In 1893 Leo XIII. commissioned Vespignani to build a 
small summer palace around the principal tower. He did not, 
however, occupy it for long, as it was found not sufficiently cool 
and comfortable in hot weather. It was then used as an extension 
of the Specola. The Vatican Observatory plays an important part 
in the astronomical world. In 1889 it was entrusted with part of 
the great work of photographing the heavens, which was divided 
between the principal observatories of the world. Splendid literary 
and scientific traditions gather round the Vatican gardens. Leo X. 
held literary assemblies there; Clement VII. in 1533 was present 
at a lecture given by the Austrian Chancellor, John Vidmenstadt, 
on the theory of the movement of the earth round the sun. In 
token of his satisfaction the pope presented the chancellor with a 
Greek Codex, now to be seen in the Munich Library. Innocent 
XII. (1691-1700) was present at the experiments made in the 
Vatican gardens by the famous doctor and physicist Giorgio 
Baglivi on barometric pressure. Pius XI. in 1923 installed the 
Papal Academy of Science, known as the "Nuovi Lincei" in 
Pius IV.'s casino. 

There is little to add to the summary of the artistic history 
of the Vatican which has been given above. The basilica of 
St. Peter is full of magniiicent works of art. In the centre is 
the colossal bronze baldachino designed by Bernini to the order 
of Urban VIII. It surmounts the principal altar, below which 
is the tomb of St. Peter. 

The Tomb of St. Peter The tomb is the only thing which 
was scrupulously respected when the old basilica was demolished 
and the new one built. Julius II. firmly refused to agree to 
Bramante's scheme that it should be moved in order that the 
new edifice might have a different orientation from the old. The 
tomb still remains buried beneath the earth as it had always 
been throughout the ages, with the golden cross of Constantine 
and the bronze slabs with which it had been covered by the popes 
in order to protect it against injury by the weather or by human 
agency. Even the Saracens who sacked the basilica in 846 were 
unable to profane the Apostle's tomb, so well was it protected. 
The last observation of the tomb was made about 1895 by 
Hartmann Grisar, who was authorized to explore all of the 
tomb that remains visible. He was able to see through the only 
opening which still remains unblocked, nearly i^ metres below 
the level of the crypt, the ancient marble slab which covered the 
tomb at a certain distance. The slab is broken in half, but 
it is still in its place, and a small heap of debris can be seen at 
the bottom of the sort of little well which is beneath it. Every- 
thing corresponds to the state in which, according to the records 
of the period, the tomb must have been in the middle ages after 
the incursions of the Saracens and their attempts to violate it. 
This shows that in spite of all the vicissitudes through which the 
basilica has passed, St. Peter's tomb has been scrupulously re- 
spected and has remained intact. 

At the order of Urban VIII. Bernini also constructed at the 
far end of the apse the magnificent bronze reliquary containing the 
cathedra which, according to tradition, was the seat used by St. 
Peter at religious ceremonies. The seat is a simple wooden chair 
which was adorned with carved ivory plaques during the Caro- 
lingian period. Bernini placed four colossal bronze statues to 



support the reliquary. They represent the four great doctors of 
the Church, St. Augustine and St. Ambrose for the Roman 
Church, St. Athanasius and St. John Chrysostom for the Greek 
Church. 

There are four colossal statues at the feet of the four great 
piers which support the dome; the statue of St. Longinus is by 
Bernini, that of St. Andrew by Duquesnoy, that of St. Helena by 
Bolzi, and that of St. Veronica by Mochi. There are four bal- 
conies or loggie placed halfway up the four columns; they 
were designed by Bernini, who adorned them with the eight col- 
umns known as vititteae or torsi, which were taken from the prin- 
cipal altar of the old Basilica. In niches cut in the other piers 
of the Basilica are statues of the founders of the religious orders 
of the Catholic Church. The statues are of different periods, and 
of various degrees of artistic value. 

The pictures over the altars of the basilica are all mosaics, and 
are reproductions of the masterpieces in the Vatican or in vari- 
ous Roman churches and museums. In the first chapel to the 
right on entering the basilica is the famous Pieta, sculptured by 
Michelangelo to the order of Cardinal de la Grolaye. 

Tombs of the Popes. All along the walls of the basilica are 
placed the tombs of the popes. These are of incalculable artistic 
and historical importance; they include the tombs of Paul III. 
by Guglielmo della Porta, Urban VIII. and Alexander VII. by 
Bernini, Gregory XIII. by Rusconi, Gregory XIV. by Prospero 
da Brescia, Leo XL by Algardi, Clement X. by De Rossi; Inno- 
cent XL by Maratta and Bonnot, Alexander VIII. by San Mar- 
tino, Innocent XII. by Fuga, Benedict XIV. by Bracci, Clement 
XIII. and Pius VI. by Canova, Pius VII. by Thorwaldsen, Pius 
VIII. by Tenerani. Gregory XVI. by Amid, Pius X. by Astorri, 
and Benedict XV. by Canonica. There are also four tombs com- 
memorating members of ruling families; that of Countess Ma- 
tilde of Canossa by Bernini and his pupils; that of Maria Chris- 
thina of Sweden, by Fontana; that of Clementina Sobieski, the 
wife of James Stuart (the Pretender) by Bracci, and that of the 
three last Stuarts, James (called the Third), and his two sons 
Charles (called the Third) and Henry, duke, then the cardinal of 
York, by Canova. The Crypt contains a number of sarcophagi 
from the old basilica. One is that of Pope Adrian IV. (Nicholas 
Brcakspeare, the only English pope), on which the Norwegian 
Government has recently* placed an inscription commemorating 
what he did for Scandinavia. The others include those of Gregory 
V., Boniface VIII., Nicholas III., Urban V, Nicholas V., Pius II., 
Paul II., Alexander VI., Pius III., Julius III., Marcel II. and 
Innocent IX. The Crypt also contains the great porphyry vessel 
which contained the remains of the Emperor Otho II. Two bronze 
monuments by the famous sculptor Pollaiuolo also found a place 
in the new basilica, that of Innocent VIII. and that of Sixtus IV! 
The latter was recently moved to the Museum Petrianum. A 
marble slab, which was set up in 1928 in the atrium of the sac- 
risty, gives a list of the names of the 142 popes from St. Peter 
to Benedict XV., who were temporarily or permanently buried 
in the cathedral. Mention should also be made of the bronze 
statue of St. Peter which is one of the glories of the basilica. 
Scholars are not agreed on its period, but there is some ground 
for assigning it to the pontificate of Symmachus (498-514). 

On the pavement of the principal nave of the Vatican Basilica 
are inscribed in bronze letters the dimensions of the largest 
Christian churches, all of which are smaller than St. Peter's. 
Reading downwards from St. Peter's tomb, they are as follows: 
St. Sophia at Constantinople, Westminster Cathedral, St. Mary- 
of-the-Angels at Assisi, St. Justina at Padua, Antwerp Cathedral, 
St. John Lateran, St. Paul-Outside-the-Walls at Rome, Seville 
Cathedral, St. Petronius at Bologna, Cologne Cathedral, Milan 
Cathedral, Reims Cathedral, Florence Cathedral, St. Paul's. 

It would be impossible to give here even a brief description 
of the works of art contained in the Vatican. The galleries and 
museums of the Vatican contain a number of priceless master- 
pieces in addition to those which were mentioned above in the 
historical survey. It will be sufficient to mention in the gallery 
of paintings Raphael's "Transfiguration," and among more recent 
pictures the splendid portrait of George IV. by Lawrence, sent 



VATICAN 



by that king as a gift to Pius VII.; in the galleries of sculpture the 
Hercules in gilt bronze from the Theatre of Pompeii, the Laocoon, 
the Apollo Belvedere, the Belvedere Torso, which Michelangelo 
admired, and the Augustus and Doryphore of the "Braccio 
Nuovo"; in the other galleries, the tapestries designed by Ra- 
phael and carried out in the workshops of Van Aelot at Brussels. 

RELIGIOUS SERVICES 

The religious services carried out in the basilica and in the 
Vatican palace are of a special character, both by their nature and 
by the fact that the pope takes part in them. 

The basilica of St. Peter does not occupy the first place 
among Catholic churches from the hierarchical point of view. 
The first Catholic church is the basilica of St. John Lateran, which 
is the cathedral of the popes. At the same time, the basilica of 
St. Peter undoubtedly occupies the first place in the minds of 
Catholics and in the tradition of Christendom as a whole, both as 
an object of veneration and as an artistic monument. 

The Vatican basilica is served by a chapter of canons and by 
a large body of clergy, at the head of whom is a cardinal with the 
title of archpriest. The archpriest has ordinary or episcopal 
jurisdiction over the clergy attached to the cathedral. The canons 
of the Vatican basilica are, in virtue of their office, supernumerary 
apostolic protonotaries, i.e., members of a special category of 
the highest college of the prelacy. As a general rule, some of 
them are bishops. Seventeen popes have been elected from among 
their number: Adrjan I. (772-795); Leo III. (795-816); Pascal 
I. (817-824); Leo IV. (847-855); Benedict III. (855-858); 
Nicholas I., called the Great (858-867); Stephen VI. (885-891); 
Innocent III., of the family of the Counts of Segni (1198-1216); 
Gregory IX., of the family of the Counts of Segni (1227-1241); 
Nicholas IH.-Orsini (1277-1280); Boniface VHI.-Caetani (1294- 
1303); Paul II.-Barbo (1464-1471); Clement IX.-Albani (1700- 
1721); Benedict XIV.-Lambertini (1740-1758); Pius VL-Bras- 
chi (1775-1799); Leo XII.-Dclla Genga (1823-1829); and the 
present Pope Pius XI.-Ratti, elected in 1922. 

In addition to the usual services carried out in the cathedral, 
certain specially solemn ceremonies, which can only be carried 
out by the pope, are sometimes held. These are beatifications, 
canonizations, and Holy Years. 

Beatifications and Canonizations. Since the time of Alex- 
ander III. beatifications and canonizations have been carried out 
exclusively by the pope. The rite of beatification consists in the 
reading of a papal brief proclaiming the new Blessed, and the 
first act of "cultus" towards his image and relics. The brief is 
read in the presence of the cardinal archpriest and the Vatican 
chapter, the cardinal prefect and the other cardinals who are 
members of the Congregation of Rites. In the afternoon of the 
same day the pope goes to the basilica accompanied by his court 
and the Sacred College of Cardinals, prays before the statue of 
the new Blessed, and receives the Benediction of the Holy Sacra- 
ment. The rite of canonization is of a much more solemn char- 
acter. The pope himself proclaims the new saint after three 
"postulations" made by the "Consistorial Advocates" each of 
which is followed by special prayers asking for the help of the 
other saints and for light from the Holy Ghost in the solemn 
act which the pope is about to carry out. After the proclamation 
of the new saint the pope celebrates the pontifical Muss. 

Holy Years. The Holy Years or Jubilees take place every 25 
years. The special rite which then takes place is the passage of 
the Faithful through a special door called the Holy Door, which 
exists in the four great basilicas, St. John Lateran, St. Peter's, 
St. Paul's-Outside-the-Walls and St. Mary's Major. These doors 
are always walled up except in the Jubilee Year. The Holy 
Door of the Vatican basilica is opened at the beginning of the 
Holy Year and closed at the end of it by the pope in person. 

On the eve of the Festival of St. Peter in each year, the pope 
blesses the palliums in St. Peter's. The palliums are white 
woollen stoles embroidered with small black crosses which arch- 
bishops wear around their necks as a symbol of communion with 
the Holy See. When the palliums have been blessed by the pope, 
they are preserved in a coffer near St. Peter's tomb, and are only 



taken out to be sent to new archbishops on their election. 

Relics. The Vatican basilica also contains certain relics which 
are specially venerated by Catholics. The most famous of these 
is the Veronica. This is a veil with which, according to a tradition 
going back to the first centuries A.D. a pious woman named Veron- 
ica wiped the Face of Our Lord as He went up to Calvary carrying 
His Cross. The Saviour's Image is believed to have remained im- 
printed on the veil. Another equally famous relic is the lance 
with which the soldier mentioned in the Gospels pierced the Heart 
of Christ on the Cross. The point of the lance is said to have 
been preserved by the early Christians and concealed during the 
period of the conquest of Palestine by the Mohammedans. It was 
discovered at Antioch at the period of the first crusade, and fell 
into the hands of the Mohammedans when they reconquered the 
Holy Land. The Sultan Bajazet II. presented it to Pope Innocent 
VIII. in 1492. It was brought by a special messenger and was 
received by the pope with a magnificent ceremony which is de- 
scribed with admiration by the chroniclers of the day. These relics 
are preserved in one of the four small chapels cut by Bernini in 
the great piers supporting the dome. They are shown to the con- 
gregation in the basilica from the balcony of this chapel at the 
great festivals of the Church. In the case of the Veronica, in par- 
ticular, this v 'ostension" has taken place from the earliest days. 
Dante refers to the ceremony in the 3ist canto of his "Paradiso." 

Another ceremony which takes place exclusively in the Vatican 
basilica is the washing (lavanda) of the principal altar with wine 
and water. This is done on the evening of Holy Thursday after 
the singing of the Tenebrae by the cardinal archpriest and the 
chapter. 

Papal Coronations. The coronation of new popes also takes 
place as a rule in the basilica of St. Peter. One of the most 
characteristic of the coronation rites is the thrice repeated burning 
of a wisp of tow before the pope by a master of ceremonies who 
chants: "Holy Father, thus passes away the glory of the world." 
After the papal Mass, the first cardinal deacon places the tiara 
with the three crowns (triregnum) on the head of the new pope, 
saying "Receive the tiara with the three crowns, and know that 
thou art the Father of kings and princes, the Pastor of the uni- 
verse, and the Vicar on earth of Our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom 
belongs honour and glory, world without end." The coronation of 
Leo XITI. (1878) and of Benedict XV. (1914) did not take place 
in St. Peter's but in the Sistine Chapel. 

It should also be remembered that all Catholic bishops are 
obliged to pay periodical visits ad limina Apostolorum, that is to 
say to the threshold of the Apostles' tomb. In order to do this 
they go to the basilica of St. Peter and obtain from the canon 
who is responsible for this duty a certificate attesting that the 
visit has been made. European bishops have to make this visit 
every five years, and bishops in other parts of the world every ten 
years. 

Sistine and Pauline Chapels.- In the interior of the Vatican 
palace, services are held in the Sistine chapel, the Pauline chapel 
and the pope's private chapels. The Sistine chapel is reserved 
exclusively for papal ceremonies, that is to say those carried out 
by the pope in person or in his presence. When the Holy See falls 
vacant, the funeral service of the deceased pope is held in the 
Sistine chapel, and the meetings at which the voting for the 
election of the new pope takes place are also held there. 

The Pauline chapel is used exclusively as the place of worship 
of the inhabitants of the Holy Apostolic palaces, and is for this 
reason the seat of a special internal parish existing to provide for 
their spiritual needs. This parish is entrusted to the Augustine 
friars, and the parish priest, who bears the title of papal sacristan, 
is always of episcopal rank. Sometimes the pope himself attends 
specially solemn ceremonies in the Pauline chapel, but in such 
cases he is not accompanied by his court. 

The pope's private chapels are two in number, one in his official 
apartments and one in his private apartments. Important per- 
sons, sovereigns or diplomats, are sometimes allowed to hear Mass 
in the chapel in the pope's official apartments and to receive the 
Sacrament from the pope himself. In the same chapel, on the 
fourth Sunday in Lent, the pope blesses the "Golden Rose." This 



VATICAN 



is a spray of roses carved in gold and supported by a vase, also 
of gold, which the pope presents to a sovereign or a member of a 
reigning family. In the centre of the principal rose is a small phial 
in which the pope places a few drops of musk and balsam; he 
then blesses the rose with a special ceremonial. In former times 
this ceremony took place once a year, but it is now performed 
more rarely. Another special ceremony which the pope performs 
every five years, or more frequently if necessary, is the blessing 
of the Agnus Dei. These are wax medallions made by the Cister- 
cian monks of the Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem; they 
are then blessed by the pope with special rites, and are then dis- 
tributed to the faithful, who hold them in special veneration as 
pledges of Divine protection. 

ORGANIZATION 

In addition to its historical and artistic signification, the word 
"Vatican" has a metaphorical sense in which it stands for the 
central authority of the Catholic Church, or in other words the 
pope, with the hierarchical power vested in his person, the admin- 
istration of the Church, the papal curia, and all the representatives 
of the Holy See throughout the world. 

The hierarchical power of the Catholic Church, though shared 
in different degrees among those to whom it is entrusted (the 
lower clergy and bishops), is centralized in the person of the pope 
as its source. It is true that the Roman Church includes among its 
dogmas the divine institution of the priesthood in two different 
degrees (priests and bishops), and recognises the validity of 
orders conferred even outside its communion provided that the 
transmission of the priestly office has not been interrupted; but it 
only admits the transmission as legitimate if it is made by a 
bishop subject to the supreme authority of the successor of St. 
Peter, the prince of Apostles and the vicar of Our Lord. Thus the 
Vatican, as the place which contains St. Peter's tomb and the seat 
of his successors, the bishops of Rome, sums up and symbolizes, 
in the minds of Catholics, all that is connected with the dignity, 
authority and power of their Church. 

Cardinals. The Vatican, being the actual residence of the 
pope, is also the legal seat of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 
since they are the advisers most closely attached to the pope's 
person and form with him a single moral entity. The cardinals 
were originally the bishops of the districts immediately surround- 
ing Rome, and the priests and deacons of the churches of the city, 
who formed as it were the council of the bishop of Rome. Little 
by little, as the administrative machinery was developed and 
perfected, the highest dignitaries and the most distinguished 
ecclesiastics of the Catholic Church, not only of Rome and Italy 
but of all nations, were summoned by the pope (who has the sole 
right of appointing cardinals) to form part of the Sacred College. 

The cardinals meet at the Vatican whenever they are summoned 
by the pope to hold a collective council or Consistorium. For- 
merly all ecclesiastical affairs of any importance were discussed in 
the Consistorium, where each cardinal had to state his opinion on 
the subject under consideration. As business accumulated, how- 
ever, this system gave rise to a number of difficulties, and in 1587 
Sixtus V., doing what Paul III. had done for the Holy Office and 
Pius IV. for the application of the rules laid down by the Council 
of Trent, classified all business into a certain number of categories 
and entrusted each category to a group or committee of cardinals 
selected for their special competence. 

Congregations. This was the origin of the Roman Congrega- 
tions, which are to this day the usual organs for the administration 
and discipline of the Catholic Church. Their number and organiza- 
tion have frequently varied. In addition to the Congregations set 
up by Sixtus V., Urban VIII. created the Congregation de Propa- 
ganda Fide, which deals with missions, and Pius VII. that of 
"Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs," which is entrusted with 
questions of diplomatic relations with States. The most important 
reform in the constitution of the Roman Congregations was that 
introduced by Pius X. in 1908. They are now definitely regulated 
by the code of canon law promulgated by Benedict XV. in 1917. 
Meetings of the cardinals belonging to the different Congregations 
are always held at the Vatican, except those of the Congregations 



of the Holy Office and of the Propagation of the Faith, which have 
their own palaces. The decisions of the Congregations are always 
subject to the approval of the sovereign pontiff. 

In addition to the Congregations which exercise its administra- 
tive power and carry out its decisions, the Vatican has three 
tribunals which exercise its judicial power: the Poenitentiaria, a 
special court which judges questions of conscience and has no 
authority except over the conscience of the individual, the Sacra 
Romana Rota and the Signatura Apostolica, which possess external 
authority. 

The Rota and the Signatura. The Rota, which has an Ex- 
tremely brilliant tradition in the legal world, consists of a College 
of Prelates Auditors who, grouped in threes according to seniority, 
form a number of judicial commissions which give judgmpnt on 
all matters coming under ecclesiastical law. 

It is because of its organization in a number of groups that this 
tribunal is known as the Rota. Most of the cases with which it 
deals are of a matrimonial character, for although the Roman 
Church maintains without any exception the indissolubility of a 
marriage contracted and consummated, it does not refuse to con- 
sider cases in which it can be shown that there existed at the origin 
of the marriage a defect or impediment which made it invalid and 
null. In such cases the Church, though it cannot declare a marriage 
dissolved, can declare it null. The Rota meets at the Vatican 
every year for the opening of its discussions. After the Mass of 
the Holy Spirit has been celebrated in the Pauline chapel, the Rota 
is received by the pope, who makes a speech inaugurating the 
juridical year. 

The tribunal of the Signatura is composed of cardinals, who 
consider appeals lodged against decisions of the Rota. It cannot 
decide on the merits of the question, but may consider whether 
there has been any error of procedure sufficiently important for 
the case to be referred back to the Rota, where it will be consid- 
ered by other judges than those who dealt with it the first time. 

The Secretariat of State. Other bodies forming part of the 
administrative machinery of the Church are the offices of the 
Vatican, the chief of which is the secretariat of State. This office 
is directly controlled by the cardinal secretary of State, whose 
position in relation to the pope corresponds to that of a prime 
minister. The secretariat of State is the most definitely political 
organ of the Vatican. With the assistance of the Congregation of 
Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, which is specially connected 
with it, it deals with all business connected with relations between 
the Holy See and the various Governments. The cardinal secretary 
of State and his office are responsible for everything having to do 
with the concordats, with diplomatic relations, with the nomination 
of bishops, and all matters in which some measure of agreement 
with the civil authority is necessary, and with the instructions to 
be given to the Faithful on questions relating to national political 
life. Every day, before dealing with other business, the pope 
receives the cardinal secretary of State or one of the prelates 
responsible for the various branches of the secretariat of State. It 
is for this reason that the only cardinal who resides in the Vatican 
is the secretary of State, and the only ecclesiastical administrative 
office which has its headquarters at the Vatican is the secretariat 
of State. When in everyday speech reference is made to the 
attitude or policy of the Vatican, what is meant is generally the 
activity of the secretariat of State or the papal diplomacy for 
which the secretariat is directly responsible. 

Representatives of the Vatican* The Vatican exercises its 
authority not only through its central organs, but also through 
permanent or temporary representatives. 

The permanent representatives of the Vatican or, more cor- 
rectly, of the Holy See, are divided into two main categories, 
those of a diplomatic character and those of a purely ecclesiastical 
character. The first category includes nuncios and inter-nuncios, 
and the second the Apostolic delegations. 

Nuncios. The distinction between nuncios and inter-nuncios 
corresponds to that between ambassadors and ministers-pleni- 
potentiary of lay Governments. Nuncios are of two degrees the 
first or the second according to the actual or historical impor- 
tance of their post. As a general rule they possess the rank of 



8 



VATICAN 



archbishop. Nuncios of the first class complete their diplomatic 
careers by their elevation to the rank of cardinal. According to 
the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (1815) papal nuncios are 
regarded as the doyens of the diplomatic corps to which they be- 
long, and therefore have precedence over all other members of 
the diplomatic corps. 

Since the World War there has been a great increase in the 
number of nuncios and inter-nuncios, and reciprocally in the num- 
ber of ambassadors and ministers accredited to the Vatican. The 
important part played by the Vatican during the World War 
will be remembered. It is for this reason that many of the States 
which were created or enlarged as a result of the War have shown 
anxiety to maintain continuous relations with the Head of the 
Catholic Church, and that certain Powers which had broken off 
relations have decided to renew them. 

At the end of 1928 the Vatican had 27 diplomatic representa- 
tives: 21 nuncios (Germany, Argentina, Austria, Bavaria, Bel- 
gium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, France, Hungary, 
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Prussia, Rumania, Switzerland, Czecho- 
slovakia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia) and 6 inter-nuncios (Central 
America [including the republics of Costa Rica, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, Panama and San Salvador], Haiti, Netherlands, Latvia, 
Lithuania, Luxembourg). Thirty diplomatic representatives are 
accredited to the Vatican: 9 ambassadors (Germany, Argentina, 
Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Spain, France, Peru, Poland) and 21 
ministers (Austria, Bavaria, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Great 
Britain, Haiti, Hungary, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Monaco, Nica- 
ragua, Portugal, Prussia, Rumania, San Marino, San Salvador, 
Czechoslovakia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia). 

Apostolic Delegates. The other category of representatives 
to the Vatican consists of the Apostolic delegates. These prelates 
have, as a rule, the rank of archbishop, and represent the Holy 
See, not with the civil authorities, but with the bishops of the 
country to which they are sent. 

At the end of 1928 there were 19 apostolic delegations falling 
into three categories according to the Roman Congregations 
to which they are subordinate: the Consistorial Congregation is 
responsible for the delegations to the Antilles, Canada and New- 
foundland, to Estonia, United States of America, Mexico and 
the Philippines. The Congregation of the Propagation of the 
Faith is responsible for the delegations, to South Africa, Albania, 
Australia, China, Greece, India, Indo-China and Japan. The 
Congregation for the Eastern Church is responsible for the dele- 
gations to Constantinople, Egypt and Arabia, Mesopotamia, Kurd- 
istan and Armenia, Asia Minor, Persia and Syria. 

Other Missions. The Vatican is sometimes represented in 
particular parts of the world by prelates who are sent on tempo- 
rary missions. These are known as Apostolic Visitors. On certain 
occasions, generally at religious festivals, the Vatican is repre- 
sented by cardinals sent by the pope with the title of legates 
a latere. Sometimes again cardinal-legates have been sent to dis- 
cuss religious affairs of the highest importance with sovereigns or 
heads of States. Thus Cardinal Campeggio was sent as legate to 
Henry VIII. by Clement VII., Cardinal Pole to Mary Tudor by 
Julius III. and Cardinal Caprara to Bonaparte by Pius VII. after 
the signature of the concordat of 1801 to settle various questions 
connected with the concordat. 

THE VATICAN COURT 

The papal court, which centres round the person of the pope in 
the Vatican, is essentially of an ecclesiastical character. At the 
same time, however, it maintains a magnificence of ceremonial 
which derives its origin from ancient tradition and from the re- 
lations which the papacy has always maintained with the highest 
secular powers. 

The Vatican court is divided into two main categories; the papal 
chapel and the papal household. The first includes the prelates 
and dignitaries who take part in the religious ceremonies which 
the pope attends; the second consists of those who have other 
duties to perform in the pope's entourage. The papal chapel 
naturally includes all the cardinals and bishops, while the papal 
household consists solely of the cardinals called the "cardinals 



palatine'' (the Datary and the secretary of State) and those 
bishops who belong to the papal antechamber, such as the privy 
almoner and the papal sacristan. The latter is the parish priest of 
the Vatican palace. Most of the persons who hold honorary posts 
in connection with the Vatican belong to both categories. 

When the papal court appears as a whole, in procession before 
the pope, at specially solemn religious ceremonies, either in the 
Vatican basilica or in the Sistine chapel, it provides a spectacle 
of dazzling splendour, notable both for its variety and for the 
splendour of the costumes. It includes the cardinals and bishops 
wearing their cappae magnae trimmed with ermine or their gold- 
embroidered ecclesiastical vestments, as well as Roman princes 
with cloaks edged with priceless lace, chamberlains ''of cloak 
and sword" in Spanish i6th century costume, prelates in violet 
soutanes, knights of Malta in scarlet tunics, officers in armour of 
steel damascened with gold, and the Swiss Guards in their blue, 
red and yellow uniform which was designed by Michelangelo. 
Last in the long procession comes the pope, who is carried on the 
sedia %estatoria which is a sort of throne on a portable plat- 
form, carried on the shoulders of 12 servants wearing liveries of 
crimson damask. One on each side of the throne are two privy 
chamberlains carrying flabelli or immense fans adorned with 
ostrich feathers. Above the sedia is a canopy of cloth of silver, the 
golden supports of which are borne by eight prelates. 

All classes and all ecclesiastical, military and civil orders which 
have relations with the Vatican are represented in this magnificent 
procession. A number of specially chosen bishops assist the jjope 
and constitute the College of Bishops Assistant to the Papal 
Throne. The Superiors and Procurators of the religious orders 
also have their place in the procession. The heads of the two chief 
aristocratic Roman families, Prince Colonna and Prince Orsini, 
take it in turns to assist the pope, and are therefore known as the 
Princes Assistant to the Papal Throne. Other members of the 
highest aristocracy of Rome also hold hereditary offices. Prince 
Chigi is always Marshal of the Holy Roman Church, and Per- 
petual Guardian of the Conclave. Prince Massimo is always 
Minister of the Papal Posts (in the old sense of the word posts, 
which referred to the journeys of the pope when he travelled by 
post), Prince Ruspoli is always Grand Master of Hospitality (that 
is to say the person responsible for arranging for hospitality to 
sovereigns or princes who are the guests of the pope), Marquis 
Sacchetti is always Grand Quartermaster, or superintendent of the 
technical services of the Vatican, Marquis Patrizi is always 
Vexillifer or Standard-bearer of the Church, Marquis Serlupi is 
always Master of the Horse. The protection of the pope's person 
is entrusted to the papal guard, which consists of cadets of the 
noble families of the former Papal States, and is always com- 
manded by a Roman prince. The pope's escort is the Swiss Guard, 
a corps instituted by Julius II. and consisting of Swiss citizens 
recruited from all cantons of the Swiss Confederation. Originally 
they were only recruited from the canton of Lucerne. There is 
always a guard of honour recruited from among the citizens of 
Rome (Guardia Palatina d'onore). A corps of police known as 
the Gendarmeria Pontificia is responsible for maintaining order 
in the Vatican palace. 

The papal court also includes a number of ecclesiastical posts 
which are always entrusted to members of certain religious orders. 
The Master of the Sacred Palaces, or Theologian of the Papal 
Court, is always a Dominican; the Sacristan, or priest of the 

Apostolic Palaces, is always an Augustine Friar; the Apostolic 
Preacher who preaches the Advent and Lent sermons in the 
presence of the pope and his court is always a Capuchin; the 
Confessor to the Papal Household is always a Servite. 

Papal ceremonies are always attended by the diplomatic corps 
accredited to the Holy See, the Roman patriciate and nobility, 
and the Knights of Malta and of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, 
for whom special tribunes are provided. 

HOLY SEE VACANCY 

Special interest attaches to the procedure which is followed in 
the Vatican at times when the Holy See is vacant Sede vacante, 
in the Latin phrase. During such intervals between two pon- 



VATICAN 



tificates the Sacred College of Cardinals takes over the work 
of ecclesiastical administration. Detailed rules are laid down for 
what is to be done during vacancies; the procedure has repeatedly 
been modified and improved by successive popes. All previous 
rules were abrogated by the Constitutions of Leo XIII. (May 24, 
1882) and Pius X. (Dec. 25, 1904), which are incorporated in 
the code of canon law. 

The Conclave. Under these constitutions the seat of the 
cardinals during the vacancy of the Holy Sec and the conclave is 
the Vatican palace. The cardinal camerlengo of the Holy Roman 
Church, who is the personal representative of the Sacred College 
in the ordinary administration, takes up his residence there; 
wherever he goes in the palace he is escorted by the Swiss Guards. 
Every morning, from the death of the pope to the opening of the 
conclave, all the cardinals meet in the hall of the Consistorium to 
hold a congregation, that is to say to consult on current business. 
Assembled in that hall they receive the condolences of the diplo- 
matic corps and of the Order of the Knights of Malta. The 
general congregation deals with the most important business, and 
in addition a special congregation meets daily to transact affairs 
of minor importance; it consists of the three cardinals who are 
respectively senior in each of the three hierarchical orders repre- 
sented in the College of Cardinals (bishops, priests and deacons) 
as well as of the cardinal camerlengo. At the first general con- 
gregation the seals of the deceased pope (the Fisherman's Ring 
and the leaden seal of the Apostolic Chancellery used for the 
sealing of Bulls) arc handed over to the Sacred College and are 
at once broken. 

On nine consecutive days the obsequies of the pope (called for 
this reason novendialia) are celebrated; on the first six days the 
services are held in the Vatican basilica and on the last three in 
the Sistine chapel. At the last service the deceased pope's funeral 
sermon is preached by a prelate. Up till the last conclave, at which 
Pius XI. was elected, the cardinals entered into conclave one day 
after the novendialia. In order however to give the cardinals 
from the most distant parts of the world, such as America and 
Australia, time to reach Rome, the present pope has increased 
the interval between the death of the pope and the opening of the 
conclave to 18 days. On the morning of the day on which they 
go into conclave, the cardinals meet in the Pauline chapel to hear 
the Mass of the Holy Spirit celebrated by the doyen of the 
cardinals, and to listen to a sermon preached by a prelate on the 
election of the pope. 

During the conclave the Vatican palace is closed, and all con- 
tact with the outside world is cut off by the walling up of the 
doors giving access to it. The walls are pierced by rotas or turning- 
boxes similar to those of enclosed monasteries, through which it is 
possible to pass objects without seeing the person to whom they 
are passed, and to converse provided that the voice is raised. 
The guardianship of the rotas is entrusted to the prelates of the 
different colleges, and in particular to the clerks of the Apostolic 
Chamber, who carry out minor administrative functions in the 
Vatican while the Holy See is vacant. These prelates decide in 
what cases persons may be authorized to converse with the 
cardinals through the rotas, are present at such conversations, and 
inspect all objects which it is desired to introduce into the con- 
clave. The conclave is guarded from the outside by the prince 
marshal of the Holy Roman Church, an hereditary office vested in 
the Chigi family, and the prelate at the head o'f the papal court 

(the major-domo or master of the chamber). Within the Vatican 
are only the cardinals with their secretaries or "conclavists," the 
masters of the ceremonies, certain other ecclesiastics who are 
entrusted with definite duties, doctors, and the service staff. All 
matters connected with the conclave are directed by the secretary 
of the Sacred College and the prefect of papal ceremonies. The 
admission of each person who resides within the precincts of the 
conclave must be considered and approved in advance by the 
general congregation of cardinals. The interior of the Vatican 
palace is divided into a number of small apartments (cellae) 
corresponding to the number of cardinals; each cardinal is allotted 
his apartment by lot. 
The Election. Voting takes place in the Sistine chapel, in 



which a number of small thrones, one for each cardinal, have been 
placed along the lateral walls for the occasion. Each throne is 
surmounted by a canopy which is violet in colour in the case of 
those cardinals created by the deceased pope, and green in the 
case of those created by previous popes. Immediately after the 
election has taken place, all the canopies are removed except 
that over the throne of the cardinal who has been elected pope. 
In one corner of the chapel there is placed a stove in which the 
masters of the ceremonies burn the voting papers immediately 
after each vote. The stove has a small iron pipe which passes 
out through one of the windows of the chapel. The smoke 
(sfumata) which issues from the pipe enables the crowd assembled 
on the Piazza of St. Peter to guess how the voting has gone; for 
when the election is complete, straw is added to the voting papers 
before they are burned so as to make the smoke thicker arid more 
visible, and thus to intimate that the new pope has been elected. 
As soon as the elected cardinal has accepted the pontificate, the 
first cardinal deacon proceeds to the central balcony in the facade 
of St. Peter's, and announces to the populace the election of the 
pope and the name that he has chosen. Soon afterwards the new 
pope himself, wearing the pontifical robes (for before the first 
vote took place three sets of robes of different sizes were placed 
in readiness in a cabinet adjoining the Sistine chapel) appears at 
the same balcony and gives his first benediction to the crowd 
assembled on the Piazza. After 1870, on account of the occupa- 
tion of Rome by the Italian Government, Popes Leo XIIL, Pius 
X. and Benedict XV. gave their benediction from the interior 
balcony of the Vatican basilica. Pius XL returned to the older 
practice, and gave the benediction from the exterior balcony, 
stating that he did so as a token of peace towards the whole world. 
On the day that the election has taken place the conclave is opened 
and the cardinals return to their homes. The coronation of the 
new pope takes place a few days later in the basilica of St. Peter, 
the day being fixed by the pope himself. If the new pope does 
not possess episcopal rank the last occasion on which this oc- 
curred was the election of Gregory XVI. in 1831 the privilege 
of consecrating him belongs to the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia. 

(E. Pu.) 

THE LATERAN TREATY 

The Lateran treaty between the Holy See and Italy, signed 
Feb. n, 1929, like all reconciliations that need careful exploration 
of the difficulties to be surmounted, demanded powers of negotia- 
tion of no mean order. At the outset, the conditions for such nego- 
tiations were of a favourable character, as Mussolini (q.v.) and 
his Government were also animated with the desire to end the 
Roman Question, perhaps being not unmindful of the oft-quoted 
words of Crispi, who said that the politician who settled the 
Roman Question would go down in history as Italy's greatest 
statesman. The treaty was ratified June 7, 1929. 

The Negotiators. While the supreme motive power that 
brought about the historic reconciliation came from Pope Pius 
XL and Mussolini, no account of the great event would be com- 
plete without acknowledging the work of the negotiators of the 
treaty for the Vatican: Cardinal Gasparri, papal secretary of 
State; Mgr. Joseph Pizzardo, assistant secretary of State; Mgr. 
Borgongini Duca, secretary of extraordinary affairs; and Prof. 
Francesco Pacelli, legal adviser of the Vatican. 

If only because he came into the full blaze of the limelight on 
account of being co-signatory with Mussolini of the treaty, 
Cardinal Gasparri's name is the one which is best, known to the 
general public. But his reputation as a statesman stood very high 
before this event. Born in 1857 at Capovailanza di Ussita, he 
was ordained in 1877, and subsequently held the position of pro- 
fessor of canon law at the Propaganda college. In 1894 he was 
created a domestic prelate, and four years later he attained 
archiepiscopal rank and became apostolic delegate to Peru and 
Bolivia. Made a cardinal in 1907, Pope Benedict XV. appointed 
him secretary of State in Oct. 1914. In 1922 Pius XL appointed 
him chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church. 

Non-Interference. Those who fear "Vatican interference'* 
as a result of the renewal of papal sovereignty will be able to set 



IO 



VATICAN CITY VATICAN COUNCIL 



their fears at rest if they will take the trouble to examine the 
treaty and the declarations that accompanied its signature. The 
pertinent clause states': "that the Vatican wishes to remain, and 
will remain, extraneous to the temporal competitions between 
other States, as well as international congresses convened for this 
purpose, unless the parties in conflict appeal unanimously to its 
mission of peace, and reserves the right in any case to the exercise 
of its moral and spiritual power." In consequence of this, the 
Vatican territory will always be considered neutral and inviolable. 

On the ratification of the treaty, normal diplomatic relations 
were established by accrediting an Italian ambassador to the Holy 
See and an apostolic nuncio to Italy the dean of the Diplomatic 
Corps, according to the customary procedure as recognized by 
the Congress of Vienna in 1815. (See also PAPACY; Pius XL; 
ITALY.) 

VATICAN CITY, the title of the newly-created State of 
which Pope Pius XL became sovereign on the ratification of the 
Lateran treaty, signed Feb. n, and ratified June 7, 1929. (See 
THE VATICAN; PAPACY; Pius XL; ITALY.) 

VATICAN COUNCIL, THE, of 1869 and 1870, the last 
oecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, and the most 
important event in her historical development since the Triden- 
tine synod. The preliminaries were surrounded by the closest 
secrecy. As early as the end of the year 1864, Pius IX. had com- 
missioned the cardinals resident in Rome to tender him their 
opinions as to the advisability of a council. The majority pro- 
nounced in favour of the scheme, dissentient voices being rare. 
After March 1865 the convocation of the council was no longer 
in doubt. Thirty-six carefully selected bishops of diverse national- 
ities were privately interrogated with regard to the tasks which, 
in their estimation, should be assigned to the prospective as- 
sembly. Some of them proposed, inter alia, that the doctrine of 
papal infallibility should be elevated to the rank of a dogma. In 
public, however, Pius IX. made no mention of his design till the 
26th of June 1867, when Catholic bishops from every country 
were congregated round him in Rome on the occasion of the 
great centenary of St. Peter. On the 29th of June 1868 the bull 
Aeterm Patris convened the council to Rome, the date being 
fixed for the 8th of December 1869. And since the Roman 
Catholic Church claims that all baptized persons belong to her, 
special bulls were issued, with invitations to the bishops of the 
Oriental Churches, to the Protestants and to the other non- 
Catholics, none of which groups complied with the request. 

The object of the Council was long a mystery. The Bull of 
Convocation was couched in general terms, and specified no 
definite tasks, The first revelation was given, in February 
1869, by an article in the Civilta Cattolica, a periodical conducted 
under Jesuit auspices. It was there stated, as the view of many 
Catholics in France, that the council would be of very brief 
duration, since the majority of its members were in agreement. 
As a presumptive theme of the deliberations, it mentioned inter 
alia the proclamation of papal infallibility. The whole proceeding 
was obviously an attempt, from the Jesuit side, to gauge the 
prevalent opinion with regard to this favourite doctrine of ultra- 
montanism. The repudiation was energetic and unmistakable, 
especially in Germany. Certain articles on "The Council and the 
Civilta," published by Dollinger in the Allgemeine Zeitung, 
worked like a thunderbolt. 

In, France also a violent conflict broke out. Here it was prin- 
cipally the writings of Bishop Maret of Paris (Du concile gtntral 
et de la palx religieiise, 2 vols., 1869), and of Bishop Dupanloup 
of Orleans, which gave expression to the prevalent unrest, and 
led to those literary controversies in which Archbishop Manning 
of Westminster and Dechamps of Mechlin came forward to 
champion the opposite cause. In Italy the freethinkers con- 
sidered the moment opportune for renewing their agitations on a 
larger scale. That the projected dogma had weighty oppo- 
nents among the higher clergy of Austria-Hungary, Italy and 
North America was demonstrated during the progress of the 

council; but before it met all was quiet in these countries. 

Organization. The Roman see exercised a more pronounced 
influence on the Vatican Council than upon any previous one. As 



early as the year 1865 a committee of cardinals had been formed 
as a "special directive congregation for the affairs of the future 
general council," a title which was usually abbreviated to that 
of "Central Commission." Among the earliest preliminaries, a 
number of distinguished theologians and canonists were retained 
as consultors to the council. The General Congregations, presided 
over by cardinals, were employed in considering the schemata 
(drafts) submitted to the synod; and provisory votes not re- 
garded as binding were there taken. The Sessions witnessed 
the definitive voting, the results of which were to be immediately 
promulgated as ecclesiastical law by the pope. The form of this 
promulgation was, in itself, sufficiently characteristic; for the 
pope was represented as the real agent, while the acknowledg- 
ment of the share of the council was confined to the phrase 
sacro approbante concilia. 

On the 8th of December the first session met, and the council 
was solemnly opened by Pius IX. From beginning to end it was 
dominated by the "Infallibility" problem. 

The first transactions of the council gave proof that numerous 
bishops held the theory that their convocation implied the duty 
of serious and united work, and that they were by no means 
inclined to yield a perfunctory assent to the papal propositions, 
which in part at least stood in urgent need of emendation. 

The Opponents of Infallibility. However, as the Curia 
could rely upon a complacent majority, it resolved to proclaim a 
new order of procedure, by means of which it would be pos- 
sible to end these unwelcome discussions and quicken the pace of 
the council. By the papal decree of the 2oth of February the 
influence of the committees was increased and the majority was 
allowed to cut short a debate by accepting a motion for its 
closure. 

The main object, however, of this alteration in procedure was 
to ensure that if the council could not be induced to accept the 
doctrine of infallibility by acclamation, it should at least do so 
by resolution. From the first the general interest was almost ex- 
clusively concentrated on this question, which divided the mem- 
bers of the synod into two hostile camps. The presence of 
striking personalities, whose devotion to the Church was beyond 
question Archbishop Scherr of Munich, Melchers of Cologne, 
Bishop Ketteler of Mainz, Bishop Hefele of Rottenburg, Cardinal 
Schwarzenberg of Prague, Cardinal Rauscher of Vienna, Arch- 
bishop Haynald of Kalossa, Bishop Strossmayer of Sirmium, 
Archbishop Darboy of Paris, Bishop Dupanloup of Orleans, to 
say nothing of the others assured this group an influence which, 
in spite of itself, the opposing faction was bound to feel. 

The Supremacy of the Church. Among the secret proposi- 
tions submitted to the council by the Curia was the schema De 
Ecclesia Christi, which was distributed to the members on the 
2-ist of January, and which enunciated the superiority of Church 
to State in the same drastic terms as in the Syllabtis of Pius IX. 
(1864) a declaration of war against the modern political and 
social order, which in its day provoked the unanimous condemna- 
tion of public opinion. When, in spite of the injunction of 

secrecy, the schema became known outside Rome, its genuineness 
was at first impugned ; but as soon as the authenticity of the text 
was established beyond the possibility of doubt, this attempt to 
dogmatize the principles of the notorious Syllabus excited the 
most general indignation, even in the strongholds of Catholicism 
France and Austria. 

From the 22nd of February to the i8th of March no meetings 
of the General Congregations took place, on account of struc- 
tural alterations in the aula itself. During this interval all un- 
certainty as to whether the question of infallibility would actually 
be broached was dispelled. On the 6th of March a supplemen- 
tary article to the schema De Ecclesia, dealing with the primacy 
of the Roman see, was transmitted to the members, and in it the 
much disputed doctrine received formal expression. 

The Triumph of Ultramontanism. Meanwhile* the elabo- 
ration of the all-important business of the council had been 
quietly proceeding. Influenced by the alarming number of amend- 
ments to the schema De Ecclesia, and anxious above all to 
ensure an early acceptance for the dogma of infallibility, the 



VATICAN STATE VAUBAN 



ii 



papal Committee resolved to eliminate everything save the one 
question of papal authority. 

In the general debate, begun on the i3th of May, Bishop Hefele 
of Rottenburg, author of the well-known Konziliengeschickte, 
criticized the dogma from the standpoint of history, adducing 
the fact that Pope Honorius I. had been condemned by the sixth 
oecumenical council as a heretic (680). Others were of opinion 
that the doctrine implied a radical change in the constitution of 
the Church : one speaker even characterized it as sacrilege. The 
contention that the dogma was necessitated by the welfare of the 
Church, or justified by contemporary conditions, met with re- 
peated and energetic repudiation. The champions of infallibility 
were, indeed, confronted with no slight task: to establish their 
theory by Holy Writ and tradition, and to defend it against the 
arguments of history. But to them it was no hypothesis waiting 
to be verified, but an already existing truth, the possession of 
which no extraneous attacks could for a moment affect. On the 
3rd of June the general debate was closed. 

In the special debate, which dealt with the proposal in detail, 
every important declaration with regard to the pope was im- 
pugned by one party and upheld by the other; but on the I3th 
of July it was found possible to conclude the debate. On that 
clay the voting in the Ssth General Congregation, on the whole 
schema, showed that, out of 601 members present, 451 had voted 
placet, 88 non placet and 62 placet inxta modum. That the num- 
ber of prelates who rejected the placet would amount to 150 had 
not been expected. 

On the 1 8th of July, in the fourth public session, the dogma 
was accepted by 535 dignitaries of the Church, and at once pro- 
mulgated by the pope; only two members repeated their non 
placet, and these submitted in the same session. The council 
continued its labours for a few more weeks, but its main achieve- 
ment was over, and the remainder of its time was occupied with 
affairs of secondary importance. When, coincident with the out- 
break of the Franco-German War, the papal state collapsed, the 
pope availed himself of the altered situation, and prorogued the 
council by the bull Postquam Dei munere (October 20). The 
Italian government at once protested against his statement that 
the liberties of the council would be prejudiced by the incorpora- 
tion of Rome into the kingdom of Italy. 

The Pope and the Church. The resolutions of the Vatican 
Council entirely revolutionized the position of the pope within the 
Church. He is first accredited with "complete and supreme juris- 
dictionary authority over the whole Church, not simply in matters 
of faith and morality, but also in matters touching the discipline 
and governance of the Church ; and this authority is a regular and 
immediate authority, extending over each and every Church and 
over each and every pastor and believer" (Sessio iv. cap. 3, fin.; 
Mirbt, Quellen, p. 380). 

Again, the dogma implies a fundamental change in the position 
of oecumenical councils, which, in conjunction with the papacy, 
had till then been supposed to constitute the representation of 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

The Church and Governments. in the sphere of politics 
also the Vaticanum was attended by important results. The 
secular governments could not remain indifferent to the prospect 
that the proclamation of papal infallibility would invest the dicta 
of the mediaeval popes, as to the relationship between Church 
and State, with the character of inspired doctrinal decisions, and 
confer dogmatic authority on the principles enunciated in the 
Syllabus of Pius IX. Nor was the fear of these and similar con- 
sequences diminished by the proceedings of the council itself. 
The result was that on the 30th of July, 1870, Austria annulled 
the Concordat arranged with the Curia in 1855. In Prussia the 
so-called Kulturkampf broke out immediately afterwards, and 
in France the synod so accentuated the power of ultramontanism, 
that, in late years, the republic has taken effectual steps to curb 
it by revoking the Concordat of 1801 and completely separating 
the Church from the State. 

The general position of Roman Catholicism was consolidated 
by the Vatican Council in more respects than one; for not only 
did it promote the centralization of government in Rome, but the 



process of unification soon made further progress, and the at- 
tempts to control the intellectual and spiritual life of the Church 
have now assumed dimensions which, a fow decades ago, would 
have been regarded as anachronistic. 

See also article "Vatican Council" in the Catholic Encyclopedia. 
The most important collections of the acta are: Collectio Lacensis, 
tome vii. (Freiburg, 1890) ; E. Friedberg, Sammlung der Aktenstiicke 
zum ersten Vatikanischen Konzil (Tubingen, 1872) ; J. Friedrich, 
Documenta ad illustrandum Concilium Vaticanum (Nordllngen, 1871). 
For the dogmatic resolutions see also C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte 
des Papsttums (ed. 2, Tubingen, 1901), pp. 371-382. For the internal 
history of the councils one of the main sources is Quirinus, Romiscke 
Brief e vom Konzil (Munich, 1870); also J. Friedrich, Tagebuch 
wdhrend des Vatikanischen Konzils (Nordlingcn, 1871); Lord Acton, 
Zur Geschichte des Vatikanischen Konziles (Munich, 1871, Eng. in 
Hist. Essays, 1907) ; J. Fessler, Das- Vatikanische Concilium (Vienna, 
1871) ; Manning, The True Story of the Vatican Council (London, 
1877) ; E. Ollivicr, Ufiglise el Vet at an concile du Vatican (2 vols., 
Paris, 1879) > Purcell, Lffe of Cardinal Manning (2 vols., 1896) ; F. 
Mourrett, Le Concile du Vatican (1919). (C. Mi.; JC.) 

VATICAN STATE, the name created for the territory in 
Rome belonging to the Holy See by the Lateran Treaty, signed 
by Cardinal Gasparri, on behalf of the Pope, and by the repre- 
sentative of the King of Italy, on February TT, 1029. 

See ITALY, The Lateran Treaty. 

VATSAUK (now LAWKSAWK): see SHAN STATES. 

VATTEL, EMERIC (EMER) DE (1714-67) Swiss jurist, 
the son of a Protestant minister, was born at Couvct, in the 
principality of Neuchatel, on April 25, 1714. He studied at Basel 
and Geneva. During his early years his favourite pursuit was 
philosophy; and he published in 1741 a defence of Leibnitz's 
system against J. P. de Crousaz. In 1746 he obtained from the 
elector of Saxony, Augustus III., the title of councillor of embassy, 
accompanied with a pension, and was sent to Bern in the capacity 
of the elector's minister. Much of his leisure was devoted to 
literature and jurisprudence. Vattel's reputation chiefly rests 
on his Droit des gens, ou Principes de la loi naturelle appliques d 
la condidte et aux affaires des nations et des souverains (Ndu- 
chatel, 1758). He died at Neuchatel on Dec. 28, 1767. 

VAUBAN, SfcBASTIEN LE PRESTRE DE (1633- 
1707), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Leger-Vauban 
(Yonne). At the age of ten he was left an orphan in poor cir- 
cumstances, and his youth was spent amongst the peasantry of 
his native place. At the age of seventeen Vauban joined the regi- 
ment of Conde in the war of the Fronde. He was soon offered a 
commission which he declined. Conde then employed him in the 
fortification of Clermont-en-Argonne. Soon afterwards he was 
taken prisoner by the royal troops, and was converted into a 
devoted servant of the king. He was employed in the siege of St. 
Men6hould and won a lieutenancy, and at Stenay he was twice 
wounded. He besieged and took his own first fortress, Clermont; 
in May 1655 he became an ingenieur du roi. 

After the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Vauban improved or rebuilt 
various fortresses. Hitherto the characteristic features of his 
method of fortification had not been developed, and he followed 
the systems of preceding engineers. Colbert and Louvois were 
profoundly interested in the work, and it was at the request of 
the latter that the engineer drew up in 1669 his Mtmoire ponr 
servir d rinstruction dans la condidte des sieges (this, with a 
memorandum on the defence of fortresses by another hand was 
published at Leiden, 1740). On the renewal of war Vauban con- 
ducted the sieges of Rheinbergen and Nijmwegen 1672, Maestricht 
and Trier 1673, Besanc,on 1674. He supervised the only defence 
in which he ever took part, that of Oudenarde, in 1674. 

Vauban's introduction of a systematic approach to strong 
places by parallels dates from the siege of Maestricht, and in 
principle remains to this day the standard method of attacking 

a fortress. After the peace of Nijmwegen more fortresses were 
adapted. Vauban became commi$saire-g6ntral des fortifications 
on the death of De Clerville, and in 1681 rebuilt the fortress of 
Strasbourg. At Saarlouis for the first time appeared Vauban's 
"first system" of fortification. He always retained what was of 
advantage in the methods of his predecessors. In 1682 his "second 
system," which introduced modifications designed to prolong the 
resistance of the fortress, began to appear. 



12 



VAUCLUSE VAUD 



In 1687 Vauban chose Landau as the chief place of arms in 
Lower Alsace. But side by side with this development grew up 
the far more important scheme of attack. He instituted a company 
of miners, and the elaborate experiments carried out under his 
supervision resulted in the establishment of all the necessary 
formulae for military mining (Traite des mines, Paris, 1740, and 
1799; The Hague, 1 744) ; at the siege of Ath in 1697 he employed 
ricochet fire for the first time to break down the defence. He 
had indeed already used it with effect at Philipsburg in 1688 and 
at Namur, but was hindered by the jealousy of the artillery 
After the peace of Kyswick Vauban rebuilt or improved other 
fortresses, and finally New Breisach, fortified on his ''third sys- 
tem" which he called systeme de Landau perjectionne. His last 
siege was that of Old Breisach in 1703, which he reduced in a 
fortnight. On Jan. 14, Vauban had been made a marshal of 
France, a rank too exalted for the technical direction of sieges, and 
his active career came to an end with his promotion. Soon after- 
wards appeared his Traitd de I'attaque des places. 

But Louis XIV. was now on the defensive, and the war of the 
Spanish Succession saw the gradual wane of Vauban's influence, 
as his fortresses were taken and retaken. The various captures 
of Landau, his chef-d'oeuvre, caused him to be regarded with dis- 
favour; he then turned his attention to the defence; but his work 
De la defense des places (ed. by General Valaze, Paris, 1829) is 
of far less worth than the Attaque, and his ideas on entrenched 
camps (Traite des fortifications de campa^nc) were coldly re- 
ceived, though they contained the elements of the "detached forts" 
system now universal in Europe. He now devoted himself to the 
arrangement of the manuscripts (Mes oisivete's) which contained 
his reflections on war, administration, finance, agriculture and the 
like. In 1689 he made a representation to the king in favour of 
the rcpublication of the Edict of Nantes, and in 1698 he wrote 
his Projet d'une dix" tc - royale (see Economistes financiers du 
XV III* siecle, Paris, 1851), a remarkable work foreshadowing 
the principles of the French Revolution. 

Vauban was impressed with the deplorable condition of the 
peasantry, whose labour he regarded as the main foundation of 
all wealth, and protested against unequal taxation and the ex- 
emptions of the upper classes. His di# ne * royale, a tax to be im- 
partially applied to all classes, was a tenth of all agricultural 
produce payable in kind, and a tenth of money chargeable on 
manufacturers and merchants. This work was published in 1707, 
and instantly suppressed by order of the king. The marshal died 
heart-broken at the failure of his efforts a few days after the 
publication of the order (March 30, 1707). At the Revolution his 
remains were scattered, but in 1808 his heart was found and de- 
posited by order of Napoleon in the church of the Invalides. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Carnot, hf>e de Vauban (Paris, 1784) (followed 
by a critical Lettre d I'acadtmic, published at La Rochelle, 1785, and 
Carnot's reply, Observations sur la lettre, etc., Paris, 1785) ; Goulon, 
Mtmoire$ sur I'attaque et defense d'une place (Paris and Hague, 1740; 
Amsterdam, 1760; Paris, 1764) ; works by Abbe du Fay (Paris, 1681) 
and Chevalier de Cambray (Amsterdam, 1689), from which came 
various works in English, French, etc. For an account of these works 
and others which appeared subsequently, see Max Jahns, Geich der 

Kriegswissenschaften, ii. 1442-47; also Croquez, La citadelle de Lille, 
chef-d'oeuvre de Vauban, 1668-70 (1913); Mann, Der Marschall 
Vauban und die Volkswirtschaftslehre des Absolutismus (1914). 

VAUCLUSE, a department of France, formed in 1793 out 
of the countship of Venaissin, the principality of Orange, and a 
part af Provence, and bounded by Drome on the north, Basses- 
Alpes on the east, Bouches-du-Rhone (from which it is separated 
by the Durance) on the south, and Card and Ardeche (from which 
it is separated by the Rhone) on the west. It has also an enclave, 
the canton of Valreas, in the department of Drome. Pop. (1926) 
230,549. Area, 1,381 sq. miles. In the department east to west 
chains of the French Alps die down westwards towards the 
Rhone; the northernmost includes the Montagne de Lure (5,994 
ft.) and Mont Ventoux (6,273 ft.) and is separated from the next, 
the Plateau de Saint Christol (4.075 ft.) by the Nesque river; the 
river Coulon separates this plateau from the Chaine du Leberon 
(3,691 ft.), which in turn, is bounded on the south by the 
Durance. The very numerous streams feed irrigation canals. The 
climate is that of the Mediterranean region. The valley of the 



Rhone suffers from the mistral, a cold and violent wind from 
N.N.W.; but the other valleys are sheltered by the mountains, 
and produce the oleander, pomegranate, olive, jujube, fig, and 
other southern trees and shrubs. The winter average temperature 
is about 41 and the summer average temperature 73. 

Wheat and potatoes are the most important crops; sugar-beet, 
sorghum, millet, ramie, early vegetables and fruits, notably the 
melons of Cavaillon, are cultivated, and also the vine, olive, mul- 
berry and tobacco. The truffles of the regions of Apt and Car- 
pentras, and the fragrant herbs of the Ventoux range, are re- 
nowned. Sheep are the principal live-stock, and mules are also 
numerous. Lignite and sulphur are mined; rich deposits of gyp- 
sum, fire-clay, ochre, etc., are worked. Beaumes-de-Venise and 
Montmirail have mineral springs. The industries include the spin- 
ning and weaving of silk, wool and hemp, metal-working, printing 
(Avignon), tanning and the making of paper, bricks, tiles, pottery, 
glassware and tobacco. The department is served by the P.L.M. 
railway, and the Rhone is navigable for 40 m. within it. It is 
divided into 3 arrondissements (Avignon, Carpcntras and Ca- 
vaillon), 22 cantons and 151 communes. Avignon, the capital, is 
the scat of an archbishop. The department belongs to the region 
of the XV. army corps and to the acadtmie (educational division) 
of Aix, and has its appeal court at Nimes. 

The chief towns arc Avignon, Apt, Carpcntras, Cavaillon, 
Orange and Vaison (qq.-v.). 

VAUD (Gcr. Waadt), a canton of south-western Switzerland, 
lying mainly between the Lake of Ncuchatel and the Lake of 
Geneva. It is the fourth canton in point of area (see VALAIS), 
and occupies 1,238-6 sq.m., of which 85% is reckoned as "pro- 
ductive" (forests cover 282-6 sq.m., exceeded only by those of 
Berne and the Grisons). Vaud, with 149-8 sq.m. of water surface 
of the larger lakes, has over one-quarter of the entire total for 
Switzerland; this is largely accounted for by its share of Geneva. 
Parts of Neuchatel and Morat contribute to the total, but the 
largest lake entirely in Vaud is de Joux (3-6 sq.m.). There are 
over 4 sq.m. of glaciers; these and the loftiest summit in the can- 
ton (Diablerets, 10,650 ft.) occur in the western Bernese Oberland 
(S. Vaud). The canton, of very irregular shape, includes nearly 
all of the northern shore of the Lake of Geneva, and stretches 
from slightly beyond Bex in the south-east to the Juras on the 
north-west. A long, narrow eastern tongue extends past Paycrne 
to the Lake of Neuchatel. Just beyond its tip is the Avcnches 
region, forming an "enclave" in Fribourg. Parts of Fribourg, in 
turn, form "enclaves" within Vaud along the shore of NeuchateL 
A strip of the right bank drainage of the Rhone (from just above 
Bex to the Lake of Geneva) lies within the canton, but north 
and north-east of Lausanne the land is drained by the Broye and 
Thiele, of the Aar-Rhine basin. 

Vaud, with plains near the lakes, is hilly rather than mountain- 
ous, and is well supplied with railways, including a part of the main 
Sirnplon line through Bex. Lausanne is an important main-lines 
railway centre, and the canton has numerous small-gauge rail- 
ways and mountain lines, such as those which connect the north- 
:ast shore settlements of the Lake of Geneva with the high lying 
resorts of Les Avants, Mont Pelerin and Caux, and those which 
link up Bex and Aigle with the Diablerets area. In 1920 the popu- 
lation was 317498, of whom 269,606 were French-speaking, 32,049 
German-speaking, and 9,524 Italian-speaking, while 264,522 were 
Protestants, 46,640 Catholics and 1,803 Jews. 

The vineyards (15.4 sq.m.), though showing a considerable 
decrease during the 20th century, are still the most extensive in 
iwitzerland. White wines predominate; the best come from 
Yvorne (near Aigle), while the slopes of La Vaux (east of 
Lausanne) produce both red and white wine. Tobacco is grown 
n north-east Vaud, particularly near Payerne, and cigars are made 
at Grandson. Manufactures, on the whole, are unimportant, but 
Ste. Croix, in the Jura, is world-famed for watches, gramophones, 
musical boxes and jewellery. The Juras produce limestones and 
sandstones, and the canton-owned salt-beds at Bex provide raw 
materials for a thriving chemical industry. Vaud is famed for its 
health resorts and for its educational establishments; visitors 
chiefly frequent Lausanne, Vevey, Montreux and Chateau d'Oex 



VAUDEVILLE 



in the upper Saane valley. Lausanne academy (founded 1537) 
was raised to university rank in 1890, and several t^owns are noted 
for important schools; the modernized (i2th century) castle in 
Yverdon was the residence and school of Pestalozzi from 1806 
to 1825. Lausanne (estimated pop. in 1925, 74>25o) fa the politi- 
cal capital and the fifth town in point of size in Switzerland. The 
''agglomeration" known as Montreux has 18,250 and Vevey has 
12,550. Other important villages or small towns are Yverdon 
(8,870), Ste. Croix (5,330), Paycrne (5,300), Nyon (5,300), 
Morges (4,675), Saanen (4,550), Aigle (3,840) and Chateau d'Oex 
(3,470). Among the interesting historical spots are Avenches (the 
largest Roman colony in Helvetia), Grandson (scene of the first 
great victory of the Swiss against Charles the Bold in 1476), and 
the castle of Chillon (where Bonivard, lay prior of St. Victor, near 
Geneva, was imprisoned from 1530 to 1536 for defending the 
freedom of Geneva against the duke of Savoy). 

The canton is divided into 19 administrative districts and con- 
tains 388 communes. The cantonal constitution dates from 1885. 
The legislature consists of a Grand Cornell of 203 deputies (one 
member to every 450 electors) with an executive conseil d'Jtat of 
seven members; both bodies hold office for four years. Six thou- 
sand citizens can compel the Government to consider any project, 
whether legislative or constitutional; this initiative dates back to 
1845. Since iS$$ the referendum has existed in its "facultative" 
form (6,000 signatures required) for certain measures, and in its 
obligatory form for financial matters. The two members of the 
Federal St Under at are named by the Grand Conseil, while the 16 
members of the Federal Nationalrat are chosen by a popular vote. 

History. The early history of the main part of the territories 
comprised in the present canton is identical with that of south-west 
Switzerland generally. The Romans conquered (58 B.C.) the Celtic 
Helvetii and so thoroughly colonized the land that it has remained 
a Romance-speaking district. It formed part of the empire of 
Charlemagne, and of the kingdom of Transjurane Burgundy (888- 
1032), the memory of "good Queen Bertha," wife of King Rudolph 
II., being still held in high honour. After the extinction of the 
house of Zahringen (1218) the counts of Savoy gradually won the 
larger part of it, especially in the days of Peter II., "le petit 
Charlemagne" (d. 1268). The bishop of Lausanne (to which place 
the see had probably been transferred from Aventicum by Marius 
the Chronicler at the end of the 6th century), however, still main- 
tained the temporal power given to him by the king of Burgundy, 
and in 1125 had become a prince of the empire. (We must be 
careful to distinguish between the present canton of Vaud and the 
old mediaeval Pays de Vaud: the districts forming the present can- 
ton very nearly correspond to the Pays Romand.) In 1536, both 
Savoyard Vaud and the bishopric of Lausanne (including Lausanne 
and Avenches) were overrun and annexed by Bern. Bern in 1526 
sent Guillaume Farel, a preacher from Dauphine, to carry out the 
Reformation at Aigle, and after 1536 the new religion was imposed 
by force of arms and the bishop's residence moved to Fribourg 
(permanently from 1663). Thus the whole land became Protes- 
tant, save the district of Echallens. Vaud was ruled very harshly by 
bailiffs from Bern. Political feeling was therefore much excited by 
the outbreak of the French Revolution, and a Vaudois, F. C. de La- 
harpe, an exile and a patriot, persuaded the Directory in Paris to 
march on Vaud m virtue of alleged rights conferred by a treaty of 
1565. The French troops were received enthusiastically, and the 
"Lemanic republic" was proclaimed (Jan. 1798), succeeded by the 
short-lived Rhodanic republic, till in March 1798 the canton of 
Leman was formed as a district of the Helvetic republic. This cor- 
responded precisely with the present canton minus Avenches and 
Payerne, which were given to the canton of Vaud (set up in 1803). 
The new canton was thus made up of the Bernese conquests of 
1475, 1475-76, 1536 and 1555. The constitutions of 1803 and 1814 
favoured the towns and wealthy men, so that an agitation went on 
for a radical change, which was effected in the constitution of 1831. 
Originally acting as a mediator, Vaud finally joined the anti-Jesuit 
movement (especially after the Radicals came into power in 1845), 
opposed the Sonderbund, and accepted the new federal constitu- 
tion of 1848, of which Druey of Vaud was one of the two drafters. 
From 1839 to 1846 the canton was distracted by religious strug- 



gles, owing to the attempt of the Radicals to turn the Church into 
a simple department of State, a struggle which ended in the split- 
ting off (1847) of the "free church." In ,1882 the Radicals ob- 
tained a great majority, and in 1885 the constitution of 1861 was 
revised. (See SWITZERLAND; History.) 

VAUDEVILLE, a term that in America is applied to an 
entertainment of songs, dances, dramatic sketches, acrobatic 
stunts, etc., each of which is announced and presented as a 
separate successive performance. In England the nearest corre- 
sponding term is "variety theatre' 1 (q.v.) ; "vaudeville," rarely 
used, is practically synonymous to what in America is generally 
known as "musical comedy" or "revue." This article will deal 
only with vaudeville as it is known in America. 

HISTORY 

The American theatrical institution of vaudeville originated in 
1883, in Boston, Mass., where a former circus employee, Ben- 
jamin Franklin Keith, opened a small museum and show in a 
vacant candy store next to the old Adams house in Washington 
street. He called his first "theatre" the Gaiety Museum, and its 
principal attractions were Baby Alice, a midget weighing ii lb., 
and an ancient (stuffed) "Mermaid." Later among his added 
attractions were "The Circassian Beauties," a chicken with a 
human face, and a pair of rising young comedians, Weber and 
Fields, who performed as a team. 

Determined to preserve the general plan of the variety show 
and at the same time give it refinement and even distinction, 
young Keith went after the best available stage talent, estab- 
lished strict rules against all forms of vulgarity on the stage, en- 
couraged women and children to patronize his small theatre and 
began to advertise and describe his show as "vaudeville." He 
put into operation the idea of continuous performances and soon 
was able to pay his performers more money than they had been 
paid in variety and in this manner began to command the best 
talent available. In 1885 Edward F. Albee joined Mr. Keith and 
organized the Gaiety Opera Company to present at the lowest 
popular price the then new and sensational Gilbert and Sullivan 
light operas. 

In 1886 the first link in what has become the longest chain of 
theatres in the world was added to the parent Boston house, that 
of the old museum in Providence ; following this was the purchase 
of the old Low's opera house in Providence and the Bijou theatre 
in Boston. In Philadelphia Mr. Keith built an up-to-date theatre 
which, with the three other flourishing houses at his command, 
made possible longer engagements and better salaries to reputable 
artists. The four theatres were the nucleus from which was 
developed during the next 40 years the great chain including al- 
most every city of the United States with a population of 100,000 
or more. When B. F. Keith died (1911) vaudeville was already 
the most generally patronized American form of stage entertain- 
ment. There were in 1928 approximately 1,000 vaudeville 
theatres entertaining a daily aggregate of 2,000,000 people with 
well-chosen acts, feature motion pictures and news reels in every 
State in the United States and every province of Canada. 

Early Vaudeville Artists. Among the early-day geniuses of 
variety who became identified with vaudeville were The Four 
Cohans, of whom George M. Cohan was one, Montgomery and 
Stone, David Warfield and a number of eminent grand opera 
stars from Europe. Maurice Barrymore, head of the "Royal 
Family" of the American stage was one of the early stars of -tjie 
drama to embark in vaudeville. Ethel and Jack Barrymore made 
occasional engagements on the big circuits. Mr. and Mrs. Sidney 
Drew, Sara Bernhardt, Lenore Ulric, Nazimova, William Favcrs- 
ham and hundreds of other great artists of every branch of the 
theatre have appeared. Dramatists began to write one-act plays 
and dramatic sketches for vaudeville, and there began a general 
accession of legitimate actors in short plays. 

Growth. Eastern successes of vaudeville found ready and 
able followers elsewhere. Kohl and Middleton started vaude- 
ville in Chicago as early as 1886. That same year Gustave 
Walters opened the Orpheum theatre in San Francisco and 
launched in the Far West a vaudeville circuit which later merged 



VAUGELAS VAUGHAN 



with the Keith-Albee organization and which spread and suc- 
ceeded with almost equal rapidity in the Middle and Far West. 
F. F. Proctor, manager of the famous Twenty-third Street 
theatre, New York, changed his policy to continuous vaudeville 
in 1893; John J. Murdock opened his Masonic Temple Roof as 
a vaudeville theatre in 1898; Oscar Hammerstein made his Vic- 
toria theatre, 42nd street and Broadway, New York, a vaudeville 
house in 1899; Alex Pantages founded his Northwest Vaudeville 
circuit in 1900; F. F. Proctor opened his Fifth Avenue theatre 
(formerly Miner's) irt 1900, and Gus Sun started a new Ohio 
cifcuit of his own in 1905. 

The Keith and Proctor interests joined forces in 1905 to 
establish the United Booking Office which became the official 
clearing house and engagement bureau for the employment and 
booking of vaudeville acts and artists. The great number of minor 
circuits, independent owners and as yet divergent interests which 
had now entered the vaudeville field, made it necessary to or- 
ganize the managers with a view to stabilizing the business, 
standardizing contracts, regulating conflicting situations and in- 
equalities* as between competing theatres and as between the 
employers and employees of vaudeville. In 1916 the National 
Vaudeville Artists' Association, Inc., was perfected under the spon- 
sorship of leading members of this branch of the profession. 
This organization in 1928 listed about 15,000 artists and was 
regarded as the model combination of fraternal beneficiary in- 
dustrial organizations. 

With the increasing interest in motion pictures during the first 
three decades of the 20th century, vaudeville houses added pic- 
ture features, news-reels, comedies, etc., to their programmes. The 
merger of the two major circuits in 1928 Keith-Albee in the 
East and the Orpheum in the West with the simultaneous ab- 
sorption of some of the foremost motion picture producing com- 
panies was one of the greatest developments of the institution of 
American vaudeville. The miraculous advance of wireless science 
as applied to motion pictures, radiography and telephonic and 
phonographic recording brought to public attention the possibili- 
ties of television (q.v.). Vaudeville was first to envisage the 
widening possibilities of this new era of entertainment. The 
Pathe-De Mille motion picture producing organization was ab- 
sorbed by Keith-Albee; the Film Booking Offices, a motion pic- 
ture corporation, was next. With that reinforcement major vaude- 
ville added to its resources not only a vast picture producing unit 
but also the names and services of a number of pre-eminent 
stars of filmdom. The year 1928 witnessed the further expan- 
sion of vaudeville with the unification of the Radio-Keith- 
Orpheum corporation with the Radio Corporation of America. 

Operation. Vaudeville may be classified as major, minor 
or independent circuits the theatres of the latter being operated 
locally in the same manner that local merchants everywhere may 
be found operating outside of the great store chain systems of 
trade. The major circuit and its affiliated minor circuits co- 
operate through the central metropolitan booking offices; also 
through the Vaudeville Managers' Protective Association, in 
which all classifications of the business are represented. This 
association- is also in harmony with the National Vaudeville 
Artists' Association, with which it co-operates through a joint 
board of arbitration which rules upon contract forms and all 
matters of equity as between the employing managers and the 
artists employed. The cost of acts is fixed by these contracts and 
varies according to the real, or supposed "drawing value" of the 
attraction so booked. Celebrity, ability and even notoriety are 
considered in estimating the draw-power of vaudeville attraction, 
and the higher the cost the more limited must be the engagement 
on any circuit. The limitation of the tours of highly expensive 
acts is due to the fact that the small towns, poorer neighbour- 
hoods and smaller theatres of vaudeville cannot stand the addi- 
tional "overhead," 

The arrangement of the programmes in vaudeville theatres is 
largely at the discretion of the house manager. The opening act 
on the stage is usually a silent (technically called "dumb") act, 
as of acrobats, tumblers or one in which the arrival of the audience 
will not spoil the effect of the performance. Contrast being 



deemed of prime importance, similar acts are not listed next to 
one another. Always there is an effort to build the vaudeville 
programme towards a climax, so that the most striking and effec- 
tive numbers come well down upon the programme. 

Every modern vaudeville theatre maintains a complete equip- 
ment of stage sets which are at the disposal of visiting artists, 
although most important acts carry their own special scenic, 
mechanical or decorative necessities, such as athletic apparatus, 
trick furniture and those properties essential to the full effect 
and success of their own special act. These they carry with them 
on tour, and they are handled and placed by the stage crews 
which every vaudeville .theatre employs. Touring vaudeville 
artists pay their own transportation and maintenance and their 
salaries are paid by the local manager of the theatre upon the 
conclusion of their immediate engagement in that house. 

(E. F. A.) . 

VAUGELAS, CLAUDE FAVRE, SEIGNEUR DE, BARON 
DE PEROGES (1595-1650), French grammarian and man of letters, 
was born at Meximieu (Ain), on Jan. 6, 1595. He became gentlc- 
man-in-waiting to Gaston d'Orldans, and continued faithful to 
this prince in his disgrace. Vaugelas was among the original 
Academicians. In his Remarques sur la langue fran$aise (1647), 
he maintained that words and expressions were to be judged by 
the current usage of the best society, of which, as an habitue of 
the Hotel de Rambouillet, Vaugelas was a competent judge. He 
shares with Malherbe the credit of having purified French diction. 
His book fixed the current usage, and the classical writers of the 
1 7th century regulated their practice by it. Towards the ^nd of 
his life Vaugelas became tutor to the sons of Thomas Francis of 
Savoy, prince of Carignan. He died in Paris in Feb. 1650. 

See Remarques snr la langue franqaise, edited with a key by V. 
Conrart, and introductory notes by A. Chassang (Paris, 1880). The 
principles of Vaugclas's judgments arc explained in the Etudes critiques 
(7 C serie) of M. Brunetiere, who regards the name of Vaugelas as a 
symbol of all that was done in the first half of the i6th century to 
perfect and purify the French language. See also F. Brunot in the 
Histoire de la langue et litterature jranfaise of Petit de Julleville. 

VAUGHAN, HENRY (1622-1695), called the "Silurist," 
British poet and mystic, was born of an ancient Welsh family 
at Newton St. Briget near Scethrog by Usk, Brecknockshire, on 
April 17, 1622. From 1632 to 1638 he and his twin brother 
Thomas (see next page) were privately educated by Matthew 
Herbert, rector of Llangattock. Anthony a Wood says that Henry 
was entered at Jesus college, Oxford, in 1638, but the statement 
is uncorroborated. He was sent to London to study law, but 
turning his attention to medicine, he became a physician, and 
settled first at Brecon and later at Scethrog to the practice of his 
art. He was regarded, says Wood, as an "ingenious person, but 
proud and humorous." It seems likely that he fought on the 
king's side in the Welsh campaign of 1645, and was present at 
the battle of Rowton Heath. 

In 1646 appeared Poems, with the Tenth Satyre of Juvenal 
Englished, by Henry Vaughan, Gent. The poems in this volume 
are chiefly addressed to "Amorct," and the last is on Priory 
Grove, the home of the "matchless Orinda," Mrs. Katharine 
Philips. A second volume of secular verse, Olor Iscanus, which 
takes its name from the opening verses addressed to the Isca 
(Usk), was published by a friend, probably Thomas Vaughan, 
without Uie author's consent, in 1651. The preface is dated 1647, 
and the reason for Vaughan's reluctance to print the book is to 
be sought in the preface to Silex Scintillans: or Sacred Poems and 
Pious Ejaculations (1650). There he says: "The first that with 
any effectual success attempted a diversion of this foul and over- 
flowing stream (of profane poetry) was the blessed man, Mr. 
George Herbert, whose holy life and verse gained many pious 
converts, of whom I am the least." His other works are The 
Mount of Olives: or Solitary Devotions, with a translation, Man 
in Glory, from the Latin of Anselm (1652); Flores Solitudinis 
(1654), consisting of two prose translations from Nierem-bergius, 
one from St. Eucherius and a life of Paulinus, bishop of Nola; 
Hermetical Physick, translated from the Naturae Sanctuarium of 
Henricus Nollius; Thalia RedMva; The Pass-Times and Diver- 
sions of a Country Muse (1678), which includes some of his 



VAUGHAN VAUGHAN WILLIAMS 



brother's poems. Henry Vaughan died at Scethrog on April 23, 
1695, and was buried in the churchyard of Llansantffraed. 

As a poet Vaughan comes latest in the so-called "metaphysical" 
school of the iyth century. He is a disciple of Donne, but follows 
him mainly as he saw him reflected in George Herbert. He 
analyses his experiences, amatory and sacred, with excessive in- 
genuity, striking out, every now and then, through his extreme 
intensity of feeling and his close observation of nature, lines and 
phrases of marvellous felicity. By his mystical outlook on Nature 
he no doubt exercised great influence on Wordsworth, who is 
known to have possessed a copy of his poems, and it is difficult 
to avoid seeing in "The Retreat" the germ of the later poet's 
"Ode on Intimations of Immortality." By this poem, with "The 
World," mainly because of its magnificent opening stanza, "Be- 
yond the Veil," and "Peace," his fame is assured. 

The complete works of Henry Vaughan were edited for the Fuller 
Worthies Library by Dr. A. B. Grosart in 1871. The Poems of 
Henry Vaughan, Silurist, were edited in 1896 (reprint 1905) by 
E. K. Chambers, with an introduction by Canon H. C. Becching, for 
the Muses' Library; see also an edition by L. C. Martin (Oxford, 
1914), and by E. Hulton '(1904); R. Sencourt, Outlying Philosophy. 
A literary study of the religious element . . . in the works . . . of 
H. Vaughan, etc. (1925); H. W. Wells, The. Tercentenary of Henry 

Vaughan (1922). 

VAUGHAN, HERBERT (1832-1903), cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Westminster, was born at Gloucester on April 15, 
1832, the eldest son of lieutenant-colonel John Francis Vaughan, 
head of an old Roman Catholic family, the Vaughans of Court- 
field, Herefordshire. His mother, a daughter of John Rolls of 
The Hendre, Monmouthshire, was intensely religious; and all 
the daughters of the family entered convents, while six of the 
eight sons took priest's orders, three of them rising to the episco- 
pate, Roger becoming archbishop of Sydney, and John bishop of 
Sebastopolis. Herbert spent six years at Stonyhurst, and was 
then sent to study with the Benedictines at Downside, near Bath, 
and subsequently at the Jesuit school of Brugelette, Belgium, 
which was afterwards removed to Paris. In 1851 he went to 
Rome. After two years of study at the Accademia dei nobili 
ecclesiastici, where he became a friend and disciple of Manning, 
he took priest's orders at Lucca in 1854. On his return to Eng- 
land he became for a period vice-president of St. Edmund's Col- 
lege, Ware, at that time the chief seminary for candidates for the 
priesthood in the south of England. Since childhood he had been 
filled with zeal for foreign missions, and he conceived the determi- 
nation to found a great English missionary college to fit young 
priests for the work of evangelizing the heathen. With this object 
he made a great begging expedition to America in 1863, from 
which he returned with 11,000. St. Joseph's Foreign Missionary 
College, Mill Hill Park, London, was opened in 1869. Vaughan 
also became proprietor of the Tablet, and used its columns vig- 
orously for propagandist purposes. In 1872 he was consecrated 
bishop of Salford, and in 1892 succeeded Manning as archbishop 
of Westminster, receiving the cardinal's hat in 1893. 

It was his most cherished ambition to see before he died an 
adequate Roman Catholic cathedral in Westminster, and he 
laboured untiringly to secure subscriptions, with the result that 
its foundation stone was laid in 1895, and that when he died, on 
June 19, 1903, the building was so far complete that a Requiem 
Mass was said there over his body before it was removed to its 
resting-place at Mill Hill Park. 

See the Life of Cardinal Vau^han t by J. G. Snead Cox (2 vols., 
London, 1910). 

VAUGHAN, THOMAS (1622-1666), English alchemist 
and mystic, was the younger twin brother of Henry Vaughan, 
the "Silurist." He matriculated from Jesus college, Oxford, in 
1638, took his B.A. degree in 1642, and became fellow of his 
college. He remained for some years at Oxford, but also held 
the living of his native parish of Llansantffraed from 1640 till 
1649, when he was ejected, under the Act for the Propagation 
o'f the Gospel in Wales, upon charges of drunkenness, immorality 
and bearing arms for the king. Subsequently he lived at his 
brother's farm of Newton and in various parts of London, and 
studied alchemy and kindred subjects. He married in 1651 and 



lost his wife in 1658. After the Restoration he found a patron 
in Sir Robert Murray, with whom he fled from London to Oxford 
during the plague of 1665. He appears to have had some employ- 
ment of state, but he continued his favourite studies and actually 
died of the "fumes of mercury at the house df Samuel Kern at 
Albury on Feb. 27, 1666. Vaughan regarded himself as a philoso- 
pher of nature, and although he certainly sought the universal 
solvent, his published writings deal rather with magic and 
mysticism than with technical alchemy. They also contain much 
controversy with Henry More the Platonist. Vaughan was called 
a Rosicrucian, but denied the imputation. He wrote or trans- 
lated Anthroposophia Theomagica (1650); Anima Magica Ab- 
scondita (1650); Lumen de Lumine and Aphorisimi Magici 
Eugeniam (1651); The Fame and* Confession of the Fraternity 
of R.C. (1652); and others. Most of these pamphlets appeared 
under the pseudonym of Eugenius Philalethes. 

Vaughan was probably, although it is by no means certain, not 
the famous adept known as Eirenaeus Philalethes, who was 
alleged to have found the philosopher's stone in America, and 
to whom the Introitus A pert us in Occlusum Regis Palatium 
(1667) and other writings are ascribed. In 1896 Vaughan was 
the subject of an amazing mystification in the Memoires (Tune 
ex-Palladiste. These formed part of certain alleged revelations 
as to the practice of devil-worship by the initiates of free- 
masonry. The author, whose name was given as Diana Vaughan, 
claimed to be a descendant of Thomas and to possess family 
papers which showed amongst other marvels that he had made a 
pact with Lucifer, and had helped to found freemasonry as a 
Satanic society. The inventors of the hoax, which took in many 
eminent Catholic ecclesiastics, were some Paris journalists. 

The Magical Writings of Thomas Vaughan were edited by A. E. 
Waite in 1888. His miscellaneous Latin and English verses are included 
in vol. ii. of A. B. Grosart 's Fuller Worthies Library edition of the 
Works of Henry Vaughan (1871). A manuscript book of his, with 
alchemical and autobiographical jottings made between 1658 and 1662, 
forms Brit. Mus. Sloane MS. 1741. Biographical data are in E. K. 
Chambers's Muses' Library edition of the Poems of Henry Vaughan 
(1896), together with an account and criticism of the Memoires d'une 
ex-Palladistc. These fabrications were also discussed by A. E. Waite, 
Devil-Worship in France (1896), and finally exposed by Gaston Mery, 
La Verit6 sur Diana Vaughan. 

VAUGHAN, WILLIAM (1577-1641), English author and 
colonial pioneer, son of Walter Vaughan l. 1598), was born at 
Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire, his father's estate, in 1577. He 
was descended 'from an ancient prince of Powys. His brother, 
John Vaughan (1572-1634), became ist earl of Carbery; and 
another brother, General Sir Henry or Harry Vaughan (1587- 
1659), was a weiycnown royalist leader. William was educated 
at Jesus college, (Sxford, and took the degree of LL.D. at Vienna. 
In 1616 he bought a grant of land in the south coast of New- 
foundland, to which he sent two batches of settlers. In 1622 
he visited the settlement, which he called Cambriol, and returned 
to England in 1625. Vaughan apparently paid another visit to 
his colony, but his plans for its prosperity were foiled by tho 
severe winters. He died at his house of Torcoed, Carmarthen- 
shire, in Aug. 1641. 

His chief work is The Golden Grove (1600), a general guide to 
morals, politics and literature, in which the manners of the time are 
severely criticized, plays being denounced as folly and wickedness. The 
section in praise of poetry borrows much from earlier writers on the 
subject. The Golden Fleece . . . transported from Cambriol Colchis 
. . . by Orpheus jttn. t alias Wilt Vaughan, which contains information 

about Newfoundland, is the most interesting of his other works. ** 

VAUGHAN WILLIAMS, RALPH (1872- ), British 
musical composer, was born at Down Ampney, Glos., Oct. 12, 
1872. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became 
Mus. Bac. in 1894, and at the Royal College of Music, with Parry 
and Stanford. The revival of English folk-song, however, in 
which he became absorbed, unlocked his latent creative powers. 
The Norfolk Rhapsodies for orchestra (founded on folktunes), 
and the symphonic impression In the Fen Country, on original 
themes of folk-song character, show his development. Other types 
of distinctively national music, notably the Tudor Church com- 
posers and Purcell, strengthened his technical resources and helped 
to determine his own style in the direction of vigorous melodic 



i6 



VAULT 



outline, the free use of model scales, an unflinching contrapuntal 
texture and a high-handed attitude towards harmony. He wrote 
(he choral works Toward the Unknown Region (Leeds Festival, 
1907), A Sea Symphony (Leeds, 1910), the libretto in both cases 
being drawn frorri Walt Whitman, and the orchestra work, A 
London Symphony (Queen's Hall, 1914). 

His musical work was interrupted by the World War, in which 
he served first in the R.A.M.C. and then as a gunner. His 
greatest works date from the post war period. The most important 
are: A Pastoral Symphony /or Orchestra (Royal Philharmonic 
Society, 1922); A Mass in G Minor (Westminster Cathedral, 
1923); an oratorio, Sancta Civitas (Oxford, 1926). A stage scene 
from The Pilgrim's Progress, called The Shepherd of the Delect- 
able Mountains; and the ballad opera, Hugh the Drover (words 
by Harold Child), belong to the earlier period when folklore 
and folk-songs were the primary inspiration of his work. 

VAULT, any covering for an enclosed room, formed of 
small pieces of material, generally wedge-shaped and arranged 
with the under sides forming a generally curved surface, in such 
a way that each separate unit is held in place by its neighbours 
on either side; a continuous arch; also, loosely, any curved ceiling 
or covering of a room, irrespective of its material. The word is 
also used for a room or series of rooms built for storing valuables 
and enclosed with heavy walls, doors and ceilings specially con- 
structed to withstand the effect of fire or the attacks of burglars, 
and entered by a burglar-proof door (see SAFES; STRONG 
ROOMS) ; and, by a somewhat similar extension, to a masonry en- 
closure in a graveyard, intended either as a permanent tomb or to 
receive bodies until a final grave is made. 

Structural Implications. Owing to the action of super- 
incumbent weights upon the wedge-shaped pieces that form it, a 
vault, like an arch (q.v.), exerts side thrust, and unless its lower 
portions are held in place, it will collapse. Even in such nearly 
homogeneous structures as the Roman concrete vaults, this tend- 
ency is present, and if sufficiently weighted, these vaults, like 
vaults made of wedge-shaped voussoirs (q.v.) will fail because 
of the pushing apart of their lower edges. The result of this is 
the development either of very thick walls, whose weight and 
strength are themselves sufficient to withstand the thrust of vaults 
placed upon them, or else the balancing of thrusts of adjacent 
walls against each other or the reinforcement of supporting walls 
by buttresses. Anotner method of diminishing thrusts is to 
arrange the vault in such a manner that its haunches, the lower 
portions on each side, carry a much greater weight than the 
centre, or crown. 

Another peculiarity of the vault, which tremendously affected 
its design, is the fact that although a vault L rigid when con- 
structed, its component parts, or voussoirs, have to be inde- 
pendently supported in place in some artificial manner, until the 
final topmost voussoir, or keystone (q.v.) is in place. This prob- 
lem of supporting the vault during construction has led to many 
experiments in the arrangement of the separate stones or bricks 
of a masonry vault. Frequently, for instance, the lower portion 
of a vault will be built with horizontal layers or courses, and only 
the top courses of wedge-shaped blocks. In Roman concrete 
vaults a thin layer of brick, light and easy to support, sometimes 
acted itself as the centring for the support of the concrete upon 
it. The most interesting development of this structural necessity 
was the invention of the system of ribbed vaults by the Romans 
aijtf its epochal development during the late Romanesque and 
early Gothic periods. Essentially, this system broke up a large 
vault area into smaller elements separated by independent arches, 
whose support and construction was a comparatively easy matter. 
When once built, these arches themselves served to support the 
centring for the filling in or web of the vault between the arches. 

Types. Vaults are classified according to their shapes and 
their construction, 

Barrel Vault, sometimes called tunnel vault, one whose cross- 
section is always the same; a continuous arch. 

Annular Vault, a similar continuous vault whose supporting 
walls are concentric circles, like the vault around the apse of some 
Romanesque churches. 



Groined Vault, one formed by the intersection of two vaults 
running in different directions, usually at right angles to each 
other, in such a manner that the area covered by the groined 
vault has arches on its four sides, thus allowing support to be 
discontinuous and broken up into piers. The lines of the inter- 
section, generally elliptical, are known as groins. In a single, 
square, groined vault the direction of the thrust follows the line 
of the groin, and is on a line continuing the diagonals of the 
square. Where, however, two such square bays adjoin each other, 
the sum of the two diagonal thrusts is at right angles to the long 
dimension of the combined two bays. In addition to perfect 
groined vaults, in which the two elements at right angles to each 
other are at the same height and curvature, there are many uses 
of the groined vault over rectangular, instead of square, bays 
of which the two intersecting vaults are of different curves and 
heights. The geometrical intersection of such vaults is a warped 
and twisted line of considerable awkwardness, and various at- 
tempts to simplify the form were made either by slanting and 
warping the surfaces of the component vaults, or by artificially 
altering the geometric intersecting line to make a more pleasant 
pattern. The geometric intersection of a small, low vault, with 
a large, high one, is called a welsh groin. 

Dome (q.v.), a vault of generally spherical curvature, whose 
bottom is a circle in plan. 

Pendentive (q.v.), a small section of spherical vault used to 
fill in the upper corners of a square or polygonal room to form a 
circle at the top for the support of a dome. 

Cloistered Vault, the inverse of a groined vault, also formed 
by the intersection of two vaults at right angles, but so arranged 
that from the sides of the square, unbroken sections of vault rise 
to a point in the centre, so that the intersections, instead of pro- 
jecting like groins, are like valleys. Many so-called square and 
octagonal domes are square or octagonal cloistered vaults. 

Ribbed Vault, a vault subdivided by independent ribs or arches ; 
also loosely used for any vault with projecting ribs on its sur- 
face, whether independent and structurally important or not. 

Corbelled Vault, the curved covering of a room, formed not by 
wedge-shaped pieces of material, in the manner of an arch, but by 
building the covering of horizontal courses, each one of which 
projects inward slightly over the one below. This form exerts no 
thrust and is not strictly a vault, although frequently so called. 

HISTORY 

Egypt and the Mesopotamian Valley. The vault seems 
to have been independently invented in many parts of the world 
in the late Neolithic and early Bronze ages. The earliest impor- 
tant evidences of it extant are those of Chaldea and early Egypt, 
where it appears as early as the beginning of the 4th millennium 
B.C. In Chaldea, not only were drains vaulted, but vaults were 
also used to cover tomb chambers and probably halls in temples 
and palaces as well. The vault holds a dominant place in Meso- 
potamian architecture through all the vicissitudes of Sumerian, 
Babylonian and Assyrian cultures. During the Assyrian period 
(c. 1000 to 600 B.C.) vaults of unburned brick were the chief 
method used for covering the long, tunnel-like halls of the 
Assyrian palaces. The drains which were so important a feature 
of the palace platforms were roofed with walls of baked brick, 
and there is preserved an ingenious example from Nimroud (gth 
century B.C.) showing one method of obviating the necessity for 
centring. In this case the drain abuts upon a thick wall through 
which it passes by an arch. The rings of which the vault is 
formed, instead of being placed in successive vertical planes, are 
all inclined at 45?, so that each completed ring furnishes a cer- 
tain amount of support for the one built after it. In addition to 
the barrel vault, the Assyrians were undoubtedly acquainted with 
the dome, as many Assyrian reliefs show villages with domed 
structures, and in some cases the curve of the dome is too flat 
for it to have been constructed as a corbelled vault. 

Egyptian vaults were more common in the earlier periods than 
in the later and examples in tomb passages at Dendereh un- 
doubtedly go back to the earliest dynasties. Under Rameses II. 
a granary built behind the Ramesseum at Thebes also had vaulted 



VAULT 



PLATE I 




VAULTS OF THE 1ST CENTURY B.C. TO THE 14TH CENTURY A.D. 



1. The great vault at Cteslphon, c. 550. 2. The Roman barrel vault of the 
temple of Diana at Mimes, France, built 25 B.C. 3. Vault at Rhlwaser 
Rhargivd In Persia. 4. One of the halls of the moique. 5. Dome of the 
mosque of Sultan Achmed at Constantinoole. 16O9-14. &. Earlv Trench 



Gothic nave vaulting of the cathedral of Notre Dame at Parts, late 12th 
century. 7. Perpendicular English Gothic vault, Gloucester cathedral, 1377. 
8. Vault of the nave of the Henry VIM. chapel, Westminster Abbey. 9. Fan 

vault of Kinn's Cnllnna rhanel HamhrlHn* 



PLATE II 



VAULT 




MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN VAULTS 



1. English decorated Gothic vault of the presbytery of Lincoln cathedral, 
1255-80. 2, The nave of S. Ambrogio at Milan, perhaps the earliest com- 
plete rlbbod, probably dating from the middle of the llth century. It was 
the precursor of the Norman vaulting which led eventually to the Gothic 



vault. 3. The Danish church at Berlin, 1923, hat a vault of wooden con- 
struction. Like a masonry vault, It exerts thrust. Architect, Otto Bart- 
nlng. 4. St. Paul's chapel, Columbia University, New York, has a tile 
vault, of the type known as Quastavlno. Architect, John Mead Ho wells 



VAULT 



chambers of which the lower courses were laid horizontal, in 
order to reduce the span. The Egyptians, however, apparently 
never appreciated the possibility of cut stone vaulting; the near- 
est approach to it, in the great period, was the so-called vaulted 
chambers in the temple built by Seti I. at Abydos. 

The Aegean and Greece. In the pre-classic Aegean, the 
corbelled vault achieved some of its most remarkable expressions, 
as in the famous tholoi, or beehive shaped tombs (e.g., tholos of 
Atreus, at Mycenae, c. 1200 B.C.), which are probably modelled 
on tholos type huts of unburned brick, of which many founda- 
tions have been discovered in many sites in Crete and the Grecian 
islands. Like the Egyptians, the Greeks knew the principle of 
the arch and the vault, and used it occasionally, although they 
never gave it an important architectural position, and during the 
best periods the post and lintel system of construction entirely 
superseded the vault. 

In the Hellenistic period, probably due to the close touch with 
western Asia that was such a marked feature of post-Alexandrian 
culture, the arch and the vault again appear, still, however, in 
isolated instances, in some of which Roman influence may be 
already present. Thus there is a small hall at Pergamon, Asia 
Minor, roofed with a groined vault which two schools of thought 
date differently, one claiming that it is pre-Roman and the other 
that it is a piece of Roman construction (G. Rivoira, Roman 
Architecture, 1925, p. 78). It is incontestable, however, that 
barrel vaults, both straight and sloping, were used in Hellenistic 
tombs and city gates. 

Italy. It is uncertain when and how the Etruscans first dis- 
covered vaults, but as early as the 6th century B.C., a tomb from 
Orvieto, now in Florence, had a simple barrel vault, and by the 
4th century they were common, as in the so-called grotto of 
Pythagoras in Cortona. Moreover, such city gates as those of 
Falerii, Volterra and Perugia, which date from the 4th and 3rd 
centuries, B.C., reveal not only a definite knowledge of vault con- 
struction but an impressive attempt to give it architectural effect. 

It remained for the Romans to absorb the Etruscan knowledge 
and develop it into the main feature of their architectural con- 
struction, and to add to the idea of the cut stone vault, vaults of 
brick in which the bricks were flat and the radiation taken up 
in the joints, and vaults of rubble or concrete, roughly dumped 
upon a wooden centring, whose form it took as it hardened. 
Vault types were also increased, the cloistered vault appearing in 
the early ist century, B.C., as in the Tabularium at Rome (c. 80 
B.C.) ; the cross or groined vault, in small square sections sup- 
ported on arches, so that the whole could be carried by piers, as 
in the Septa Julia (27 B.C.); independent groined vaults over 
rooms, common from the time of Nero on (Golden house of 
Nero, c. A.D. 65); and the spherical vault, which appeared first, 
tentatively, in niche and apse tops, and reached a climactic 
flowering in the Pantheon of Hadrian. 

Under the empire, cut stone vaults were common only in the 
provinces, like those in Baalbek, Syria or the ribbed vault of 
the beautiful so-called temple of Diana at Nimes, France (time, 
of Tiberius). The latter shows one of many interesting experi- 
ments made in order to localize thrust and weight; the vault 
consists of a series of independent stone ribs, on the upper 
corners of which sinkages are cut to carry stone slabs covering 
the space between them. A similar experimental genius was at 
work in the Roman province of Syria, where during the 3rd, 4th 
and 5th centuries many cut stone buildings were built, in which 
stone arch ribs supported a roof, either of horizontal stone slabs, 
as in the so-called basilica at Shakka, or following the curves of 
the arches, as in the delicately designed praetorium at Musmiyeh. 
In Rome, vaults were usually of brick or concrete, even when 
the sub-structure was cut stone, and in the great number of cases, 
in a combination of the two materials. Brick ribs were frequently 
used in important positions, and were occasionally double, with 
the two lines connected by occasional large tiles, forming a light 
but exceedingly rigid structure. In some cases the whole vault 
centring was covered with tiles laid flat-wise, which acted them- 
selves as centring for the concrete, and were keyed to it by 
occasional tiles set end-wise. From the time of the Antonines 



on, vaults were extremely light, and at times daringly thin, 
strengthened, not only by ribs of brick, but by arches of brick, 
built in the plane of the vaults between .the ribs. This Roman 
structural ingenuity grew continuously till the end of the 4th 
century, long after decorative art had begun to decay. 

With these ingenious vaults the Romans produced their char- 
acteristically large and impressive interiors, and by the use of 
cross vaults, as in the great halls of the thermae (see BATHS), 
were enabled to flood them with light from clerestorey windows. 
Not only were all types of barrel and groined vaults used, as 
well as the simple dome, but constant experiments were made, 
almost up to the time of the fall of Rome, in new combinations 
and novel forms. Many attempts were made to place a dome 
over a polygonal or square room, thus approaching the pendentive 
(q.v.), and all sorts of scalloped and varied dome types are found, 
like the scalloped dome of the vestibule of the Piazza D'Oro and 
the niche of the Serapeum, both in the villa of Hadrian, and the 
daringly delicate so-called temple of Minerva Medica, at Rome, 
a garden building of the time of Valerian. 

The earlier vaults were covered with stucco and delicately 
panelled in relief, occasionally further decorated with colour, as 
in the tcpidarium of the baths of the forum at Pompeii (c. 80 
B.C.), and various rooms in the Golden house of Nero, as well 
as the remarkably rich subterranean basilica outside the Porta 
Maggiori at Rome, which probably dates from the time of Au- 
gustus. In the later empire, the custom of coffering, or deco- 
rating with deeply sunk geometric panels, like those cut into the 
dome of the Pantheon at the time of Septimius Severus, became 
common. 

The scale of many of these Roman vaults is, even to-day, 
astounding. Thus the throne room of the palace of Domitian 
had a barrel vault 97 ft. in span, 8 ft. wider than the nave of 
S. Peter's; the basilica of Constantine, a groined vault 84 ft. in 
span; and the domes of the calidarium, in the baths of Caracalla 
and of the Pantheon, are respectively n6 and 140 ft. in diameter. 
For a thorough discussion of Roman vaulting see ,G. Rivoira, 
Roman Architecture, noted above. 

Byzantine. The great contribution of the Byzantine builders 
to vaulting was the final logical development of the pendentive 
(q.v.) through the recognition of the fact that all of the Roman 
attempts to put a dome on a square plan by means of corbelling 
were awkward followings of a wrong method, and the discovery 
of the simplest and most efficient method by substituting tri- 
angular sections of a spherical vault. In this way, a dome could 
be supported on pendentives, which could, in turn, be supported 
on four great arches, so that the entire weight was brought down 
upon piers at the corners a method that at once gave enormous 
freedom to the planning of a building. The only requirement was 
that sufficient buttresses should be furnished to withstand the 
thrust of the great arches. There is much discussion as to where 
and how the pendentive was finally developed; it is very prob- 
ably an eastern invention, and may have originated in the cut 
stone work of Roman Syria. Fully developed pendentives occur 
during the sth century, e.g., the church of S. Sophia at Salonica, 
but it was in the church of S. Sophia at Constantinople (begun 
532) that the possibilities of this type of construction were first 
taken advantage of. The use of great half domes, with smaller 
domed niches opening from them, at each end of the building, 
gained a sense of direction a long axis while preserving the 
dominance of the central dome. The two first domes built on 
this church both collapsed soon after construction, arid it is prob- 
ably only with the building of the present dome that the circle 
of 40 windows around the base was introduced, which not only 
lightens the weight of the dome but also furnishes a beautiful 
illumination for the interior. These windows are not placed in 
a drum, as in later Byzantine work, but pierced through the 
curving surface of the dome itself, with buttresses between them 
on the exterior, whose upper sides are swept up in a curve to 
meet the curve of the dome. Little hood arches are thrown across 
between the buttresses, over the windows, and on the exterior 
give something of the effect of a drum. There is a similar lack 
of drum in S. Mark's at Venice (2nd half of the nth century); 



i8 



VAULT 



and in many Byzantine churches, even where a marked drum 
exists on the exterior, there will be little or no drum inside. 

Besides using pcndcntives to support a dome, the Byzantine de- 
signers discovered that a continuous, spherical vault, ending in 
arches at the walls, could be used over any square or rectangular 
space. This is known as the pendentive dome. An early example 
is in the tomb of Galla Placidia, at Ravenna (c. 440). This type 
is used in combination with all sorts of groined and intersecting 
vaults in various subsidiary positions. The variety and ingenuity 
of the side aisle vaults of S. Sophia at Constantinople is remark- 
able, and is matched by the similar variety in the side aisle vaults 
of such Italian Byzantine churches as that of S. Vitale, at Ravenna 
(547) and S. Lorenzo, at Milan (c. 560). 

In the effort to lighten vaults the Byzantine builders carried to 
its logical conclusion a method used experimentally by the 
Romans that of incorporating in the masonry of a vault, hollow 
jars or tubes. The dome of S. Vitale, at Ravenna, is built almost 
entirely of a continuous double spiral of such tubes, shaped so 
that one fitted into the neck of the next. For a similar reason, the 
dome of S. Sophia at Constantinople was built of a special type 
of exceedingly porous and spongy brick. 

Mohammedan. The Mohammedan builders borrowed ex- 
tensively from Byzantine precedent. In Persia, there is an addi- 
tional legacy from the enormous vaults built by the Sassanians. 
Not only did such colossal vaults as those at Firuzabad (459- 
485) and Ctesiphon (c. 550, 82 ft. span) vitally inspire the great 
vaulted entrances of Persian mosques, but also the wide-spread 
use of niche-shaped squinches, instead of pendentives under a 
dome, is without doubt due to the same source. But the Moham- 
medans developed many characteristic vaulting forms of their 
own. Especially noteworthy is the multiplication of niche 
squinches until the stalactite form is achieved, and in the Moorish 
and Indian styles, the ingenious use of cross ribs, in a square or 
polygon, to enable it to be covered with a dome of smaller size. 
Examples in Spain are the vaults over the Maksoiira, or enclosed 
prayer space^ of the great Mosque at Cordova (nth century), 
and the even richer vault of the chapel Villa Viciosa, in the same 
mosque. In India the most remarkable example is that of the 
vast tomb of Mohammed Sikri at Bijapur (1626-60), in which, 
by arranging arched ribs in two intersecting squares, to form an 
eight-pointed star, in plan, a hall 135 ft. square is reduced to a 
central opening 97 ft. in diameter, above which is a dome 124 ft. 
across, so that there is a gallery around the inside of the dome at 
its spring. A similar scheme is used in the great mosque of the 
same town (c. 1560), in which a square 70 ft. across is reduced 
to a circle 57 ft. in diameter. 

China. The Chinese knew the principle of the arch and vault 
at an early date, probably having developed it independently. 
Thus vaults occur in the two "Wild Goose" pagodas at Sianfu in 
the province of Shensi, which are as early as the beginning of the 
8th century. The most monumental extant uses of the vault, are 
however, chiefly of the Ming dynasty and later, and in the four 
northern provinces of Chili, Shantung, Shensi and Shansi. Groined 
vaults are not used, but barrel vaults are common in city gates 
(Peking, Sianfu and Taiuanfu), temple and palace entrance halls 
(imperial palace at Peking, Temple of Heaven, Peking, etc.) and 
in many beautifully designed and carefully executed cut-stone 
bridges. Barrel vaults are occasionally used over temple halls, 
set at right angles to the axis of the temple, and entered by smaller 
barreled vaults and arched gateways in the thickness of the wall. 
The most remarkable examples of this use occur in the masonry 
built temple groups of Kin Tze and Shuang la Sze at Taiuanfu, 
both in Shansi and both dating from the later years of the Ming 
dynasty. Later examples are the many barrel vaults in the great 
monastery, temple and palace group, built in the i8th century 
at Jehol. 

Romanesque. Romanesque vaulting represents the slow de- 
velopment of untrained builders in vaulting a church structure, 
generally of basilican plan. In this development they made use 
of Roman precedent, they copied Byzantine technique and they 
used^their own native ingenuity. The groined vault appeared early ' 
in aisles and the annular vault, around apses and for circular j 



structures; the dome and the octagonal cloistered vault were 
used for the crossing. The difficulty was with naves, for the 
buttressing of a nave vault, high in the air, was a troublesome 
necessity. Barrel vaults were first tried, either semi-circular or 
pointed, the pointed section being used because it exerted less 
thrust, and buttressing was largely achieved by means of the tri- 
forium gallery vaults, over the side aisles, which were either semi- 
! circular or quadrant shaped, as in the church of S. Sernin, at 
Toulouse (late nth century). Vaulting was usually of stone, and 
varied from extremely rough workmanship, covered with plaster, 
as in S. Nectaire, in Auvergne, France (beginning of the i2th 
century), to the beautiful cut stone of such domed churches as 
that at Cahors, France (1119). The barrel vaulted nave had the 
drawback of being dark, as only the smallest clerestorey windows 
if any were possible, and the centring required for it was un- 
duly heavy. The first improvement was the introduction of cross 
| ribs, as in Valence cathedral (early i2th century), which strength- 
ened the vault over the piers and simplified the question of 
centring. The matter of lighting was more difficult; an early, in- 
teresting experimental solution is that of S. Philibert, at Tournus, 
France, where heavy arches were thrown across the nave at each 
pier, and walls carried up upon them. Upon these, little barrel 
vaults were built, running across the nave. The result permitted 
large clerestorey windows and was statically correct, but the in- 
terior effect was unpleasantly discontinuous. Another remarkable 
solution was reached in the domed churches of Aquitania, where 
Byzantine influence was strong, but the most beautiful of these, 
such as Cahors and Angouleme (1132) have no side aisles* and 
the difficulty of domed churches with side aisles was just as great 
as in those with barrel vaults; this may be readily seen in the 
impressive and gloomy interior of Le Puy en Velay (i2th century). 

The groined vault, which was the obvious answer to the diffi- 
j culty, was hard to construct because the different widths of nave 
and aisles, meant that square vaults over the one necessitated 
oblong vaults over the other. And the intersections of the oblong 
vaults were twisted and ugly. Furthermore, the aisle vaults 
around an apse presented difficulties in that the -cross vaults were 
cone-shaped and intersected the annular surface of the aisle vault 
in unpleasant, twisted lines, with the point where the groins 
crossed below the high point. No matter how the surfaces were 
warped, the problem of the intersection remained. 

The answer to the problem of nave vaulting was first found by 
the Lombards in S. Ambrogio, at Milan (begun in the loth, but 
probably vaulted about the middle of the nth century). In this 
vault, two bays of the aisles are made to equal one of the nave, 
so that all the vaulting bays are approximately square. Moreover, 
the system of ribs, which had only appeared tentatively before, 
was here applied completely; not only were cross ribs built at each 
alternate pier across the nave, but in addition, arched ribs were 
built on the groin lines. In this way, a framework of arches was 
created, easy to construct, and the filling in of the surfaces be- 
tween, or webs, could be done in sections. The cross vaults 
allowed clerestorey lighting. 

The Normans made the next great advance, through the intro- 
duction of an additional rib across the nave, on the piers between 
those that carried the cross arches, and the treatment of each of 
the two halves of the nave vaulting bay, with its own wall arch 
and window; the cross vaults thus established, ran obliquely to 
the centre. The result is the sexpartite or six-part vault (q.v.). 
Along with this came the solution of the buttressing problem by 
means of rudimentary flying buttresses. Variations of the six-part 
vault appear in the two great abbey churches at Caen (Abbaye 
aux Hommes, Abbaye aux Dames, founded by William the Con- 
queror and his wife and vaulted in the i2th century). In the 
Abbaye aux Dames, the idea is tentative only, and the inter- 
mediate rib carries a simple wall up to the ridge of the single 
cross vault. Durham cathedral (1128-1133) has a complete sys- 
tem of groined, ribbed vaults, in which the vaults are four-part 
instead of six-part, although alternate cross ribs are omitted. 

French Gothic. Early French Gothic vaults merely carried 
the Norman experiments one step further, by combining with the 
idea of ribbed and groined vaults the addition of pointed arches, 



VAULT 



which still further simplify the construction. The groin ribs were 
usually left semi-circular, but the cross ribs, being pointed, and 
springing from the same level, could have their ridges at the same 
height. Furthermore, the wall arches, by a combination of stilting 
and pointing, could also be made sufficiently high, although they 
were so much narrower than either cross or diagonal ribs, and 
thus, not only was a harmonious wall produced, with ridges nearly 
level, but also a still further increase in the size of clerestorey 
windows permitted. In the early Gothic churches of France, the 
six-part vault was the most popular; e.g., Laon (begun 1160) and 
Notre Dame, at Paris (begun 1163). By the end of the century, 
however, the four-part vault completely superseded the earlier 
type, and with few exceptions in very late work, remained con- 
stant throughout the Rayonnant and Flamboyant periods. In 
general the development was toward more and more level ridges 
and deeper and slimmer ribs. The web filling is characteristic; 
formed of slightly arched stone courses, varying in width, in 
such a manner as to bring the courses generally parallel to the 
ridge. The web was apparently built without extensive centring, 
merely using a curved plank under each course, the plank being 
arranged in two pieces so as to be adjustable in length. The stone 
cutting of the ribs and supports is of the most perfect type and 
shows a definite attempt to utilize the material in the most efficient 
manner. Characteristic is the fact that all the lower courses of 
the ribs are horizontal instead of radiating and where the ribs 
come close together they are all cut on one stone, the whole mass 
forming what is technically known as a tas de charge. 

Other Continental Gothic. The Gothic vaults of Germany 
and Austria were largely based on French forms, until the isth 
century, when all sorts of fantastic ribbing came into use. Again 
(he English influence was strong, but instead of keeping the ribs in 
one plane, as in English work, they were twisted and curved, 
until their structural basis was well nigh forgotten. The same 
was true to a less extent of Spanish Gothic, where the bold 
simplicity of the French type continued in force almost until the 
dawn of the Renaissance. Italian Gothic vaults were generally 
large in scale, with ribs unmoulded, or moulded in the simplest 
possible manner. The cathedral at Florence (nave begun 1357) 
shows how with structural ideas identical with those of the north, 
an utterly different effect could be produced, in which, despite the 
pointed arches the tradition of Roman scale is unmistakably 
evident. 

English Gothic. The French basis of English Gothic through 
the work of William of Sens at Canterbury (1175), was soon for- 
gotten through differences in technique that developed. The first 
of these was a different method of web building; English webs 
generally consisted of courses of stone, which were equal in width 
throughout. Thus, due to the curving of the surfaces, they were 
not parallel to the ridge, and created awkward intersections there. 
In order to cover this intersection ridge ribs were sometimes intro- 
duced. At about the same time intermediate ribs, between cross 
and diagonals were introduced, which diminished the amount of 
web that had to be built at one time, and made its construction 
and support simpler. Thus in the choir of Lincoln cathedral (r. 
1280) there are no true diagonals and the groin ribs are arranged 
so that .the cross vaults are oblique, with intermediates running 
from the intersections of the groin ribs to the pier on the other 
side. Such intermediate ribs are called tiercerons, and in addi- 
tion to assisting the structural solidity of the vault and its ease 
of construction, tiercerons became a great source of decorative 
richness. The climax is seen in the crowded spreading ribs of 
Exeter cathedral (1292-1367), in which there is one tierceron 
between each cross and diagonal rib, and two between each 
diagonal and wall rib. The resultant effect, in which each pier 
thus carries n separate ribs radiating from it, is inexpressibly 
soaring and graceful. Further richness is gained "by the sculptured 
bosses with rich leafage, which cover the intersections of the ribs. 

Later in the i4th century there is a further decorative develop- 
ment through the introduction of small, intermediate ribs, be- 
tween tiercerons, cross and diagonal ribs, with which intricate 
patterns are formed. These intermediate ribs are called liernes, 
and by their use, the spaces between ribs are made so small that 



they can be covered by two or three slabs of stone. Remarkable 
examples of this type of vaulting exist at Norwich cathedral 
(i5th century); Winchester (1394-1486) and Gloucester (c. 



In Gloucester occurred the first example of the next develop- 
ment the invention of the fan vault, used in the cloisters (1350- 
1410). In fan vaulting, each severy, or the section supported on 
each pier, takes a conoidal shape, so that all of the ribs upon it 
have approximately the same curvature. Moreover, the ribs are 
so multiplied and connected by little arches, that the web dis- 
appears, except as panelled areas, and the whole vault becomes a 
homogeneous mass of carefully cut stone. A fan vault, accord- 
ingly, is strictly not a ribbed vault at all, but merely a vault con- 
sisting of a series of conoids of panelled stone-work intersecting 
each other. Full advantage was taken of the freedom in line 
design that this system offered, and all sorts of -cusps and other 
tracery forms were used; there was no limit to the variety of 
design except the ingenuity of the stone cutter. Fan vaulting 
reached its climax in the two almost contemporary ceilings in the 
King's College chapel, Cambridge, and the Henry VII. chapel at 
Westminster, both completed by 1515. In the former, the vault 
is simple, with strongly marked cross arches to give it rhythm 
and definiteness. In the Henry VII. chapel, however, a remarkable 
variation is found, for the entire vault is supported upon pendents, 
cut on huge stones that are part of a great cross arch, most of 
which is concealed. The entire exposed surface is covered with 
the richest possible traccried panelling, and the line of the cross 
arches heavily cut. The result forms one of the greatest tours de 
force of stone cutting in the world. 

Renaissance. The great contribution of the Renaissance 
period to vaulting was its development of the dome (q.v.) and 
especially of the dome on a drum, and with a lantern. This type 
of design usually necessitated a different curve for the exterior 
and the interior, and hence the use of domes with two or more 
shells. The most remarkable example of this type is the dome of 
S. Peter's at Rome, originally designed by Michelangelo, who 
completed the drum before his death in 1564, the dome itself 
being completed by G. dclla Porta and D. Fontana (1588-90). 
A remarkable modern instance is the triple dome of the Panthe'on 
in Paris (1764-90) by J. Soufilot, daring in the lightness of its 
masonry. The greater number of these domes require chains, built 
in around the base to withstand the thrust. 

Another purely Renaissance type of vault is the so-called cove 
ceiling with penetrations. This consists of a semi-elliptical vault 
with small cross vaults penetrating its sides, these cross vaults 
being designed to slope up, with a warped, conical surface, so 
that their intersections with the main vault, come to a point at 
the top and take perfect circular or elliptical curves at the sides. 
This was a favourite type in the Italian Renaissance, as it 
offered many interesting shapes and surfaces for painted and 
modelled decoration. Usually a moulding or painted band was 
carried horizontally along the sides of the vault at the level of the 
tops of the 1 penetrations. The groins were sometimes decorated 
with a similar band. One of the most beautiful of such vaults is 
that over the loggia of the Villa Farnesina, designed by B. Peruzzi 
(1509-11), and decorated by G. Romano and F. Penni from 
designs by Raphael (1516-18). 

In the Baroque period continuous barrel vaults were the general 
covering for important palace rooms, frequently built in plaster 
and non-structural. The decoration consisted in the main of maral 
paintings surrounded by scrolled and garlanded, curving, modelled 
frames, gilded, like the vault of the Galerie cTApollon, in the 
Louvre at Paris, designed by C. Le Brim, during the reign of Louis 
XIV., the ceiling painting by E. Delacroix (1849). 

Modern. The two new materials which have most influenced 
modern vault design are structural terra cotta tile and reinforced 
concrete. By the use of a thin terra cotta tile, vaults generally 
domical, have been produced over large halls, with exceedingly 
slight rise, and with the added advantage of light weight. Similar 
tiles are also extensively used for the filling or webs of modern 
versions of the Gothic ribbed vault, in which the ribs are either 
of cut stone or reinforced concrete. An interesting example of 



20 



VAULTING VAUX OF HARROWDEN 



a tile vault of this type, with nave and choir vaulted with low, 
pendentive domes, and crossing covered by a dome on a drum, 
is the chapel of Columbia university, New York. 

Concrete' without reinforcement is used in the Roman manner 
by J. F. Bentley in the domes of Westminster cathedral, London, 
(1895-1903). The introduction of steel reinforcement to take 
the tensile stresses gave an enormous new freedom to vault design 
as it allowed the construction of large vaults that would exercise 
little or no thrust, thus forming a homogeneous arched beam. 
This quality has been taken advantage of in much recent work, 
especially on the Continent, as in the rianctarium of the Dussel- 
dorf exposition (1926), by W. Kreis; the flat vault of the church 
of Notre Dame at Raincy (1924) by Ferret Freres; and most 
remarkable of all, the great dirigible hangar at Orly, near Paris, 
designed by E. Freyssinet (1916). (See ARCH; BYZANTINK AND 
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE; DOME; FAN VAULT; GOTHIC 
ARCHITECTURE ; MOHAM MEDAN ARCHITECTURE ; RENAISSANCE 
ARCHITECTURE; ROMAN ARCHITECTURE; ROOFS; SEXPARTITE 
VAULT.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonni de V architec- 
ture fran^aise, especially articles on "Construction" and "Voute" (1854- 
75) ; C. E. Isabella, Let Edifices circulates et les ddmes (1855) ; Viollct- 
le-Duc, Entretiens sur V architecture (1863-72) ; F. A. Choisy, L'Art de 
batir chez les Romans (1874) J G. Pcrrot and C. Chipicz, Histoire de 
I' architecture dans I'antiquite (1882-1025) ; F. A. Choisy, L'art de batir 
chez les Byzantines (1883) ; W. J. Anderson and R. P. Spiers, Archi- 
tecture of Greece and Rome (1902, new ed. vol. i., "Greece," rev. by 
W. B. Dinsmoor, vol. ii., "Rome," rev. by T. Ashby, 1027); C. H. 
Moore, Development and Character of Gothic Architecture (1904) ; 
F. Bond, Gothic Architecture in England (1905) ; H. Saladin, Manuel 
de I'art Muselman, vol. i. (1907) ; A. K. Porter ^Mediaeval Architecture 
(1912) ; T. G. Jackson, Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture 
(1913), Gothic Architecture (1915) ; C. Enlart, Manuel de I'archeologie 
francaise (1919-24) ; G. T. Rivoira, Roman Architecture, Eng. trans. 
(1925) ; G. A. Platz, Die Baukunst der Neuesten Zeit (1927). 

(T. F. H.) 

VAULTING: see POLE VAULTING. 

VAUQUELIN, LOUIS NICOLAS (1763-1829), French 
chemist, was born at Hcbcrtot in Normandy on May 16, 1763. He 
was laboratory boy to an apothecary in Rouen (1777-1779), and 
after various vicissitudes he obtained an introduction to A. F. 
Fourcroy, in whose laboratory he was an assistant from 1783- 
1791. At first his work appeared as that of his master and patron, 
then in their joint-names; but in 1790 he began to publish on 
his own authority, and between that year and 1833 his name is 
associated with 376 papers. Most of these were simple records 
of patient and laborious analytical operations, in the course of 
which he detected two new elements beryllium (1798) in beryl 
and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia. In organic 
chemistry he is known as the discoverer of quinic acid, asparagine, 
camphoric acid, and other naturally occurring compounds. He 
held various offices, and finally succeeded Fourcroy (1809) as 
professor of chemistry to the Medical Faculty in Paris. He died 
at his birthplace on Nov. 14, 1829. 

He published Manuel de V Essay eur t in 1812. 

VAUQUELIN DE LA FRESNAYE, JEAN (1536- 

1608), French poet, was born at the chateau of La Frcsnayc, near 

Falaise, in 1536. He studied the humanities at Paris and law at 
Poitiers and Bourges. He fought in the civil wars under Marshal 
Matignon and was wounded at the siege of Saint-L6 (1574). 
Most of his life was spent at Caen, where he was president, and 
he died there in 1608. La Fresnaye was a disciple of Ronsard, 
but? 'while praising the reforms of the Pltiade, he laid stress on 
the continuity of French literary history. He was a student of the 
trouveres and the old chroniclers, and desired to see French poetry 
set on a national basis. These views he expounded in an Art 
pottique, begun in 1574, but not published until 1605. 

His Forest-cries appeared in 155$; his Diverses poesies, including 
the Art poitique, the Sat y res fran$oises t addressed to various distin- 
guished contemporaries, and the Idyttes, with some epigrams and 
sonnets, appeared in 1605. Among his political writings may be noted 
Pour la monarchie du royaume contre la division (1569). 

The Art poetique was edited by G. Pellissier in 1885. It is summar- 
ized for English readers in vol. ii. of George Saintsb'ury'a History of 
Criticism. \ notice of the poet by J. Travers is prefixed to an edition 
of the Oeuvres diverses (Caen, 1872). 



VAUVEN ARGUES, LUC DE CLAPIERS, MARQUIS DE 
(1715-1747), French moralist and miscellaneous writer, was born 
at Aix in Provence on Aug. 6, 1715. His family was poor though 
noble; he was educated at the college of Aix, where he learned 
little neither Latin nor Greek but by means of a translation 
acquired a great admiration for Plutarch. He entered the army 
as sub-lieutenant in the king's regiment, and served for more than 
ten years, taking part in the Italian campaign of Marshal Villars 
in 1733, and in the disastrous expedition to Bohemia in support 
of Frederick the Great's designs on Silesia, in which the French 
were abandoned by their ally. Vauvcnargues took part in Marshal 
Belle-Isle's winter retreat from Prague. On this occasion his legs 
were frozen, and though he spent a long time in hospital at Nancy 
he never completely recovered. He was present at the battle of 
Dettingen, and on his return to France was garrisoned at Arras. 
His military career was now at an end. He had long been desired 
by the marquis of Mirabeau, author of L'Ami des homines, and 
father of the statesman, to turn to literature, but poverty pre- 
vented him from going to Paris as his friend wished. He wished 
to enter the diplomatic service, and made applications to the 
ministers and to the king himself. 

These efforts were unsuccessful, but Vauvenargues was on the 
point of securing his appointment through the intervention of 
Voltaire when an attack of smallpox completed the ruin of his 
health and rendered diplomatic employment out of the question. 
Voltaire then asked him to submit to him his ideas of the differ- 
ence between Racine and Corneille. The acquaintance thus begun 
ripened into real and lasting friendship. Vauvcnargues removed to 
Paris in 1745, and lived there in the closest retirement, seeing but 
few friends, of whom Marmontcl and Voltaire were the chief. 
Among his correspondents was the archaeologist Fauris de Saint- 
Vincens. Vauvenargues published in 1746 an Introduction a la 
connaissancc de I' esprit htimain, with certain Reflexions and Max- 
imes appended. He died in Paris on May 28, 1747. 

The bulk of Vauvenargues's work is small, but its interest great. 
His real strength is in a department which the French have 
always cultivated with greater success than any other modern 
people the expression in more or less epigrammatic language of 
the results of acute observation of human conduct and motives, 
for which he had found ample leisure in his campaigns. 

An edition of the Oeuvres of Vauvenargues, slightly enlarged, 
appeared in the year of his death. There were some subsequent editions, 
superseded by that of M. Gilbert (2 vols., 1857), which contains some 
correspondence, some Dialogues of the Dead, "characters" in imitation 
of Theophrastus and La Bruyere, and numerous short pieces of 
criticism and moralizing. The best comments on Vauvenargues, 
besides those contained in Gilbert's edition, are to be found in four 
essays by Saintc-Bcuve in Causeries du lundi, vols. iii. and xiv., and in 
Villemain's Tableau de la literature fran^aise au XVIlI n)C siecle. 

See also M. Pal6ologue, Vauvenargues (1890) ; Selections from 
. . . La Bruyere and Vauvenargues, with memoir and notes by Miss 
Elizabeth Lee (1903) ; E. Gosse, Three French Moralists (1918). 

VAUXHALL, a district on the south bank of the river 
Thames, in London, England, included in the metropolitan 
borough of Lambeth. The manor was held by Falkes de Breaute 
(whence the name, Falkes hall) in the time of John and Henry 

III. About 1 66 1 public gardens were laid out here, known as 
the New Spring garden, and later as Spring gardens, but more 
familiar under the title of Vauxhall gardens. They soon became 
the favourite fashionable resort of the metropolis; but as a place 
of general entertainment they underwent great development from 

1732 under the management of Jonathan Tyers (d. 1767) and 
his sons. In 1822, with the approval of George IV., who fre- 
quented the gardens before his accession, the epithet Royal was 
added to their title. By the middle of the iQth century, however, 
Vauxhall had lost its high reputation; in 1859 the gardens were 
finally closed, and the site was quickly built over. 

VAUX OF HARROWDEN, THOMAS VAUX, 2ND 
BARON (1510-1556), English poet, eldest son of Nicholas Vaux, 
ist Baron Vaux, was born in 1510. In 1527 he accompanied 
Cardinal Wolsey on his embassy to France; he attended Henry 
VIII. to Calais and Boulogne in 1532; in 1531 he took his seat 
in the House of Lords, and was made Knight of the Bath at the 
coronation of Anne Boleyn. He was captain of the Isle of Jersey 



VAVASSOR VECTOR ANALYSIS 



21 



until 1536. He married Elizabeth Cheney, and died in Oct. 1556. 
Sketches of Vaux and his wife by Holbein are at Windsor, and 
a finished portrait of Lady Vaux is at Hampton Court. Two 
of his poems were included in the Songes and Sonettes of Surrey 
(Toad's Miscellany, 1557). They are "The assault of Cupid 
upon the fort where the lover's hart lay wounded, and how he 
was taken/' and the "Dittye . . . representinge the Image of 
Deathe," which the gravcdigger in Shakespeare's Hamlet mis- 
quotes. Thirteen pieces in the Paradise of Dainty Devices (1576) 
are signed by him. These are reprinted in Dr. A. B. Grosart's 
Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies Library (vol. iv., 1872). 

VAVASSOR, in its most general sense a mediate vassal, i.e., 
one holding a fief under a vassal. The word was, however, applied 
at various times to the most diverse ranks in the feudal hierarchy, 
being used practically as the synonym of vassal. Thus tenants-in- 
chief of the Crown are described by the Emperor Conrad as 
valvassores ma j ores as distinguished from mediate tenants, val- 
vassores minores. Gradually the term without qualification was 
found convenient, for describing sub-vassals, tenants-in-chief being 
called capitanci or bar ones. Its implication, however, still varied 
in different places and times. Bracton ranks the magnates sen 
valvassores between barons and knights; for him they arc "men 
of great dignity," and in this order they are found in a charter 
of Henry II. (1166). But in the regestum of Philip Augustus we 
find that five vavassors are reckoned as the equivalent of one 
knight. Finally, Du Cange quotes two charters, one of 1187, 
another of 1349, in which vavassors are clearly distinguished from 
nobles. 

The derivation of the word vavassor is very obscure. Some 
would derive it from vassi ad valvas (at the folding-doors, valvae), 
i.e., servants of the royal antechamber. Du Cange, with more 
justice, regards it merely as an obscure variant of vassus. 

VAXJO, VEXIO or WEXIO, a town and bishop's see of 
Sweden, capital of the district (Ian) of Kronoberg, 1 24 m. north- 
east of Malmo by rail. Pop. (1928), 9,626. It is pleasantly sit- 
uated among low wooded hills at the north end of Lake Vaxjo, 
and near the south end of Lake Hclga. Its appearance is modern, 
for it was burnt in 1843. The cathedral of St. Siegfrid dates from 
about 1300, but has been restored, the last time in 1898. The 
Smaland Museum has antiquarian and numismatic collections. At 
Ostrabo, the episcopal residence without the town, the poet Esaias 
Tegner died in 1846, and he is buried in the town cemetery. 

VAZOFF, IVAN (1850-1921), Bulgarian poet and novelist, 
was born at Sopot. In common with the founders of Bulgarian 
literature, Rakovsky, Karaveloff and Botev (q.v.), he was first 
inspired by the sufferings of his countrymen before the liberation. 
His Trials of Bulgaria describes the nation's struggle for freedom. 
A bard of the people, Vazoff's style is simple and unaffected; his 
Epic Poem to the Forgotten, celebrating the gr^at deeds and 
sacrifices of the Bulgarian people, thrilled the nation, as also did 
Under the Thunder of Victory (1914), Songs of Macedonia (1916) 
and New Echo (1917). Vazoff's most inspired poems and novels 
of a descriptive character are those relating to the Bulgarian 
countryside and village life. He died at Sofia on Sept. 22, 1921. 
His chief novels are: Under the Yoke (Eng. trans. 1894); 
Svetoslai) Terter (1907), Hadji A hit and Kazalarskata Tsaritza; 
and his dramas include: Borislav (1910) and Towards the Abyss. 

VEBLEN, THORSTEIN B. (1857- ), American author 
and teacher, was born on July 30, 1857. He graduated at Carleton 
college in 1880, and studied at Johns Hopkins, Yale and Cornell 
universities. He was appointed reader in political economy at the 
University of Chicago in 1893, becoming successively instructor 
and assistant professor. He was associate professor of economics 
at Stanford university, 1906-09, lecturer in economics at the Uni- 
versity of Missouri in 1911-18, and lecturer in the New School for 
Social Research, New York city, beginning in 1918. For almost 
ten years he was managing editor of The Journal of Political 
Economy. He was distinguished by his contributions to the theory 
of economics, especially as modified by current business practices. 
Among his works are the Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) J The 
Theory of Business Enterprise (1904) ; The Instinct of Workman- 
ship (1914); Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution 




(1915) ; The Vested Interests and the State of the Industrial Arts 
(1919); The Engineers and the Price System (1921); Absentee 
Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times (1923). 

VECTOR ANALYSIS. The mathematician and physicist 
deal with quantities which they find it convenient to classify as 
either scalar or vector quantities. Familiar examples of scalar 
quantities are time, mass, volume, electric charge; and of vector 
quantities displacement, velocity, force, electric-field intensity. 
A scalar quantity is briefly termed a scalar and a vector quantity 
a vector, from the Latin "vehere," meaning "to carry." 
Vector analysis, of comparatively recent development, was 

antedated by Quaternions (q.v.) 
originated by Sir William Rowan 
Hamilton (q.v.) in 1843 and 
Ausdehnungslehre, by Hermann 
Gunthcr Grassmann in 1844. Of 
the various forms of vector anal- 
ysis which have been evolved 
several find their origin in these 
FIG. i subjects. The vector analysis in 

ordinary use to-day, and reviewed below, is due largely to the work 
of two mathematical physicists, Josiah Williard Gibbs (q.v.), 
1881-84, and Oliver Heaviside, 1891. In common with others 
working in the same field, they recognized the desideratum of 
developing a system of vector analysis the operational rules of 
which should conform as far as possible with the corresponding 
rules of scalar algebra. But, furthermore, each was profoundly 
interested in producing a system specially adapted to the needs 
of the mathematical physicist. 

In what follows, vectors in general, as is customary, will be 
denoted by letters in Clarendon type and their magnitudes by 
the same letters in ordinary type: A, B, C, a, b, c; A, B, C 
a, b, c . The notation used is that introduced by Gibbs. 
The simplest type of vector is a line from an initial point (.4) 
to a terminal point (B) adorned at its terminal point by an arrow- 
tip to indicate direction. Such a vector is called a line-vector or 

vector-step and is conveniently denoted by AB. Two vectors of 
the same kind are considered equal when they are of equal 
magnitude and have a common direction, their positions in space 
being otherwise immaterial. Any vector may be represented by 
a corresponding line-vector with the same direction and a length 
equal numerically to the magnitude of the vector. 

The Addition of Vectors. Two line-vectors are added in 
accordance with the "Parallelogram Law": Referring to fig. i, 

let OA and OB be two line-vectors drawn from a common origin 
O and let a parallelogram be constructed upon them as sides; 

then the line-vector, OS from the origin, to the opposite vertex 
5 is by definition the sum or resultant of the two line- vectors and 

is denoted by OA+OB or by OB+OA. Thus 



If the line-vectors OA, OB represent any two vectors a, b of 
like kind, then the sum (or resultant) of a and b is by definition 

equal in magnitude (numerically) to the line-vector OS and like- 
directed. Consequently, if s denote the sum of a and b, 

s=a+b=b+a. (i) 

The commutative law of addition for two vectors is here ex- 
pressed. 

If a larger number of vectors arc to be added, the sum of any 
two of them may be found as above and added to a third, and 
so on until the sum of all the vectors is found, the order in which 
the vectors are added being immaterial. 

With the parallelogram law of addition the physicist is parti- 
cularly pleased for as a matter of experience he knows that when 
the vectors with which he deals are added in accordance with 
this law, the sum (in most cases) has a definite physical meaning. 
For example: The effect upon the motion of a body due to the 



22 



VECTOR ANALYSIS 



action of two forces at some one of its points is the same as would 
be produced by their resultant or sum as given by the parallelo- 
gram law. 

Any vector with a negative sign prefixed represents a vector 
of the same magnitude as the original vector but oppositely 
directed. It follows that a b=a+( b) and hence that the pro- 
cess of subtraction of vectors may be reduced to one of addition. 

Multiplication of a vector by a number m simply increases the 
magnitude of the vector by the factor m with reversal of direction 
if m be negative. Furthermore, as is easily proved by elementary 
geometry, 

w(a+b+ ) = ma+wb+ . (2) 

This equation shows that the distributive law of multiplication 
is valid in the multiplication of a sum of vectors by a number. 

The Scalar Product of Two Vectors. The scalar product of 
two vectors a and b is denoted cquivalently by a b or b a. 
By definition, 

a -b=b a = a&cos(a,b), (3) 

where (a, b) denotes the angle between the directions of a and b. 
The definition itself makes valid the commutative law of multi- 
plication for the scalar product of two vectors. The distribution 
law is also valid; for example, 

(a+b) (c+d)=a - b-fa c+b - c+b d. (4) 

The scalar product of two vectors comes naturally into evi- 
dence whenever the cosine of the angle between two directions is 
a matter for discussion. 

The Vector Product of Two Vectors. The vector product 
of a vector a into a vector b is denoted by aXb. By definition : 

aXb = n<jftsin(a, b), (5) 

where n is a unit vector perpendicular to a and b and such that 

if a suffer a rotation about n 

toward b, the direction of n and 

that of the rotation would be 

related .as the thrust and twist 

of a right-handed screw. Ac- 

cordingly, 

(6) 



and the commutative law of mul- 
tiplication is not valid in the 
present cfase in virtue of the re- 
versal sign. The magnitude of 
aXb or bXa is-numerically equal 
to the area of a parallelogram 
constructed upon line-vectors rep- 
resenting a and b. (See fig. 2.) 



axb 



bxa 



FIG. 2 



Products involving more than three vectors may be formed 
but are rarely required. 

The 1, j, k-System of Unit Vectors. Even after the advent 

of vector analysis writers on physics (the world of vectors) not 

\ infrequently were accustomed (in effect) to evade the vector 

j treatment of vectors with the aid of the familiar Cartesian 

system of axes. That they were able to do so was due to the fact 

that three Cartesian scalar equations are equivalent to one vector 

equation. When used to supplement the vectorial treatment of 

vectors, and not to avoid it, Cartesian reference axes have a very 

useful place in vector analysis. 

Let i, j, k be three line- vectors each of unit length in the 
positive directions of the X, F, Z-axes of a rectangular Cartesian 
system. Then, in virtue of (3) and (5): 

i . i-j j-k -ki, i . j = j -k=k i ; (10) 



In the vector multiplication of sums of vectors the distributive 
law is valid, provided that in expansion the order of the vectors 
be maintained; for example, 

(a-fb)X(c+d)=aXc+aXd~t-bXc-rbxd. ( 7 ) 

The vector product of two vectors comes naturally into evi- 
dence whenever the sine of the angle between two vectors is 
under consideration. 

The Scalar Triple Product. An example is furnished by the 
scalar quantity denoted by a - bXc. Evidently, 

a bXc = a nksin'(b, c) = a6r cos(a, n, sin(b, c), (8) 
where n is a unit" vector in the direction of aXb. In this product 
cyclical interchange of the vectors may be made and dot and 
cross may be interchanged without a fleeting its value; any single 
non-cyclical interchange of the vectors simply changes the sign 
of the product. The magnitude of the product is numerically 
equal to the volume of a parallelepipedon constructed upon line- 
vectors representing a, b, c. 

The Vector Triple Product. An example is furnished by the 
vector quantity denoted by aXfbXc). The following reduction 
formula is important : 

) = (a-c)b-(a-b)c. (9) 



Two vectors, a and b, may be expressed in the forms 



(n) 

(12) 
d3) 

where 0-1 i, </ 2 j, ajk and hi, b 2 j, bjs. are the vector components of 
a andb parallel to the A', F, Z-axes and a\, a 2 , </a and 61, lh, b* are 
the scalar values of these components. Then 

In like manner the sum of any number of vectors may*be ex- 
pressed as a sum of i, j, k-components. 

In virtue of (10) and the distributive law for the scalar product 
of vectors, 

In particular, if b = a, 

a a a 2 = ai 2 -f- u^f + (/3 2 . ( 1 6) 

The vector product of a into b, in virtue of (i r) and the dis- 
tributive law for vector products, may be expressed as follows: 



(tf 2 ^3 03 



Vector Fields. A region of space with each point of which is 
associated a vector is called a vector field. Examples of such 
are the gravitational, electric and magnetic fields of the physicist. 
In the theory of such fields the behaviour of a vector in the 
neighbourhood of any point is a matter for investigation. The 
attention being fixed upon a particular point P(x, y, z), let the 
vector v associated with the point be expressed in the form: 

(18) 



where the scalar values of the vector components, ih, v, Vs, are 
now to be regarded as functions of the co-ordinates #, y, z. Let 
x+dx t y+dy, z+dz be the co-ordinates of any neighbouring 
point where dx, dy, dz represent infinitesimal increments of , y, z. 
Then, if dv represent the infinitesimal increment in the vector v 
corresponding to the increments of the co-ordinates, where dvi, 

Jv = i dvi + jdvz + kf/tyi, (19) 



(fi>2, </t?3 represent the infinitesimal increments in v\, % ^3 corres- 
ponding to the increments of the co-ordinates, and which may 
be expressed (sec CALCULUS) as follows: 



dv { dvi dvi 

di\~ dx + dy + dz, 
ox dy dz 

dv* oV> 2 . dv* 

r- dx + dy + -r- dz, 



dx 



dy 



dz 



(20) 



j3 dx + ~ dy + -- dz, 



VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY VEDDER 



where the symbol -^ denotes the rate at which the function v\ 
dx 

would increase with respect to x if x be varied while y and 2 are 
held constant; and the other coefficients of the co-ordinate incre- 
ments have an analogous significance. In all there are nine coeffi- 
cients of this sort and in terms of them the character of the vector 
field in the neighbourhood of P can be completely specified. 

The Divergence and the Curl of a Vector, Two quantities 
of fundamental importance in the theory of vector fields will now 
be defined in terms of these coefficients. 

One of these is a scalar called the divergence of v (div v) and 
defined by the equation 



div v = 



. 



i 

dz 



(21) 



, 
curlv 



, , 
(22) 



V 



dx dy 

The other is a vector called the curl of v (curl v) and defined 
by the equation: 

( d *_*!^ k 

L\ 1 / * ' \ 1 *\ / J ' \ 1 17 

\dy dz/ \dz dx/ \ox dy/ 

The values of both these quantities can be shown to be in- 
dependent of the particular set of i, j, k-axes used in their defini- 
tions. 

If v represents the velocity of a moving iluid and p represents its 
density at any given point then 
pv is its momentum per unity 
volume; div pv is a measure of 
the rate at which the fluid is leav- 
ing the neighbourhood of the 
point reckoned per unit volume; 
curl v is a measure of the vortical 
motion of the fluid. In fig. 3, for 
a case of two dimensional flow, 
is shown, diagrammatically by 
means of arrows representing the 
velocity vector, the flow of a F|C - 3 

fluid in the vicinity of four points P y F', (), Q'. At the points P 
and P' a finite divergence of the velocity is indicated (+ at P 
and at P') ; at Q and Q f a finite value of the curl of the velocity 
is indicated (clockwise at Q and counter-clockwise at Q'). 

If v denotes the magnetic field intensity at any point (the force 
which would act upon a positive unit magnetic pole if placed at 
the point) in a magnetic field due to a distribution of electric 
currents, then curl v is a measure of the electric current density 
(current per unit area) at the point. 

Scalar and Vector Potential Functions. If throughout a 
given region curlv = o or divv = o, then, as the case may be, 
v is said to have a lamellar or solenoidal distribution in the region. 

In the case of a lamellar distribution (curl v = o) it is possible 
to derive v from a scalar function V of the co-ordinates x, y, z 
in accordance with the equation 

__.dV ,dV dV 
dx dy dz 

and v is called the gradient of V, often abbreviated to grad V 
or VK. The gradient of V is a vector with a direction determined 
by that of the greatest space rate of increase of V and a mag- 
nitude equal to this rate of increase, 

The function V is called a scalar potential function. 

In the case of a solenoidal distribution (divv o) it is possible 
to derive v from a vector function G of the co-ordinates in ac- 
cordance with the equation : 

v = curlG. (24) 

The function G is called a vector potential function. 

Linear Vector Functions. Let two vectors p and q associ- 
ated with a point (x, y, z) be expressed in terms of their i, j, k- 
components as follows: 

(*S) 
(26) 



and suppose the two vectors, so related that: 




FIG. 4 



>*, (*7) 

where the a-coefficients are constants or, possibly, functions of 
the co-ordinates x, .v, s. Then q is called a linear vector function 
of p. The theory of such functions constitutes one of the most 

important branches of vector 
analysis. 

By way of example, the vector 
p may represent the position 
vector of any point P of .a ma- 
terial body with respect to an ar- 
bitrary point O fixed in the body. 
If we now suppose the body to 
undergo a strain, the point of the 
body originally at P will in 
general occupy a new position Q 
(see fig. 4) with position vector q relative to O. If the strain is 
of the type known as homogeneous then q will be a linear vector 
function of P. The scalar coefficients p\ y pz, p 3 and q\, q^ q$ of 
i, j, k in equations (25) and (26) respectively will then be the 
rectangular co-ordinates of P and Q respectively on an i, j, k- 
system of axes with origin at 0. The precise nature of the homo- 
geneous strain will be determined by the values of the nine 
0-coeffkients in equations (27). In a homogeneous strain the 
coefficients are constants; straight lines remain straight and 
parallel lines remain parallel. 

Among mathematical subjects having contacts with vector 
analysis, the more important are: The various geometries, deter- 
minants, multiple algebra and in particular, tensor theory the 
basis of the mathematical exposition of the general theory of 
relativity. The easiest approach to tensor theory is probably by 
way of vector analysis. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. For beginners: R. Cans, Einfuhrnng in die 
Vektoranalysis (Leipzig, 1905); J. G. Coffin, Vector Analysis (1909); 
L. Silberstein, Elements of Vector Algebra (1919) ; C. E. Weatherburn, 
Vector Analysis (Elementary) (1921). For advanced students: O. 
Heaviside, Electro-Magnetic Theory (1893) chap, iv.; J. W. Gibbs, 
Vector Analysis (New Haven, 1901) ; C. Rungc, Vector Analysis (based 
upon the viewpoint of H. G. Grassrnann) trans. H. Levy (1923) ; 
C. E. Weatherburn, Vector Analysis (Advanced) (1924) ; M. Lazily, 
Vektor Rechnung (1928). (A. P. Wi.) 

VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY: see INDIAN PHILOSOPHY 

VEDDAS or WEDDAS, a primitive people of Ceylon. 
During the Dutch occupation (1644-1796) they were found as 
far north as Jaffna, but are now confined to the south-eastern 
district. They are divided into Veddas, Village Veddas and Coast 
Veddas. They speak Sinhalese, greatly modified with a few words 
possibly of their original language. 

The true Veddas are short (average 60$ in.). They are dark- 
skinned and flat-nosed, with small skulls. The brow ridges are 
well marked. Their black hair is long, wavy, almost curly. They 
live chiefly by hunting; catch fish by poisoning the water, are 
skilled in getting wild honey; use bows with iron-pointed arrows 
and breed hunting dogs. They dwell in caves or bark huts. They 
count on their fingers, and make fire with the fire-drill twirled by 
hand. They are divided into matrilineal exogamic clans. They 
are monogamous. Their religion is essentially a cult of the dead. 

See C. G. and B. Z. Seligmann, The Veddas (1911). 

VEDDER, ELIHU (1836-1923), American painter, was 
born in New York city, Feb. 26, 1836. He studied under the genre 
and historical painter Tompkins H. Matteson (1813-84), at 
Sherburne, N.Y., later under Picot, in Paris, and then, in 1857-61, 
in Italy. After 1867 he lived in Rome, making occasional visits 
to America. He was elected to full membership in the National 
Academy of Design, New York, in 1865. He devoted himself to 
the painting of genre pictures, which, however, attracted only 
modest attention until the publication, in 1884, of his illustrations 
to the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam ; these immediately gave him 
a distinguished place in the art world. Important decorative work 



VEERE VEGA CARPIO 



came at a later date, more particularly the painting symbolizing 
the art of the city of Rome, in the Walker Art Gallery of 
Bowdoin College, Maine, and the five lunettes (in the entrance 
hall) symbolical of government, and the mosaic "Minerva" in 
the Congressional Library at Washington. He died in Rome, 
Jan. 29, 1923. A few days before his death, his book, Doubt and 
Other Things, was published. 

VEERE. a town in the province of Zeeland, Holland, on the 
island of Walcheren 4 m. N.N.E. of Middelburg, with which it 
is connected by canal (1867-72). Pop. (1927) 9,089. It con- 
tains several interesting architectural remains of the days of its 
former prosperity, when it was an important commercial centre. 

VEERY (Hylotichla fuscescetis) , also called Wilson's thrush, 
a well-known bird of the thrush family (Turdidae) inhabiting 
eastern North America, where it breeds from New Jersey and 
Illinois north to Newfoundland and Manitoba; a subspecies, the 
willow thrush (H. f. salicicola), inhabits the Rocky mountains as 
far north as British Columbia, extending east to the Dakotas and 
Newfoundland. Both forms winter in Central America, the willow 
thrush, however, also going as far south as southern Brazil. About 
7i in. long, the vecry is a uniform cinnamon brown above, white 
below, with greyish sides and a buff throat and breast faintly 
spotted with cinnamon brown. It has a fine song rich in overtones. 
The veery lives mainly in woods and feeds largely on insects. 

VEGA, GARCILASO DE LA (1503-1536), Spanish sol- 
dier and poet, was bom at Toledo. At the age of 17 he was 
attached to the bodyguard of Charles V., fought against the insur- 
gent communcros, and afterwards gained great distinction by his 
bravery at the battle of Pavia (1525). In 1526 he married a lady- 
in-waiting to Queen Eleanor. He took part in the repulse of the 
Turks from Vienna in 1529, was present at the coronation of the 
emperor at Bologna in 1530, and was charged with a secret 
mission to Paris in the autumn of the same year. In 1531 he 
accompanied the duke of Alva to Vienna, where, for conniving at 
the clandestine marriage of his nephew to a maid-of-honour, he 
was imprisoned on an island in the Danube. During this captivity 
he composed the fine cancion, "Con un manso ruido de agua cor- 
riente y clara." Released and restored to favour in June 1532, 
he went to Naples on the staff of Don Pedro de Toledo, the newly 
appointed viceroy, by whom he was twice sent on public business 
of importance to Barcelona, in 1533 and 1534. After having 
accompanied the emperor on the expedition to Tunis (1535), he 
took part with him in the invasion of Provence and was mortally 
wounded while storming a fort at Muy, near Frejus. His poems, 
which arc among the finest in their language, include three pas- 
torals, which rank among the finest in the Spanish language, 37 
sonnets, five canciones, two elegies, and a blank verse epistle, all 
influenced by Italian models. An English translation was pub- 
lished by J. H. Wiffen in 1823. Garcilaso's delicate charm has 
survived ail changes of taste, and by universal consent he ranks 
among the most accomplished and artistic of Spanish poets. 

See H. Keniston, Garcilaso de la Vega (1922-25). 

VEGA, GARCILASO DE LA, called "Inca" (c. 1535- 
1616), historian of Peru, was born at Cuzco. His father, Sebas- 
tiano Garcilaso (d. 1559), was a cadet of the illustrious family of 
La Vega, who had gone to Peru in the suite of Pedro de Alvarado, 
and his mother was of the Peruvian blood-royal, a circumstance 
of which he was very proud as giving him a right to the title 
which he claimed by invariably subscribing himself "Inca." About 
1560 he removed to Spain, but failed to win the preferment for 
which he hoped. After long service in the army, he turned to 
literature, solacing himself in his rather meagre circumstances by 
depicting the riches of the new world. He died in Spain in 1616. 
He published in 1590 a translation of Dialoghi di Amore of L6on 
Hebro, but his fame depends upon La Florida del Ynca (1605) 
and his history of Peru (Pt. i, Commentaries Reales que tratandel 
origen dc los Yncas, Lisbon, 1608 or 1609; Pt. 2, Cordova, 1617). 
This latter work has been translated into English, French, German 
and Italian and has been utilized by Robertson, Prescott, Mar- 
montel and Sheridan. The former work, a history of the De Soto 
expedition, was long regarded primarily as fiction. In spite of its 
exaggerations as to the numbers and wealth of the Indians, recent 



investigations have shown it to possess more ethnological value 
than had been hitherto supposed. Garcilaso de la Vega wrote be- 
fore history was regarded as a science; by temperament and cir- 
cumstances he was inclined to the romantic; nevertheless his 
work possesses permanent intrinsic interest and he will be remem- 
bered as the first South American in Spanish literature. 

See the monograph by Julia Fitzmaurice-Kelly (1921) in the His- 
panic series, and the Lima edition of the Peruvian history (1918-21) 
prepared by H. H. Urteaga with an introduction by Don Jose" de la 
Riva Agiiero. 

VEGA, the bright star in the constellation Lyra (q.v.), hence 
its Bayer equivalent, c*Lyrae; its magnitude is 0-14, and it is the 
fourth brightest star in the sky and the brightest in the northern 
hemisphere. 

VEGA CARPIO, LOPE FELIX DE (1562-1635), Span- 
ish dramatist and poet, was borri in Madrid. His father and 
mother, Felices dc Vega and Francisca Hernandez Flores, origi- 
nally came from the valley of Carriedo in Asturias. Lope began 
his studies at the Theatine college in Madrid, and afterwards 
entered the service of Don Jcronimo Manrique, bishop of Avila, 
who sent him to the University of Alcala de Hcnares, perhaps 
from 1577-81. He took part in the expedition to the Azores in 
1582, and from 1583-87 was secretary to the marque's de las 
Navas. In Feb. 1588 he was banished for circulating criminal 
libels against his mistress, Elena Osorio, whom he has celebrated 
under the name of Filis. He defied the law by returning to Madrid 
soon afterwards and eloping with Isabel de Urbina, sister of J^hilip 
II. 's herald; he married her by proxy on May 10, 1588, and 
joined the Invincible Armada, losing his brother in one of the 
encounters in the Channel. He settled for a short while at Valen- 
cia, where he made acquaintance with a circle of young poets 
who were afterwards to be his ardent supporters in founding the 
new comedy. He joined the household of the duke of Alva, with 
whom he remained till 1595. Soon afterwards he lost his wife. He 
was prosecuted for criminal conversation in 1596, became secre- 
tary to the marquis de Malpica (afterwards count of Lemos), and 
in 1598 married a second wife, Juana de Guardo, by whom he had 
two children (Carlos, who died in 1612, and Feliciana Felix); but 
she died, shortly after giving birth to the latter, in 1613. Lope 
then sought a refuge in the church. After having been affiliated to 
a tertiary order, he took priest's orders. 

At this juncture, about 1614, he was in the very zenith of his 
glory. A veritable dictator in the Spanish world of letters, he 
wielded over all the authors of his nation a power similar to that 
which was afterwards exercised in France by Voltaire. At this 
distance of time Lope is to us simply a great dramatic poet, the 
founder of the Spanish theatre; but to his contemporaries he 
was much more. His epics, his pastorals, his odes, his sonnets, 
now forgotten, all placed him in the front rank of authorship. 
Such was his prestige that he dealt with his noble patrons almost 
on a footing of equality. The duke of Sessa in particular, his 
Maecenas from 1605 onwards, was also his personal friend, and 
the tone of Lope's letters to him is one of frank familiarity, modi- 
fied only by some forms of deference. Lope's fame, too, had trav- 
elled abroad; foreigners of distinction passing through Madrid 
made a point of visiting him ; papal legates brought him the com- 
pliments of their master; in 1627 Urban VIII., a Barberini, sent 
him the diploma of doctor of theology in the Collegium Sapientiae 
and the cross of the order of St. John of Jerusalem (whence the 
poet's titles of "Doctor" and "Frey"). His last days were full of 
sadness; the death of his son Lope, the elopement of his daughter, 
Antonia Clara, wounded him to the soul. Montalban tells us that 
every Friday the poet scourged himself, so severely that the walls 
of his room were sprinkled with his blood. His death, on Aug. 
27, 1635, was followed by national mourning. 

For a rapid survey of the works of Lope, it is convenient to 
begin with those which the Spaniards include under the name of 
Obras Sueltas, the title of the large collection of the poet's non- 
dramatic works (1776-79). We shall enumerate the most impor- 
tant of these, as far as possible in the order of publication. The 
Arcadia (1598), a pastoral romance, inspired by Sannazaro, is 
one of the poet's most wearisome productions. La Dragontea 



VEGA CARPIO 



(1598), is a fantastic history in verse of Sir Francis Drake's last 
expedition and death. Isidro (1599), a narrative of the life of 
Isidore, patron of Madrid, is called a Castilian poem on account 
3f the rhythm in which it is composed quintillas of octosyllabic 
verse. The Hermosura de Angelica (1602), in three books, is a 
sort of continuation of the Orlando Furioso, in octaves after the 
fashion of the original poem. Finally, the Rimas are a miscellany 
of short pieces. In 1604 was published the Peregrino en su Patria, 
a romance similar in kind to the Aethiopica of Heliodorus. Hav- 
ing imitated Ariosto, he proceeded to imitate Tasso; but his 
Jerusalen Conquistada (1609) has preserved nothing of the art 
shown in its model and is an insipid performance. Next follows 
the Pastores de Belen (1612) a pious pastoral, dedicated to his 
son Carlos, which forms a pendant to his secular Arcadia; and 
incidental pieces published in connection with the solemnities of 
the beatification and canonization of St. Isidore in 1620 and 1622. 
It is enough to mention La Filomena (1621), La Circe (1624) 
and other poems published about the same date, as also the four 
prose novels, Las For tunas de Diana, El Desdichado por la Honra, 
La Mas Prudent e Venganza and Guzman el Bravo. The great 
success of the Novelas exemplar es (1613) of Cervantes had stimu- 
lated Lope, but his novels have none of the grace, naturalness, or 
interest which characterize those of his rival. The last important 
work which has to be mentioned before we leave the narrative 
poetry of Lope is the Laurel de Apolo (1630). This piece describes 
the coronation of the poets of Spain on Helicon by Apollo, and 
it is more meritorious as a bibliographical manual of Spanish 
poetry at that time than as genuine poetry. One other obra suelta, 
closely akin to Lope's dramatic works, though not, properly speak- 
ing, a drama, is La Dorotea (1632). Lope describes it as an 
"action in prose," but it is rather a "romance in dialogue"; for, 
although divided into acts, the narrative is dramatic in form only. 
Of all Lope's productions Dorotea shows most observation and 
study; the style also is unusually simple and easy. Of all this 
mass of obras sueltas f filling more than 20 volumes, very little 
(leaving Dorotea out of account) holds its own in the judgment 
of posterity. The lyrical element alone retains some vitality. 
From the Rimas and other collections of detached pieces one 
could compile a pleasing anthology of sonnets, epistles, elegies 
and romances, to which it would be proper to add the Gatomaquia, 
a burlesque poem published along with other metrical pieces in 
1634 by Lope under the pseudonym of Tom6 de Burguillos. 

It is, however, to his dramatic writings that Lope owes his 
eminent place in literary history. It is very curious to notice how 
he himself always treats the art of comedy-writing as one of the 
humblest of trades (dc pane lucrando), and protests against the 
supposition that in writing for the stage his aim is glory and not 
money. The reason is not far to seek. The Spanish drama, which, 
if not literally the creation of Lope, at least owes to him its defini- 
tive form the three-act comedy was totally regardless of the 
precepts of the school, the pseudo-Aristotelianism of the doctors 
of the period. Lope accordingly, who stood in awe of the criticism 
of the cientlficos, felt bound to prove that, from the point of 
view of literary art, he attached no value to the "rustic fruits 
of his humble vega" In his Artc Nuevo de hacer comedias en este 
tiempo (1609), Lope begins by showing that he knows as well as 
any one the established rules of poetry, and then excuses himself 
for his inability to follow them on the ground that the "vulgar" 
Spaniard cares nothing about them. "Let us then speak to him in 
the language of fools, since it is he who pays us." Another reason 
which made it necessary for him to speak deprecatingly of his 
dramatic works is the circumstance that the vast majority of 
them were written in haste and to order. The poet does not 
hestitate to confess that "more than a hundred of my comedies 
have taken only 24 hours to pass from my brain to the boards 
of the theatre." Nevertheless, Lope did write dramas in which the 
plan is more fully matured and the execution more carefully 
carried out; still, hurried composition and reckless production are 
after all among the distinctive marks of his theatrical works. 
Towards the close of his career Lope somewhat modified the 
severe and disdainful judgments he had formerly passed upon his 
dramatic performances ; he seems to have had a presentiment that 



posterity, in spite of the grave defects of his work in that depart- 
ment, would nevertheless place it much higher than La Dragontea 
and Jerusalen Conquistada, and other works of which he himself 
thought so much. We may certainly credit Lope with creative 
power, with the instinct which enabled him to reproduce the 
facts of history or those supplied by the imagination in a multi- 
tude of dramatic situations with an astonishing cleverness and 
flexibility of expression; but unfortunately, instead of concen- 
trating his talent upon the production of a limited number of 
works which he might have brought to perfection, he dissipated it, 
so to say, and scattered it to the winds. 

The classification of the enormous mass of Lope's plays (about 
470 comedias and 50 autos are known to us) is a task of great 
difficulty, inasmuch as the terms usually employed, such as 
comedy, tragedy, and the like, do not apply here. There is not 
cxplicitncss enough in the division current in Spain, which recog- 
nizes three categories: (i) comedias de capa y espada f the sub- 
jects of which are drawn from everyday life and in which the 
persons appear as simple caballeros; (2) comedias de ruido or 
de teatro, in which kings and princes arc the leading characters 
and the action is accompanied with a greater display of dramatic 
machinery; (3) comedias dimnas or de santos. Some other ar- 
rangement must be attempted. In the first place, Lope's work 
belongs essentially to the drama of intrigue; be the subject what 
it may, it is always the plot that determines everything else. Lope 
in the whole range of his dramatic works has no piece comparable 
to La Verdad Sospechosa of Ruiz de Alarcon, the most finished 
example in Spanish literature of the comedy of character; and 
the comedy of manners is represented only by El Galan Castrucho, 
El Anzuelo de Fcnisa and one or two others. It is from history, 
and particularly Spanish history, that Lope has borrowed more 
than from any other source. But it is to the class of capa y espada 
also called novelcsco, because the subjects are almost always 
love intrigues complicated with affairs of honour that Lope's 
most celebrated plays belong. In these he has most fully dis- 
played his powers of 'imagination (the subjects being all invented) 
and his skill in elaborating a plot. Among the plays of this class 
which are those best known in Europe, and most frequently imi- 
tated and translated, may be specially mentioned Los Ramilletes 
de Madrid, La Doba para los Otros y Discreta para si, El Perro del 
Hortclano, La Viuda de Valencia and El Maestro de Danzar. In 
some of them Lope has sought to set forth some moral maxim, 
and illustrate its abuse by a living example, as in Las Flores de 
Don Juan. Such pieces are, however, rare in Lope's repertory; in 
common with all other writers of his order in Spain, with the 
occasional exception of Ruiz de Alarcon, his sole aim is to amuse 
and stir his public; not troubling himself about its instruction. 
The strong point of such writers Is and always will be their 
management of the plot. 

To sum up, Lope found a poorly organized drama, plays being 
composed sometimes in four acts, sometimes in three; and, though 
they were written in verse, the structure of the versification was 
left far too much to the caprice of the individual writer.. The 
style of drama then in vogue he adopted, because the Spanish 
public liked it. The narrow framework it afforded he enlarged to 
an extraordinary degree, introducing everything that could pos- 
sibly furnish material for dramatic situations the Bible, ancient 
mythology, the lives of the saints, ancient history, Spanish history, 
the legends of the middle ages, the writings of the Italian novel- 
ists, current events, Spanish life in the 1 7th century. Bef ofe him 
manners and the conditions of persons and characters had been 
barely sketched; with fuller observation and more careful descrip- 
tion he created real types, and gave to each social order the lan- 
guage and drapery appropriate to it. The old comedy was awk- 
ward and poor in its versification; he introduced order into the 
use of all the forms of national poetry, from the old romance 
couplets to the rarest lyrical combinations borrowed from Italy. 
Hence he was justified in saying that those who should come 
after him had only to go on along the path which he had traced. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Obras, ed. R. Acadcmia Esp. (1890-1913) ; Obras, 
ed. E. Cotarelo y Mori (1916-20). See H. A. Rennert, The Life of 
Lope de Vega (Glasgow, 1904) ; revised Spanish, cd. by H. A. Rennert 
and A. Castro (1919) ; M. Mcn^ndez y Pclayo, Historia de las Ideas 



26 



VEGETABLE 



EsUticas en Espana; A. Morel Fatio, La Comedie espagnole du 


Commercial Production of Principal Vegetables, 10.27 Continued 


XVll> siecle (188$). (X.; J. F.-K.) 


Showing acreage, yield, value and rank of leading States on basis of value 


VEGETABLE, a -word used as a general term for plants 












%of 


(<7.i>.), and specifically, in popular language, for such plants as can 
be eaten by man or animals, whether cooked or raw, and whether 


Vegetable and State 


Acre- 
age 


Produc- 
tion 


Unit 


Value 


total 
U.S. 


the whole of such plants are edible, or only the leaves or the roots 












value 


or tubers. Among such edible or culinary plants or portions of 










$ 




plants, a further distinction is made popularly between "fruits" 


Cucumbers 












and "vegetables," for which see FRUIT. 


(pickling) 


58,000 


2,663,000 


Bushels 


2,529,850 


100-0 


For the botany of vegetables see under the specific names, e.g., 


Michigan . 


20,360 


611,000 





549,900 


21-7 


POTATO, TURNIP, etc., and also HORTICULTURE, generally. 
Vegetable Culture in the United States. Vegetables are 


Wisconsin . 
California . 
Indiana 


8,500 

2,120 
7,470 


340,000 
337,000 
284,000 


)> 


,, 


367,200 
326,890 
264,120 


i4'5 
12-9 
10-4 


grown in greater or less variety in every State. The chief sources 


Eggplant 


2,870 


746,000 


ft 


693,480 


100-0 


of production are home gardens, truck farms and greenhouses in 


New Jersey 


I,OOO 


330,000 




264,000 


38-0 


the vicinity of large cities, farms devoted to raising vegetables for 


Florida 
1 


630 


202,000 


D 


254,520 


36-7 


canning and other manufacture, and also farms in the Southern 
States and in California for the production of winter and early 


-ouisiana 
Lettuce 
California 


800 

123,310 

76,410 


139,000 
17,562,000 
9,627,000 


Crates 
,, 


139,000 
27,537,120 
15,380,270 


2O'O 
100-0 

56*2 


spring vegetables for northern and eastern markets. 


Arizona 


14,800 


3,036,000 




4,098,600 


14-9 


The accompanying table, prepared from reports in the U.S. 


Colorado . 


13,240 


1,536,000 





2,503,680 


9'I 


Yearbook of Agriculture, gives statistics regarding the more im- 
portant vegetables grown for the market. In addition, artichokes, 
beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, radishes, rhubarb, squashes, tur- 


New York. 
Muskmclons. 
California . 
Arizona 


6,480 
120,280 
47,560 
10,000 


i, 147,000 
15,272,000 
7,557,000 
i ,900,000 


> 
,, 

)) 


1,697,450 
22,908,000 
11,728,000 
2,774,000 


6-2 
100-0 

51-1 

I2-I 


nips and other minor vegetables are grown commercially, but 


Maryland 


7,100 


888,000 


,, 


1,953,600 


8-5 


mostly to a much smaller extent in the country as a whole, though 


Colorado . 


12,100 


1,815,000 


,, 


1,905,750 


8-3 


some are locally of considerable importance. 


Onions . 


75,610 


22,492,000 


Bushels 


18,020,140 


100-0 




Texas 


II 220 


2,199,000 


,, 


3,716,310 


20-6 


Commercial Production of Principal Vegetables, 1927 


California 
New York 


8,730 
8,460 


3,016,000 
3,046,000 




3 ,300,0.^0 
1,797,14 


1 8-3 
9*9 


Showing acreage, yield, value and rank of leading States on basis of value 


Indiana 


8,100 


2,738,000 


,, 


1,615,420 


8-9 




Ohio 


7 OOO 


2 , 3 $ 2 ,OOO 




1,41 1,200 


7'8 












% of 


Peas, green (fresh) 


/, v - /vxw 

55, I2 


4,969,000 


,, 
Hampers 


9,838,620 


100-0 


Vegetable and State 


Acre- 
age 


Produc- 
tion 


Unit 


Value 


total 
U. S. 


California 
Now York. 


26,810 

6,940 


2,497,000 
923,000 


>, 


4,221,360 
1,716,780 


42-9 
17-4 












value 


Colorado . 


3,7o 


286,000 




812,240 


8-3 














New Jersey 


4,000 


360,000 





766,800 


7-8 






















$ 




Peas, green 












Asparagus (fresh) 


41,600 


3,441,000 


Crates 


10,013,310 


100-0 


(canning) 


218,880 


215,000 


Tons 


12,472,150 


IOO-O 


California 


10,080 


1,341,000 


j. 


3,888,900 


38-8 


Wisconsin 


106,120 


116,700 


,, 


6,689,000 


53-5 


New Jersey 


10,500 


888,000 





1,469,600 


14-7 


New York 


34,99 


31,500 


,, 


1,861,000 


14-8 


So. Carolina . 


6,400 


320,000 


j, 


1,283,200 


12-9 


Utah . 


9,510 


12,400 


,, 


667,616 


6'3 


Illinois . 


3,3 6 o 


286,000 


,, 


429,000 


4*3 


Michigan . 


14,430 


11,500 


, 


575,ooo 


4'6 


Asparagus 












Peppers, green* . 


1 5,330 


3,890,000 


Bushels 


4,940,300 


100-0 


(canning) 


48,500 


53,200 


Tons 


3,738,896 


IOO-O 


Florida 


3,370 


1,348,000 


,, 


2,965,600 


60-0 


California 


48,300 


53,ioo 


, 


3,716,396 


99-4 


New Jersey 


7,5oo 


1,950,000 


,, 


1,228,500 


24-9 


New York 


200 


100 




22,500 


0-6 


Louisiana . 


2,860 


289,000 


,, 


398,820 


8-r 


Beans, snap 












North Carolina 


630 


1 24,000 


, 


93,000 


1-9 


(fresh) . 


82,900 


6,417,000 


Hampers 


II,2O7,2Po 


100-0 


Potatoes f (early) 


235,i6o 


29,031,000 


, 


44,998,050 


JOO-O 


Florida . . 


19,400 


1,364,000 


,, 


3,682,800 


3 1 '4 


Virginia . 


78,700 


14,087,000 


> 


18,538,320 


41-2 


New Jersey 


11,300 


1,469,000 


it 


2,t3O,O5O 


18-0 


North Carolina 


35>ooo 


4,200,000 


y 


8,022,000 


17-8 


Louisiana . 


I 3>49 


728,000 


j, 


J,069,760 


9-1 


Florida 


28,000 


2,940,000 


i 


5,615,000 


I2'5 


California 


3,120 


484,000 


,, 


997,040 


8-4 


South Carolina 


17,780 


2,045,000 


, 


3,926,400 


8-7 


Beans, snap 












Spinach (fresh) 


38,690 


13,523,000 


> 


6,896,730 


lOO'O 


(canning) 


29,320 


45,300 


Tons 


2,838,951 


lOO'O 


Texas 


10,450 


6,457,000 




3,228,500 


46-9 


New York 


5,53<> 


7,700 


, 


644,5 6 7 


22-7 


Virginia . 


8,130 


2,715,000 


> 


1,056,000 


J 5'3 


Wisconsin 


4,200 


5,100 


,, 


382,500 


J 3'5 


California 


1,900 


1,520,000 


, 


456,000 


6-6 


Mississippi 


1,780 


3,30o 


j, 


169,389 


6-0 


Maryland 


2,130 


1,108,000 




387,800 


5-6 


Maryland 


3,300 


3,000 


,, 


164,760 


5'8 


Spinach (canning) 


11,720 


56,000 


Tons 


894,350 


TOO'O 


Cabbage 


138,370 


1,162,000 





I8,6O3,OOO 


100-0 


California 


10,300 


51,500 


,, 


746,750 


83-5 


New York 


3598o 


447,500 


, 


3,207,973 


17-2 


Maryland 


1,420 


4,50 





147,600 


16-5 


Louisiana . 


13,040 


66,900 





,455.075 


7-8 


Sweet corn* . 


3*7,3*0 


816,000 





10,795,680 


lOO'O 


Texas . . 


18,530 


122,300 


>! 


,193,648 


6-4 


(canning) 












Wisconsin 


13,500 


114,800 


> 


,020,904 


5'5 


Illinois 


58,280 


145,700 


, 


2,073,311 


IQ-2 


Carrots . 


26,090 


8,002,000 


Bushels 


4,48l,I20 


100-0 


Iowa . 


50,480 


151,400 





1,357,544 


12-6 


Louisiana . 


1 1, 600 


2,448,000 


,, 


,248,480 


28'0 


New York 


27,420 


60,300 


,, 


1,133,640 


10-5 


California . 


3,050 


1,525,000 





1,098,000 


24-5 


Maryland 


33,850 


74,500 


,, 


1,048,960 


Q-7 


New York 


2,860 


1,778,000 


> 


822,480 


18-3 


Sweet potatoes . 


931,000 


93,928,000 


Bushels 


77,490,600 


100-0 


Texas 


4,340 


998,000 


, 


429,140 


9-6 


Texas 


133,000 


11,970,000 





^,977)500 


II-6 


Cauliflower . 


J 7,340 


4,299,000 


Crates 


5,545,000 


IOO-O 


North Carolina 


89,000 


10,146,000 


,, 


8,116,800 


10-5 


California 


8,950 


2,452,000 


i, 


2,452,000 


44-2 


Georgia 


132,000 


10,560,000 


,, 


7,920,000 


I0'2 


New York 


5,o<>o 


1,270,000 


,, 


2,324,100 


41-9 


Louisiana . 


99,000 


9,702,000 





6,791,000 


8-8 


Oregon 


2,100 


420,000 


,, 


495,000 


9-0 


Alabama . 


75,000 


7,350,ooo 


>, 


6,247,000 


7'9 


Celery . 


25,3-0 


7,407,000 


,, 


11,354,000 


ioo-o 


Mississippi 


69,000 


7,728,000 


,, 


6,182,400 


8-0 


Florida 


4,240 


1 ,908,000 


,t 


3,968,640 


35*o 


Tomatoes (fresh) . 


141,250 


18,305,000 


,, 


28,189,700 


100-0 


California 


8,850 


1,991,000 


>, 


2,566,590 


26-6 


Florida . 


29,800 


3,606,000 


>> 


7,284,120 


25-8 


New York 


5,090 


1,654,000 


,, 


1,984,800 


17-5 


Mississippi 


I5.36o 


2,765,000 





5,557,000 


19-7 


Michigan . 


3,700 


846,000 


i, 


1,167,480 


10-3 


New Jersey 


11,400 


2,508,000 





2,758,000 


9'4 


Cucumbers (fresh) 


42,400 


6,040,000 


Hampers 


7,308,000 


100*0 


California 


22,700 


1,692,000 


,, 


2,107,960 


7'5 


Florida 


7,440 


1,004,000 


i> 


1,927,680 


26-4 


Maryland 


7,050 


1,107,000 


> 


885,600 


3'i 


South Carolina 


4,300 


634,000 


,, 


871,200 


II9 




North Carolina 


4,340 


764,000 




687,000 


9'4 


*Statistics for 1926. 


New York 


3,050 


585,000 


> 


573,300 


7'8 


tThe total crop of potatoes for 1927 was grown on 3,505.000 ac., 
yielding 402,149,000 bu., valued at $389,603,606. 



VEGETABLE COOKERY VEGETARIANISM 



Commercial Production of Principal Vegetables, ip2/ Continued 
Showing acreage, yield, value and rank of leading States on basis of value 


Vegetable and State 


Acre- 
age 


Produc- 
tion 


Unit 


Value 


%of 
total 
U.S. 
value 


Tomatoes 
(canning, etc.) 
California 
New Jersey 
Maryland 
Indiana 
Watermelons 
( Georgia 
Florida 
Texas 
California 


246,030 
28,760 
28,000 
34,000 
42,990 
181,910 
54,060 
29,420 
29,660 
9,780 


1,109,000 
1 78,000 
145,600 
151,400 
163,400 

S7 22 o 
i7,5/o 
8,826 
8,156 
.. 5> 2 4i 


Tons 

> 

Carsf 

> 


$ 

15,881,880 
2,674,500 
2,620,800 
2,161,992 
2,134,004 
10,647,920 
2,828,770 
2,524,236 
i,345,74o 
660,156 


loo-o 
16-8 
16-5 
i3'6 

XV4 
j 00*0 
26-6 
23'7 

12-6 

6-2 



JCars of 1,000 melons. 

VEGETABLE COOKERY. The term "vegetables" other 
than pulses and cereals (qq.v.) covers those plants which have 
edible flowers, fruit or seed, stalks, roots or leaves. Green vege- 
tables arc valuable in the diet chiefly on account of their potas- 
sium salts and vitamines, cellulose, which supplies the body with 
bulk or "roughage," thus assisting digestion; and for their water 
content (average 90-95%). Roots and tubers are heat- and 
energy-giving foods. The cellulose of vegetables is valuable as 
roughage in the intestinal tract. 

Green Vegetables. There are three distinct methods of cook- 
ing green vegetables. Steaming is one. In the second, only enough 
water is used to prevent the vegetables from sticking to the pan 
and getting burnt, and the aim is to conserve the natural salts and 
flavours of the vegetables. The third and more common method 
of cooking ordinary "greens" is to boil the vegetable in a pan of 
fast-boiling salted water with the lid off. Soda is frequently added 
to soften the water and preserve the colour but it destroys the 
vitamines and is not recommended. 

All these methods can be used for most green vegetables with 
the exception of sorrel and spinach, which have a very high water 
content and require very little water in cooking. 

To cook cabbage first wash well in salt and water to get rid 
of any insects, trim off outside discoloured leaves and put into 
a kettle full of boiling water, with at least i teaspoon salt to 
each qt. To lessen odor of cooking, do not cover. Whole young 
cabbage, 25-30 min., old, 30 min.-i hr. Quartered, 10-15 min. 
Leaves, 5-10 min. Drain, add i tablespoon butter for each Ib. 

Cabbage may be stuffed with forcemeat (see FORCEMEATS) or 
savoury rice (cooked rice and grated cheese, chopped onion and 
seasoning) by separating the leaves from a parboiled cabbage 
and rolling each leaf round the forcemeat, or the stuffing may be 
placed in the centre of the cabbage. If the cabbage is rolled stew 
in a thickened gravy. 

Brussels sprouts may be dipped in batter and fried. Single leaf 
vegetables, e.g., spinach, beet-tops, etc., may be cooked until 
tender, drained and passed through a sieve, then mixed with but- 
ter, cream, seasoning, and formed into a pur6e which can be 
garnished with hard-boiled eggs or served on toast. Green puree 
soups are made from green vegetables. For cooking of French 
beans, scarlet runner beans, peas, etc., see PULSES. It is impor- 
tant to avoid the overcooking of vegetables. 

White Vegetables^-To prepare white vegetables for cooking 
wash, scrub or scrape. Celery should be cut up in thin strips 
lengthwise to facilitate cooking. Have ready a pan of salted boil- 
ing water, squeeze into it a little lemon juice to keep the vegetables 
a good colour. In cooking certain blanched vegetables, e.g., aspara- 
gus, leeks, etc., it is best to tie the vegetables in bundles. Over- 
cooking of all white vegetables should be avoided. As a rule, 
15-30 minutes (according to the age and type of vegetable being 
boiled) is sufficient time to allow. 

Jerusalem artichokes, salsify (oyster plant), etc., may be passed 
through a sieve and creamed, sprinkled with grated cheese and 
sauce and then baked au gratin. They may also be fried in batter 
as fritters. Celery can be stewed in milk or brown sauce, or 



served au gratin. Seakale and asparagus are usually served with 
melted butter but may be served with other sauces, mayonnaise, 
etc. All white vegetables may be made into soup by passing 
through a sieve, thickening and mixing with milk. 

Potatoes. There are innumerable ways of cooking potatoes 
but for most potato dishes they must be first plain boiled. To boil 
in their skins, clean thoroughly and place in boiling salted water 
Simmer until tender (about 30-40 minutes; but see note in COOK- 
ERY on boiling at high altitudes) ; drain off the water and allow 
them to steam in the pan for five minutes with the lid on. Remove 
the lid, allow the steam to escape for a few seconds and use as 
required. 

To bake potatoes bake them in their skins or peel and put in a 
baking-dish with sufficient fat to keep them from burning and 
place under a piece of roasting meat so that the fat from the 
meat can drip on to them and so keep them moist while cooking. 

Mashed potatoes are plain boiled or steamed, mashed with but- 
ter and milk, and then beaten with a wooden spoon until creamy. 
Potatoes may be fried either in a frying-pan, or in a pan of deep 
fat. Before frying thoroughly dry; then after slicing, cut into 
strips or fancy shapes. To cream potatoes for vegetarian dishes 
add eggs, cream or sauce to mashed potatoes and bake or steam 
as a souffle. 

VEGETABLE MARROW, botanically a variety of Cucur- 
bita Pepo, the most important of the gourds (</.v.), used as 
an esculent, furnishing in good seasons a very large supply 
for the table. They are best when eaten quite young and not over- 
boiled, the flesh being then tender, and the flavour sweet and nutty 
The custard marrows (scallop or patty-pan varieties), bear a 
peculiar-looking flattened fruit with scalloped edges, which has a 
sweeter and less nutty flavour than the true marrow. The bush 
marrows are more bushy in habit and taller and more sturdy in 
growth. 

! Vegetable marrows require a warm situation and a rich soil free 
from stagnant moisture. They do well on a rubbish or old-dung 
heap, or in a warm border on little hillocks made up with any 
fermenting material, to give them a slight warmth at starting. 
The seeds should be sown in a warm pit in April, and forwarded 
under glass, but in a very mild heat; the plants must be shifted 
into larger pots, and be gradually hardened previous to being 
planted out, when the mild weather sets in in May or June. The 
seeds may be sown early in May in pots under a hand-glass, or 
towards the end of May in the open ground, if heat is not at 
command. The shoots may be allowed to run along the surface of 
the ground, or they may be trained against a wall or paling, or on 
trellises. 

The tropical Blighia sapida (Sapindaccae), which is cultivated 
for its edible fruits, is also known as vegetable marrow. 

VEGETARIANISM, a word which came into use about the 
year 1847, as applied to the practice of living upon foods from 
which fish, flesh and fowl are excluded. There have from time to 
time been various sects or schools of thought that have advocated 
narrower views. Some of these have excluded all animal products 
such as milk and eggs and cheese. Some have excluded all 
cooked foods, and have preached the virtue* of fruits and nuts 
and grains in their natural ripe state. Some have abstained from 
all underground-grown roots and tubers, and have claimed special 
benefits from using only those fruits and vegetables that are grown 
in the sunlignt. Some have given up all grain and pulse foods, and 
have declared that old age can be best resisted by living entirely 
upon fruits, salads, nuts, soft water and milk products. Some have 
added fish to their dietary; but, speaking generally, all who are 
called vegetarians will be found to abstain from the use of flesh 
and fowl and almost invariably also from fish as food. 

The fact, however, must not be overlooked that while vege- 
tarian societies claim as "vegetarians" all who abstain from flesh 
foods, there is a large and growing number of people who repu- 
diate the name of "vegetarian" because of its associations, but 
who none the less, for some of the reasons detailed below, abstain 
from eating anything that has been killed. 

The reasons that are advanced for the practice of f ruitarianism 
or vegetarianism are very comprehensive, but the chief are the 



VEGETIUS VEINS 



following: 

1. Health. (a) On the ground that animals are affected by 
diseases which are communicable, and are actually communicated, 
to man by tlje ingestion of their flesh, e.g., parasites, tuberculosis; 
(ft) on the ground that the flesh of artificially fed animals is full 
of excretory substances, and that, therefore, under modern condi- 
tions, flesh-eating is injurious, and may be the cause of excretory 
substance and uric acid deposits or rapid tissue-destroying diseases 
in man; e.g., gout, cancer. 

2. Economy. On the ground that the assimilable nutriment 
from a given weight of selected fruit and grain and nut and vege- 
table foods will cost less than the same nutriment obtained from 
flesh foods. 

3. Social Economy. On the ground that an acre of cultivable 
land under fruit and vegetable cultivation will produce from two 
to twenty times as much food as if the same land were utilized for 
feeding cattle. 

4. Racial Improvement. On the ground that the aim of every 
prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of 
hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture de- 
mand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and 
breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly 
increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an 
animal dietary. 

5. Character Improvement. On the ground that after the vir- 
tues of courage and valour and fearlessness have been taught in 
the lower stages of evolution, the virtue of gentle humaneness 
and extended sympathy for all that can suffer should be taught in 
the higher cycles of the evolutionary spiral. Flesh-eating entailing 
necessarily an immense volume of pain upon the sentient animal 
creation should be abstained from by the "higher classes" in the 
evolutionary scale. 

Organizations have been established to advocate this method 
of living under the name of "Vegetarian Societies" in many coun- 
tries chiefly the United Kingdom, America, Germany, France, 
Austria, Holland and Australia. Propagandism is carried on by 
lectures, literature, cookery demonstrations and restaurants. 

In England, the oldest and one of the most important societies 
is "The Vegetarian Society," of which the headquarters are at Ox- 
ford Street, Manchester. An attempt has been made to organize 
the various vegetarian societies of the world under the title of 
"The Vegetarian Federal Union." The headquarters of the London 
societies and of the "Union'' are at Memorial Hall, Farringdon 
Street, E.C 

In the religious world the Seventh-Day Adventists (who are 
connected with many sanatoria and the manufacture of food spe- 
cialties) and some Bible Christians, the worshippers of Vishnu and 
the Swami Narang and Vishnoi sects, amongst others, preach ab- 
stinence from flesh food. The Salvation Army, the Tolstoyans 
and the Doukhobors encourage it. A number of orders in the 
Roman Catholic church (e.g., the Trappists) and in the Hindu 
faith (e.g., the Dadupanthi Sadus) are pledged abstainers. 

The general question of food values is discussed in the article 
DIETETICS; see also NUTRITION. But there is no doubt that, what- 
ever may be the view taken as to the extreme theory of vegetarian- 
ism, it has had considerable effect in modifying the excessive meat- 
consuming regime of previous days, and in introducing new 
varieties of vegetable cooking into the service of the table. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The literature on the subject is considerable, but the 
two classics are perhaps The Ethics of Diet, by Howard Williams, and 
The Perfect Way in Diet, by Dr. Anna Kingsfbrd. In former years the 
"Vegetarian Society'' was the most active in producing literature, but 
since about 1901 the Order of the Golden Age has come to the front 
with new and up-to-date books, booklets and leaflets, and the Ideal 
Publishing Union has reprinted much of the earlier literature. The 
chief periodicals are the Vegetarian (weekly), the Herald of the 
Golden Age (monthly), the Vegetarian. Messenger (monthly), the 
Vegetarian (American monthly), the Children's Garden (monthly). 

(J. O.) 

VEGETIUS (FLAVIUS VEGETIUS RENATUS) (4th cent.), 
military writer. Nothing is known of his life save that in mss. 
he is called vir illustris and also comes. His treatise, Epitoma rei 
militaris, sive institutorum rei militaris libri quifiqite, was dedi- 
cated to the reigning emperor (? Theodosius the Great). His 



sources, according to his own statement, were Cato, Cornelius 
Celsus, Frontinus, Patemus and the imperial constitutions of 
Augustus, Trajan and Hadrian. The book, a confused and un- 
scientific compilation, has to be used with caution, but is im- 
portant to the student of the ancient art of war. 

In manuscript, Vegetius's work had a great vogue from the first, 
and its rules of siegecraft were much studied in the middle ages. 
It was translated into English, French and Bulgarian before the 
invention of printing. The first printed editions arc assigned to Utrecht 
(1473), Cologne (1476), Paris (1478), Rome (in Veteres de re mil. 
scriptores, 1487), and Pisa (1488). A German translation by Ludwig 
Hohenwang appeared in 1475. The fullest modern edition is by Karl 
Lang (1^69). An English version was published by Caxton in 1489. 
For a detailed critical estimate of Vegctius's works and influence see 
Max Jiihns, Gesch. der Kriegswissenschaften, i. 109-125. 

VEII, an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, situated about 10 m. 
N. by W. of Rome by road. It is mentioned in the earliest history 
of Rome as a constant enemy, being the nearest Etruscan city to 
Rome, but the site was occupied in the Villanova period, remains 
of huts having been found on the acropolis (called Piazza d'Armi) 
as well as numerous tombs. The story of the slaughter of the 
Fabii, who had encamped in the territory of Veii (perhaps in an 
effort to cut the communications of Veii with Ficlenae) and of 
whom but one boy escaped, is well known. After constant war- 
fare, the last war (the fourteenth, according to the annalists) 
broke out in 406 B.C. The Romans laid siege to the city, and, 
after a ten years' siege, M. Furius Camillas took it by storm in 
396, by means, so we are told, of a tunnel leading into the citadel. 
According to the legend, the emissarium of the Alban Lake was 
constructed in obedience to the Delphic oracle, which declared 
that, until it was drained, Veii could not be taken. After the 
defeat of the Romans at the Allia in 390 B.C., a project was 
broached for abandoning Rome for Veii, which was successfully 
opposed by Camillas. Veii is spoken of by Propertius as almost 
deserted, but Augustus founded a municipality there, inscriptions 
of which have been found down to the time of Constantius. 

Veii was reached by branch roads from the Via Clodia. The 
site is characteristic a plateau, the highest point of which is 
407 ft. above sea-level, divided from the surrounding country by 
deep ravines, and accessible only on the west, where it was 
defended by a wall and fosse. Remains of the city walls, built of 
blocks of tufa 2 ft. high, may be traced at various points in the 
circuit. The area covered measures about i sq.rn. and it was thus 
only second to Rome in size among the cities in her neighbour- 
hood. The site of the Forum has been discovered on the west 
side of the plateau; a statue of Tiberius, now in the Vatican, 
and the twelve Ionic columns now decorating the colonnade on 
the W. side of the Piazza Colonna at Rome were found there. 

The acropolis was at the eastern extremity of the site, where 
the two ravines converge; it is connected with the rest of the 
plateau by a narrow neck. An Etruscan house was found on the 
north side of the city; while, just outside it on the south a 
temple of the 6th cent. B.C. with three cellac has been discovered. 
The most famous of the Etruscan tombs is the Grotta Campana. 
which contains paintings on the walls with representations of 
animals, among the earliest in Etruria. There are also several 
prominent tumuli. To a later period belongs a columbarium cut 
in the rock, with niches for urns. (T. A.) 

VEINS, in anatomy. The veins are blood vessels which re- 
turn the blood from the capillaries toward the heart. As they ap- 
proach that organ they join together to form larger and larger 
trunks. In man and other mammals three venous systems are 
recognized: (i) the general venous system; (2) the pulmonary 
system; and (3) the hepatic portal system. (See also VASCULAR 
SYSTEM.) 

General Venous System. This consists of superficial and 
deep veins; the former lie in the superficial fascia and are often 
visible through the skin. They are usually accompanied by lym- 
phatic vessels though not as a rule by arteries, and, sooner or 
later, they empty their blood into the deep veins, often passing 
through special openings in the deep fascia to do so. The deep 
veins always accompany arteries, and are therefore known as 
venae comites. With small and medium-sized arteries there are 
two of these venae comites, one on each side, connected by oc- 



VEINS 



29 



casional cross communications, but arteries of a larger calibre have 
only one companion vein. In the scalp and face the superficial 
veins accompany corresponding arteries more or less closely be- 
cause the arteries in this region are very tortuous (see ARTERIES), 
while the veins run a comparatively straight course. Frontal, 
superficial temporal, posterior auricular and occipital veins are 
found in the scalp, their names indicating the areas they drain. 
Like all other superficial veins, they anastomose freely and also 
at certain places communicate, through foramina in the skull, with 
the intracranial blood sinuses ; these communications are known as 
emissary veins, and act as safety-valves to the sinuses. The 
frontal vein on the forehead passes down on the inner side of the 
eyelids, where it is known as the angular, and then becomes the 
facial vein, which runs down to an inch in front of the angle of the 
jaw, whence it passes into the neck to join the common facial. 
In the greater part of its course it lies some distance behind the 
facial artery. The superficial temporal vein runs down in front of 
the ear, where it joins the internal maxillary vein from the 
pterygoid plexus and so forms the temporo-maxillary trunk, which 
passes down, embedded in the parotid gland, to about the angle 
of the jaw. Here it divides into an anterior branch, which joins 
the facial vein to form the common facial, and a posterior, which 
receives the posterior auricular vein, forming the external jugular. 

The external jugular vein is easily recognized through the skin 
on the side of the neck, and eventually pierces the deep fascia 
above the middle of the clavicle to join the subclavian vein. The 
occipital vein sinks deeply into the back of the neck and so forms 
the beginning of the vertebral vein. 

The intracranial blood sinuses lie between two layers of the dura 
mater and differ from the veins in having fibrous walls which do 
not contract or expand. The superior longitudinal sinus runs 
along the upper margin of the falx ccrebri (see BRAIN), while the 
inferior longitudinal sinus runs along the lower margin; these 
drain the surface of the brain, and the blood passes backward in 
both. Where the falx meets the tentorium cerebelli, the inferior 
longitudinal sinus receives the veins of Galen from the interior of 
the brain and then passes backward as the straight sinus to join 
the superior longitudinal sinus at the internal occipital protuber- 
ance (see SKULL). This meeting-place is known as the torcular 
Herophili, and from it the blood passes outward and downward 
through the right and left lateral sinuses, which groove the cra- 
nium (see SKULL) until they reach the posterior lacerated fora- 
mina, through which they pass to form the beginning of the in- 
ternal jugular veins. Most of the blood from the base of the brain 
passes into the cavernous sinuses which lie in the middle cranial 
fossa, one on each side of the pituitary fossa. These receive the 
ophthalmic veins from the orbit in front and, after running back- 
ward for about an inch, divide into the superior and inferior 
petrosal sinuses, the former of which joins the lateral sinus within 
the cranium, but the latter runs to the posterior lacerated fora- 
men, after passing through which it joins the lateral sinus, which 
is now becoming the internal jugular vein. (See fig. 5.) 

The internal jugular vein thus formed runs down at first behind 
and then to the outer side of the internal and common carotid 
arteries and at the root of the neck joins the subclavian vein of 
its own side to form the innominate vein. In its course down the 
neck it receives the common facial vein and tributaries from the 
tongue, pharynx, larynx and thyroid body. The deep veins of the 
head and face tend to form plexuses rather than venae comites; 
of these, pterygoid, deep temporal, pharyngeal and suboccipital 
plexuses are recognized. 

Veins of the Upper Extremity. On the dorsum of the hand 
and in front of the wrist superficial venous plexuses are easily 
seen through the skin. From these the blood passes up the fore- 
arm chiefly on its flexor surface by the radial, median and anterior 
and posterior tdnar veins. Just below the bend of the elbow the 
median vein communicates with the deep veins and then divides 
into two branches like the limbs of ay. Of these the inner is the 
median basilic from which patients are usually bled, while the 
outer is the median cephalic. After a course of an inch or two the 
median basilic is joined by the anterior and posterior ulnar veins 
and the median cephalic by the radial. After this iunetinn the 



median basilic is continued up the inner side of the arm as the 
basilic which pierces the deep fascia about the middle of the arm 
and in the axilla joins the venae comites of the brachial artery to 
form the axillary vein, which lies on the inner side of its artery. 
The median cephalic vein after joining the radial runs up the outer 
side of the arm as the cephalic and a little below the clavicle 
passes through the costocoracoid membrane to enter the upper 
part of the axillary vein. At the outer border of the first rib the 
axillary vein becomes the subclavian, which lies in front of and 
below its artery and is separated from it by the scalenus anticus 
muscle. The arrangement of the superficial veins, especially in 
front of the elbow, is liable to great variation. 

Veins of the Lower Extremity. The superficial veins of the 
lower extremity begin in a venous arch on the dorsum of the foot. 
From the inner extremity of this the internal saphenous vein runs 
up, in front of the inner ankle, along the inner side of the leg, and, 
passing behind the inner side of the knee, continues up the thigh, 
gradually working forward until it reaches the saphenous opening 
in the deep fascia of the thigh a little below the spine of the 
pubis. Here it pierces the deep fascia (fascia lata) to enter the 
common femoral vein. In this long course it has many valves and 
receives numerous tributaries, one of which, the saphenous col- 
lateral, runs up nearly parallel to it and on its outer side and joins 
it just below the saphenous opening. From the inner end of the 
dorsal arch of the foot the external saphenous vein runs up be- 
hind the outer ankle along the mid line of the calf to pierce the 
deep fascia in the popliteal space behind the knee and open into 
the popliteal vein. Among the deep veins venae comites are found 
until the popliteal artery is reached, while above this superficial, 
deep and common femoral veins accompany their respective 
arteries. In the groin the common femoral vein lies on the inner 
side of its artery. 

Veins of the Abdomen. The common femoral vein, after 
passing deep to Poupart's ligament, becomes the external iliac 
which runs along the brim of the true pelvis and, after a course 
of some three inches, joins the internal iliac which drains the 
pelvis and so forms the common iliac vein. In front of the body 
of the fifth lumbar vertebra the common iliac veins of the two 
sides unite to form the inferior vena cava, a very large trunk 
which runs up on the right of the abdominal aorta to an opening 
in the diaphragm (q.v.). On its way it receives spermatic or 
ovarian veins from the genital glands, renal veins from the kid- 
neys, and lumbar veins from the abdominal walls. Before reaching 
the diaphragm it lies in a groove in the back of the liver (q.v.) \ 
and receives the hepatic veins from that organ. The hepatic portal 
system which lies in the abdomen will be treated later. 

Veins of the Thorax. The inferior vena cava, after piercing 
the diaphragm, has a very short thoracic course and opens into 

the lower and back part of the right auricle of the heart (q.v.). 
The right and left innominate veins are formed behind the sternal 
end of the clavicle by the union of the subclavian and internal 
jugulars of their own side. The left vein is much longer than 
the right and runs nearly horizontally behind the upper half of 
the manubrium sterni to join its fellow on the right side of that 
bone just below the first rib. By the junction of these the 
superior vena cava is formed, which runs down to the right auricle 
of the heart. The chief tributaries of the innominate veins are 
the vertebral, the internal mammary and the inferior thyroid. 

The intercostal veins open into the azygos veins, which begin in 
the abdomen sometimes by a vertical trunk joining 'the lumbar 
veins known as the ascending lumbar, sometimes on the right side 
by a communication with the inferior vena cava. The right azygos 
vein is known as the vena azygos major and passes through the 
aortic opening of the diaphragm. Entering the thorax, it runs 
up in front of the thoracic vertebrae, to the right of the aorta and 
thoracic duct, and receives the intercostal veins of the right side. 
At the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra it arches forward to 
open into the posterior surface of the superior vena cava. 

On the left side, the upper intercostal veins join to form the left 
superior intercostal vein, which opens into the left innominate. 
Lower down the intercostal veins from the fourth to the seventh 
snaces form the superior hcmiazvcos vein, which runs Hown on 



VEINS 



the left of the spinal column and, crossing it about the level of 
the eighth or ninth thoracic vertebra, opens into the vena azygos 
major. The lower intercostal veins on the left side join the 
inferior hemiazygos vein which runs up and opens either into 
the superior hemiazygos or into the azygos major below the 
opening of that vein. 

Pulmonary Venous System. The veins emerging from the 
lungs bring back the oxygenated blood from those organs to the 
left ventricle of the heart and also the greater part, if not all, of 
the blood carried by the bronchial arteries to nourish the lungs. 
The existence of bronchial veins is asserted, but they are ex- 
tremely difficult to demonstrate, and if present are quite incapable 
of returning all the blood which the bronchial arteries carry to 
the lungs. There arc three pulmonary veins coming out of the 
right lung, while on the left there are only two. On the right 
side, however, two of the three veins usually unite in the root 
of the lung, so that there are, as a rule, two pulmonary veins 
entering the left auricle of the heart on each side, but it is not 
uncommon to find three on the right side or one on the left. The 
pulmonary veins have no valves. 

Hepatic Portal System. -The veins which drain the blood 
from the stomach, intestines, spleen and pancreas unite to form 
a large vein which begins behind the head of the pancreas and ends 
by dividing into right and left branches in the transverse fissure 
of the liver. This is the portal vein which lies in front of the in- 
ferior vena cava and is about three inches long. Its formative 
tributaries are the superior and inferior mesenteric and the 
splenic veins. There are two marked characteristics of the portal 
system; one is that it has no valves and the other that it begins 
and ends in capillaries, since the two terminal branches of the 
portal vein branch and rebranch in a manner already described 
in the article LIVER. In the lower part of the rectum the veins 
run partly into the portal and partly into the general system, and 
in this dependent position they are liable to become varicose and 
to form haemorrhoids or piles. 

The histology of the veins corresponds very closely to that of 
the arteries (q.v.)\ their walls are, however, much thinner and 
there is less muscular and elastic tissue. At certain places, 
especially where tributaries come in, the endothelial lining is 
raised to form semilunar pocket-like valves. In most cases there 
are two cusps to each valve, but three or one are sometimes found. 
The opening of the pocket is arranged so that it shall only be 
filled when there is a tendency to regurgitation of the blood. 

EMBRYOLOGY 

The vitelline or omphalo-mesenteric veins, returning the blood 
from the yolk sac, are the first to appear, and later on, with the 
formation of the placenta, the umbilical veins develop. Both 
these open into the hinder (caudal) part of the heart, which is 
already being constricted off as the sinus venosus (see fig. i). 

While this is going on the veins from the different body seg- 
ments are received into two longitudinal trunks on each side, the 
anterior (cephalic) of which is 
the primitive jugular or anterior 
cardinal and the posterior (cau- 
dal), the posterior cardinal or 
simply cardinal vein. As the heart 
is at first situated in the region 
which will later be the neck of 
the embryo, the primitive jugular 







"^^^ PRIMITIVE JUGULAR 
_-* OOCT or CUVIER 

SINUS VENOSUS 
SEOMCNTAL VEINS 
^ VITCLLINC VEIN 
^1- '- UMBILICAL VCIH 
POSTERIOR CARDINAL 



receives very few segmental F|G '.SCHEME OF FORMATION OF 
veins and the cardinal very many. VENOUS SYSTEM ' FIRST STAGE 
These two trunks join one anot her on each side and open into the 
side of the sinus venosus by a transverse communication the duct 
of Cuvier. The condition of the venous system at this stage is 
shown in the accompanying diagram (fig. i). 

As the vitelline veins run from the yolk sac to the heart along 
each side of the primitive fore-gut they pick up the mesentcric 
veins from the intestines as well as the splenic and pancreatic 
veins as soon as these viscera are formed. The liver, however, is 
developed right across their path, and both they and the umbili- 
cal veins break up into a mass of capillaries in it, leaving that 



part of them which lies between the liver and the heart to form 
the primitive hepatic veins (fig. 2). While the vitelline veins are 
lying on each side of the fore-gut (future duodenum) they are 
connected by three transverse channels, the anterior and posterior 
of which appear on the ventral side of the gut, the middle on the 
dorsal side (see fig. 2). This figure of eight does not persist, how- 
ever, because the anterior (cephalic) part of it on the left and the 



PRIMITIVE JUGULAR 
DUCT OF CUVIER - 
SINUS VENOSUS 
PRIMITIVE HEP- 
PRIMITIVE CARI 
LIVER 




SUPERIOR MESENTCRIC 
INFERIOR MESINTERIC^ 



SINUS VENOSUS 
j ^-PRIMITIVE JUGULAR 
A- PRIMITIVE HEPATIC 

"PRIMITIVE CARDINAL 
-j DUCTUS VENOSUS 
"' ""^- LIVER 

~ PORTAL 

.__ ~~~-- DUODENUM 
UMBILICAL 
SPLENIC 

^SUPERIOR MESENTERIC 
RIGHT UMBILICAL 



ABDOMINAL 



FIGS. 2 ft 3. SCHEME OF FORMATION OF VENOUS SOT 
REGION 

posterior (caudal) part on the right become obliterated, and what 
is left forms the portal vein (fig. 3). The two umbilical veins unite 
at the umbilicus (fig. 3) and soon all the blood from the placenta 
passes through the left one, the right becoming rudimentary. 

The left umbilical vein on reaching the liver now joins th left 
branch of the portal vein and establishes a new communication 
with the left hepatic vein. This is the ductus venosus (fig. 3), 
and, as soon as it is formed, there is no longer any need that all 
the blood returning from the placenta should pass through the 
liver capillaries. The development of the cardinal veins must 
now be returned to. As the heart moves from the neck into the 
thorax the primitive jugulars elongate and it. is now recognized 
become the internal jugulars in the greater part of their extent. 



~~~" SUBCLAVIAN 

OBLIQUE CONNECTING 
OUCTUS VENOSUS 
LIFT SUB CARDINALS 
EXTERNAL ILIAC 

INTERNAL ILIAC 




FIGS. 4 ft 5. SCHEME OF FORMATION OF VENOUS SYSTEM (SEE TEXT) 

When the arms begin to bud out subclavian veins are developed 
(fig. 4) and an oblique connecting vein (figs. 4 and 5) is estab- 
lished between the point of junction of the left subclavian with 
the primitive jugular and the hinder part of the primitive jugular 
of the right side. This connection becomes the left innominate 
vein, while the hinder part of the primitive jugular persists as the 
left superior intercostal vein (fig. 5). On the right side that part of 
the primitive jugular between the subclavian and the junction with 
the left innominate becomes the right innominate (figs. 4 and 5) 
while the hinder (caudal) part of the right primitive jugular and 



VEJER DE LA FRONTERA VELARIUM 



the right duct of Cuvier become the superior vena cava (figs. 4 and 
5). The external jugular is a later formation. The right and left 
posterior cardinal veins receive the intercostal and lumbar segmen- 
tal veins and are continued into the lower limbs as the internal iliac 
and eventually the sciatic veins, the primitive bloodpath from the 
thighs. The veins from the primitive kidneys open into the seg- 
mental veins, and when the permanent kidney is formed (see 
URINARY SYSTEM) a large renal vein on each side is established. 
There are, however, many cross communications (fig. 4) between 
the right and left posterior cardinal veins, pme of which become 
very important later on, though most of them are transitory. The 
probable origin of the inferior vena cava is to be sought in a pair 
of veins called subcardinals which have been found in the rabbit 
embryo lying parallel and a little ventral to the posterior cardinals 
(fig. 4) and effecting a junction with the renals and transverse 
communications as they cross- these. Posteriorly (caudal) they 
join the cardinals, but anteriorly the right one establishes a com- 
munication with the ductus venosus a little below the point at 
which that vessel joins the left hepatic. It is from the right one 
of these that the greater part of the inferior vena cava is formed. 
It will now be seen that the adult vena cava is formed by con- 
tributions from four embryonic veins, most anteriorly the hepatic, 
then the ductus venosus, then the right subcardinal and posteriorly 
the right posterior cardinal (F. T. Lewis, Am. J. of Anat. vol. i., 
229, 1902). The anterior (cephalic) part of the right posterior 
cardinal forms the vena azygos major, and an inspection of fig. 4 
will show that in the adult this may rise from the renal, from an 
ascending lumbar vein or, by a cross communication above the 
renal, from the inferior vena cava. The left posterior cardinal be- 
comes obliterated below and its segmental tributaries find their 
way by cross communications to the vena cava (fig. 5). Above 
(cephalad) the left renal vein the left cardinal forms the hemi- 
azygos and, higher still, the hemiazygos acccssoria. These open 
into the azygos major by persistent cross communications which 
lie dorsal to the heart when that organ reaches its permanent posi- 
tion. Some modern authorities doubt whether the azygos veins of 
mammals are really persistent cardinals except quite in their an- 
terior parts, just before they join the ducts of Cuvier. The left 
duct of Cuvier is only represented in the human adult by the 
oblique vein of Marshall on the dorsum of the left auricle. The 
external iliac veins become fully developed, like their arteries, 
when the blood changes its course from the back to the front of 
the thigh. After birth the umbilical vein and the ductus venosus 
become converted into fibrous cords and the circulation in the 
pulmonary veins is established. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 

In the Acrania (Amphioxus), although there is no heart, the 
blood vessels returning the blood to the subpharyngeal region are 
distinctly of a vertebrate type. There is a subintestinal vessel or 
vein bringing the blood from the intestine to the liver and break- 
ing up into capillaries in that organ just as the portal vein does in 
the higher forms. From the liver a hepatic vein carries the blood 
forward to the region below the pharynx where the heart is formed 
in Vertebrata. There is no renal portal system. In the Cyclo- 
stomata (lampreys and hags) the cardinal veins are formed 
and the blood from the caudal vein passes directly into the pos- 
terior cardinals without any renal portal system. In fishes the 
single caudal vein divides into two branches, each of which runs 
forward to the outer side of its respective kidney and ends by 
giving numerous branches to that viscus. The blood returning 
from the kidney passes into the beginning of its own posterior 
cardinal vein or sinus, which lies on the inner side of the kidney. 
This constitutes a renal portal system. The cardinal veins and 
ducts of Cuvier closely resemble the arrangement already detailed 
in the human foetus, while the hepatic portal system from the 
intestine to the liver is constant in this and all other vertebrates. 

In the Dipnoi (mud-fish) a pulmonary vein from the lung-like 
swim-bladder is formed and an inferior vena cava or postcaval 
vein carries the blood from the kidneys to the heart. This is its 
first appearance in the vertebrate phylum. In the lower fishes 
there is a vein of the lateral line on each side, but in the Dipnoi 



these coalesce and form a median anterior (ventral) abdominal 
vein which is constant in the Amphibia. Subclavian and iliac 
veins return the blood from the fins and open respectively into 
the junction of the anterior and posterior cardinals and into the 
caudal vein. 

In the tailed Amphibia (Urodela) the postcaval and posterior 
cardinal veins are well developed, the former vessel running from 
the right cardinal vein a little in front of (cephalad) the kidney 
to the hepatic vein, in this way closely foreshadowing man's em- 
bryology. In the Anura (frogs and toads) the posterior cardinals 
are usually suppressed, but these are very specialized animals. 
The anterior abdominal vein in amphibians joins the portal vein 
close to the liver. 

In the Rcptilia the renal portal circulation persists, but is rudi- 
mentary in birds and disappears in mammals. The anterior ab- 
dominal or epigastric vein of amphibians and reptiles returns -the 
blood from the allantois in the embryo and in higher forms be- 
comes the umbilical vein returning the blood from the placenta; 
there is, therefore, a continuous line of ascent from the lateral 
line veins of the fish to the umbilical vein of man. In reptiles, 
birds, monotremes, marsupials and many rodents, insectivores, 
bats and ungulates, a left superior vena cava (precaval vein) is 
present as well as a right ; it passes ventral to the root of the left 
lung and then dorsal to the left auricle of the heart until it reaches 
the coronary sinus to open into the right auricle. Its course is indi- 
cated in man by the left superior intercostal vein, the vestigial 
fold of Marshall (see COELOM AND SEROUS MEMBRANES) and the 
oblique vein of Marshall. It can be readily reconstructed from 
figs. 4 and 5 if the transverse communication (L.I.) is obliterated. 
In some mammals the postcaval vein is double, especially in its 
hinder (caudad) part, and this sometimes occurs as a human ab- 
normality (see F. W. McClure, Am. Journ. of Anat. vol. 2, 1903, 
and vol. 5, 1906, also Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. 29, 1906). 

Except in Cetacca, one or both azygos veins are always present 
in mammals. When there is only one it is usually the right, 
though a few forms among the marsupials, rodents and ungulates 
have only the left (F. E. Beddard, P.Z.S., 1907, p. 181). In many 
of the lower mammals the external jugular vein is much larger 
than the internal and returns most of the blood from the brain 
through an opening called the postglenoid foramen. For this 
reason it was formerly regarded as the representative of the 
primitive jugular. It is now, however, thought that the internal 
jugular is that representative, and that the arrangement of man, in 
which the internal jugular drains the interior of the cranium, is 
the more generalized and primitive. (F. G. P.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. F. Hochstetter, Entwickelungeschichte des Gefass- 
systems (1891), Beit-rage zur Anat omit und Entwwkelungeschichte des 
Blutgefass-Systemes der Krokodile, (1906) ; D. J. Cunningham, Text- 
Book of Anatomy (1902, 1922) ; A. M. Buchanan, Manual of Anatomy 
(1906, 1925) ; A. V. Mcigs, Study of the Human Blood-Vessels (1907) ; 
R. Quain, Elements of Anatomy (nth ed., 1908-23); C. C. Guthrie, 
Blood-Vessel Surgery (1912) ; J. S. Horslcy, Surgery of the Blood- 
Vessels (1915) ; J. P. MacMurrich, Development of the Human Body 
(7th ed., 1923) ; W. M. Bayliss, The Vaso-Motor System (1923) ; H. 
Gray, Anatomy (23rd cd., 1926). Win. Harvey, An Anatomical Dis- 
quisition on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, ed. E. A. 
Parkyn (1906) ; A, Krogh, The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries 
(1922) ; R. H. Babcock, Diseases of the Heart and Arterial System 
(1909); L. M. Warficld, Arteriosclerosis and Hypertension (1908, 
1920). 

For an account of mineral veins see ORE DEPOSITS. 

VEJER DE LA FRONTERA, a town of southern Spain, 
in the province of Cadiz, on the right bank of the river Barbate 
and on the Cadiz-Tarifa railway. Pop. (1920) 14,995. Vejer 
de la Frontera occupies a low hill overlooking the Straits of 
Gibraltar and surrounded by orchards and orange groves. The 
architecture of many of its houses recalls the period of Moorish 
rule, which lasted from 711 until the town was captured by St. 
Ferdinand of Castile in 1248. 

VELA, one of the three southern constellations into which 
the large Ptolemaic constellation Argo (q.v.) was subdivided. 

VELARIUM, the curtain or awning extended above the audi- 
torium of the Roman theatres and amphitheatres to protect 
the spectators from sun and rain. 



VELAZQUEZ 



VELAZQUEZ, DIEGO RODRIGUEZ DE SILVA Y 

(1599-1660), the head of the Spanish school of painting and one 
of the greatest painters the world has known, was born in Seville 
and was baptized on June 6, 1599. His European fame is of com- 
paratively recent origin, dating from the first quarter of the i9th 
century. 

Early Life. He was the son of Rodriguez de Silva, a lawyer 
in Seville, descended from a noble Portuguese family. Following a 
common Spanish usage, the artist is known by his mother's name 
Velazquez. He was known to his contemporaries as Diego de Silva 
Velazquez, and signed his name thus. He was intended for a 
learned profession, for which he received a good training in lan- 
guages and philosophy. But the bent of the boy was towards art, 
and he was placed under the elder Hcrrera. Herrera was a bold 
and effective painter; but he was at the same time a man of 
unruly temper, and his pupils could seldom stay long with him. 
Velazquez soon left Herrera's studio and betook himself to the 
learned and pedantic Pacheco, in whose school he remained for 
five years, seeing all that was best in the literary and artistic 
circles of Seville. Here he fell in love with his master's daughter 
Juana de Miranda, whom he married on April 23, 1618. The 
young painter set himself to copy the commonest things about 
him earthenware jars of the country people, birds, fish, fruit and 
.flowers of the market-place. Carrying out this idea still further, 
Velazquez felt that to master the subtlety of the human face 
he must make this a* special study, and he accordingly engaged 
a peasant lad to be his servant and model, making innumerable 
studies in charcoal and chalk, and catching his every expression. 
We see this model, probably, in the laughing boy of the Hermitage 
"Breakfast," or in the youngest of the "Musicians," acquired for 
the Berlin Museum in 1906. The position and fame of Velazquez 
were now assured at Seville. There his wife bore him two daugh- 
ters all his family so far as is known. The younger died in 
infancy, while the elder, Francisca, in due time married Bautista 
del Mazo, a painter, whose large family is that which is represented 
in the important picture in Vienna which was at one time called 
the "Family of Velazquez." This picture is now by common con- 
sent given to Mazo. Of his early Seville manner we have an 
excellent example in "El Aguador" (the Water-Carrier) at Apsley 
House (London). The brushwork is bold and broad, and the out- 
lines firmly marked. As is usual with Velazquez at this time, the 
harmony of colours is red, brown and yellow, reminding one of 
Ribera. For sacred subjects we may turn to the "Adoration of the 
Magi" at Madrid, dated 1619, and the "Christ and the Pilgrims 
of Emmaus" in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Life in Madrid. But Velazquez was now eager to see more 
of the world. Madrid, with its fine Titians, held out strong in- 
ducements. Accordingly, in 1622, fortified with letters of intro- 
duction to Fonscca, who held a good position at court, he spent 
some months there. Here he painted the portrait of the poet 
Gongora, a commission from Pacheco (in the gallery at Madrid). 
In the following year he was summoned to return by Olivares, 
the all-powerful minister of Philip IV., fifty ducats being allowed 
to defray his expenses. On this occasion he was accompanied by 
his father-in-law. Next year (1624) he received from the king 
three hundred ducats to pay the cost of the removal of his family 
to Madrid, which became his home for the remainder of his life. 
King Philip remained for a period of thirty-six years the faithful 
and attached friend of Velazquez. By his equestrian portrait of 
the 'king, painted in 1623, Velazquez secured admission to the 
royal service with a salary of twenty ducats per month, besides 
medical attendance, lodgings and payment for the pictures he 
might paint. The portrait was exhibited on the steps of San 
Felipe, and was received with enthusiasm, being vaunted by poets, 
among them Pacheco. It has unfortunately disappeared. The 
Prado, however, has two portraits of the king in which the 
harshness of the Seville period has disappeared. 

In 1628 Rubens visited Madrid on a diplomatic mission for nine 
months, and Velazquez was appointed by the king to be his guide 
among the art treasures of Spain. In 1627 the king had given for 
competition among the painters of Spain the subject of the Ex- 
pulsion of the Moors. Velazquez bore off the palm for a picture 



no longer extant, and was appointed gentleman usher. To this 
was shortly afterwards added a daily allowance of twelve reals, 
and ninety ducats a year for dress. As an extra payment he re- 
ceived (though it was not paid for five years) one hundred 
ducats for the picture of Bacchus, painted in 1629 (Madrid 
gallery). The spirit and aim of this work are better understood 
from its Spanish name, "Los Borrachos" (the Topers), who are 
paying mock homage to a half-naked ivy-crowned young man 
seated on a wine barrel. 

Visit to Italy. Jn 1629 Philip gave Velazquez permission to 
visit Italy, without loss of salary, making him besides a present 
of four hundred ducats, to which Olivares added two hundred. 
He sailed from Barcelona in August in the company of the 
marquis de Spinola, the conqueror of Breda, then on his way to 
take command of the Spanish troops at Milan. It was during this 
voyage that Velazquez must have* heard the details of the sur- 
render of Breda from the lips of the victor, and he must have 
sketched his fine head, known to us also by the portrait by Van 
Dyck. But the great picture was not painted till later. In Venice 
Velazquez made copies of the "Crucifixion" and the "Last Supper" 
of Tintoretto, which he sent to the king, and in Rome he copied 
Michelangelo and Raphael, lodging in the Villa Medici till fever 
compelled him to remove into the city. Here 1 e painted the 
"Forge of Vulcan" (Madrid gallery), in which Apollo narrates 
to the astonished Vulcan, a village blacksmith, the news of the 
loves of Venus, while four Cyclops listen to the scandal. The other 
work painted at the same time, "Joseph's Coat," now hangs in 
the Escorial. At Rome he also painted the two beautifuPland- 
scapes of the gardens of the Villa Medici, now in the Madrid 
museum, full of light, sparkle and charm. After a visit to 
Naples in 1631, where he worked with his countryman Ribera, 
and painted a charming portrait of the Infanta Maria Queen of 
Hungary and sister of Philip, Velazquez returned to Madrid. 

Court Painter. He then painted the first of many portraits 
of the young prince, Don Baltasar Carlos, the heir to the throne, 
dignified and lordly even in his childhood, caracoling in the dress 
of a field-marshal on his prancing steed. The Duke of Olivares, 
the king's powerful minister, was the early and constant patron of 
the painter. His impassive, saturnine face is familiar to us from 
the many portraits painted by Velazquez. Two arc of surpassing 
excellence the full-length in the collection of the Hispanic Soci- 
ety, New York, stately and dignified, in which he wears the green 
cross of Alcantara ; the other the great equestrian portrait of the 
Madrid gallery. In these portraits Velazquczjias well repaid the 
debt of gratitude which he owed to his first patron, whom he stood 
by in his fall, thus exposing himself to the risk of incurring the 
anger of the jealous Philip. The king, however, showed no sign of 
malice towards his favoured painter, whom he visited daily in his 
studio in the palace, and to whom he sat in many attitudes and 
costumes, as a huntsman with his dogs, as a warrior in command 
of his troops. His pale face and lack-lustre eye, his fair flowing hair 
and moustaches curled up to his eyes, and his heavy projecting 
Hapsburg under-lip are known in many a portrait and nowhere 
more supremely than in the wonderful canvas of the London 

National Gallery where he seems to live and breathe. Here the 
consummate handling of Velazquez is seen at its best, for it is in 
his late and most perfect manner. From one of the equestrian 
portraits of the king, painted in 1638, the sculptor Montanes 
modelled a statue which was cast in bronze by the Florentine 
sculptor Tacca, and which now stands in the Plaza del Oriente at 
Madrid. This portrait exists no more; but there is no lack of 
others, for Velazquez was in constant attendance on Philip, accom- 
panying him in his journeys to Aragon in 1642 and 1644, and was 
doubtless present with him when he entered Lerida as a conqueror. 
It was then that he painted the great equestrian portrait (Madrid 
gallery) in which the king is represented as a great commander 
leading his troops. It hangs as a pendant to the great Olivares por- 
trait fit rivals of the neighbouring Charles V. by Titian. At 
Fraga in Aragon in 1644 he painted a portrait of the king in 
country costume the original of which seems to be in the Frick 
collection, New York, while the Dulwich Gallery has a copy. 
But, besides the portraits of the king, we have portraits of other 



VELAZQUEZ 



33 



members of the royal family, of Philip's first wife, Isabella of 
Bourbon, and her children, especially of her eldest son, Don 
Baltasar Carlos, of whom, besides the equestrian portrait already 
mentioned, there is a full-length at the Vienna Museum, one in 
hunting dress at the Prado, and one at the Boston Museum with a 
dwarf. The Admiral Pulido Pareja at the National Gallery, is said 
to have been taken by Philip for the living man ; nevertheless, A. 
de Beruete is emphatic in denying Velazquez's authorship of this 
picture, which he attributes to Mazo. The Duke of Modena on a 
visit to Madrid was painted by the artist (Modena Gallery) and 
of the same period are two male portraits at Dresden "The Count 
of Benevent," "The Sculptor Martinez Montanez" in the Madrid 
gallery, and "The Unknown Man" at Aspley House. One won- 
ders who "the lady with the fan" can be that adorns the Wallace 
collection, the splendid brunette so unlike the usual fair-haired 
female sitters to Velazquez. She belongs to this period of his work, 
to the ripeness of his middle period. The touch is firm but free, 
showing the easy strength of the great master. But, if we have 
few ladies of the court of Philip, we have in great plenty his 
buffoons and dwarfs. Even these deformed or half-witted crea- 
tures attract our sympathy as we look at their portraits by Velaz- 
quez, who, true to his nature, treats them gently and kindly, as in 
U E1 Primo" (the Favourite), whose intelligent face and huge folio 
with ink-bottle and pen by his side show him to be a wiser and 
better-educated man than many of the gallants of the court. We 
now turn to one of the greatest of historical works, the "Surrender 
of Breda/' often known as "Las Lanzas," from the serried rank of 
lances breaking the sky, which is believed to have been painted 
between 1638 and 1644. It represents the moment when the van- 
quished Justin of Nassau in front of his Dutch troops is sub- 
missively bending as he offers to his conqueror Spinola the keys of 
the town, which, with courteous grace, the victor refuses to accept. 

The greatest of the religious paintings by Velazquez belongs also 
to this middle period, the "Christ on the Cross" (Madrid gallery). 
Palomino says it was painted in 1638 for the convent of San 
Placido. The Saviour's head hangs on his breast and a mass of 
dark tangled hair conceals part of the face. The beautiful form is 
projected against a black and hopeless sky. The figure stands ab- 
solutely alone, without any accessory. To the same period belongs 
the great "Boar Hunt" at the National Gallery, a magnificent 
work in spite of some restorations. 

Second Visit to Italy. Velazquez's son-in-law Mazo had suc- 
ceeded him as usher in 1634, and he himself had received steady 
promotion in the royal household, receiving a pension of 500 
ducats in 1640, increased to 700 in 1648, for portraits painted and 
to be painted, and being appointed inspector of works in the palace 
in 1647. Philip now entrusted him with the founding of an acad- 
emy of art in Spain. Rich in pictures, Spain was weak in statuary, 
and Velazquez was commissioned to proceed to Italy to make 
purchases. Accompanied by his faithful slave Pareja, whom he 
taught to be a good painter, he sailed from Malaga in 1649, land- 
ing at Genoa, and proceeding thence by Milan to Venice, buying 
Titians, Tintorettos and Veronescs. A noble example of the paint- 
er's third manner is the great portrait of Innocent X. in the Doria 
palace at Rome, where he was received with marked favour by 
the pope, who presented him with a medal and gold chain. Of this 
portrait, thought by Sir Joshua Reynolds to be the finest picture 
in Rome, Palomino says that Velazquez took a copy to Spain. 
There exist several in different galleries. The handling is rapid 
but unerring. Velazquez had now reached the manera abreviada, 
as the Spaniards call this bolder style. His early and laborious 
studies and his close observation of nature had given to him in due 
time, as to all great painters, the power of representing what he 
saw by simpler means. At Rome he painted also a portrait of his 
servant Pareja, probably the picture of Lord Radnor's collection 
which procured his election int6 the academy of St. Luke. Mean- 
while Philip was wearying for his return; accordingly Velazquez 
embarked in Genoa for Barcelona in 1651, taking with him many 
pictures and 300 pieces of statuary, which he afterwards arranged 
and catalogued for the king. 

Late Life. Isabella of Bourbon had died in 1644, and the 
king had married Mariana of Austria, whom Velazquez now painted 



in many attitudes. He was specially chosen by the king to fill the 
high office of "aposentador major," which imposed on him the 
duty of looking after the quarters occupied by the court whether 
at home or in their journeys. His works of this period are amongst 
the highest examples of his style. The dwarfs "El Bobo de Coria," 
"El Nino de Vallecas" and "Don Antonio el Ingles" (the English- 
man) with his dog, "Aesop," and "Menippus," all in the Madrid 
gallery, show his surest and freest manner. To these may be added 
the charming children's portraits of the Infanta Margarita in 
Vienna, among the choicest of his works. It is Margarita, the 
eldest daughter of the new queen, that is the subject of the well- 
known picture "Las Meninas" (the Maids of Honour), in the 
Madrid gallery, painted in 1656, where the little lady holds court, 
surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting, her dwarfs and her mastiff, 
while VeLzquez is seen standing at his easel. This is the finest 
portrait we have of the great painter. It is a face of much dig- 
nity, power and sweetness like his life. The story is told Ibat 
the king painted the red cross of Santiago on the breast of the 
painter, as it appears to-day on the canvas. Velazquez did not, 
however, receive the honour till 1659, three years after the execu- 
tion of this work. Even the powerful king of Spain could not 
make his favourite a belted knight without a commission to in- 
quire into the purity of his lineage on both sides of the house. The 
records of this commission have tteen found among the archives 
of the order of Santiago by M. Villaamil. Fortunately the pedi- 
gree could bear scrutiny, as for generations the family was found 
free from all taint of heresy, from all trace of Jewish or Moorish 
blood and from contamination by trade or commerce. The diffi- 
culty connected with the fact that he was a painter was got over 
by his being painter to the king and by the declaration that he did 
not sell his pictures. But for this royal appointment, which enabled 
him to escape the censorship of the Inquisition, we should never 
have had his splendid "Venus and Cupid," bought by the National 
Art Collections Fund for 45,000 for the National Gallery in 1905. 
On occasions Philip gave commissions for religious pictures to 
Velazquez among others, the "Coronation of the Virgin" (Ma- 
drid gallery), splendid in colour a harmony of red, blue and grey. 
It was painted for the oratory of the queen, in the palace at 
Madrid. Another royal commission for the hermitage of Buen 
Retire was the "St. Anthony the Abbot and St. Paul the Hermit," 
painted in 1659 (Madrid gallery). The last of his works which 
we shall name is "Las Hilandcras" or the Spinners (Madrid), 
painted about 1656, representing the royal tapestry works. 

In 1660 a treaty of peace between France and Spain was to be 
consummated by the marriage of the infanta Maria Theresa with 
Louis XIV., and the ceremony was to take place in the Island 
of Pheasants, in the Bidassoa. Velazquez was charged with the 
decoration of the Spanish pavilion and with the whole scenic dis- 
play. In the midst of the grandees of the first two courts in 
Christendom Velazquez attracted much attention by the nobility 
of his bearing and the splendour of his costume. On June 26 he 
returned to Madrid, and on July 31 he was stricken with fever. 
Feeling his end approaching, he signed his will, appointing as his 
sole executors his wife and his firm friend Fuensalida, keeper of 
the royal records. He died on Aug. 6, 1660. He was buried in the 
Fuensalida vault of the church of San Juan, and within eight days 
his wife Juana was laid beside him. This church was destroyed by 
the French in 1811, so that his place of interment is now unknown. 

Velazquez can hardly be said to have formed a school of 
painting. Yet his influence on those immediately connected 'with 
him was considerable. In 1642 he befriended young Murillo on 
his arrival in Madrid, received him into his house, and directed 
his studies for three years. He helped to lay the foundations of 
modern painting; and when centuries later the Impressionists 
made it their aim to study the effect of light and atmosphere 
Velazquez $as hailed as their precursor. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. In addition to the standard works by Palomino 
(1724). Cean Bermudez (1800) and Pacheco (1649); C. B. Curtis, 
Velazquez and Murillo (1883) ; Sir W. Stirling Maxwell, Annals of 
the Artists of Spain (1891); The Life of Velazquez, by Sir 
Walter Armstrong (1896) ; Velazquez, by R. A. M. Stevenson (1899) ; 
The Life and Works of Don Diego Velazquez, by Don Jacinto Octayio 
Picon (Madrid, 1899) ; Days with Velazquez, by C. Lewis Hind 



34 



VELEIA VELOCITY OF LIGHT 



(London, 1906) ; Don A. de Bcruete's standard work on the subject, 
Velazquez (London, 1906) ; Calvert and Hartley, Velazquez (1908) ; 
Cru/ada Villamil, Analcs de la vida de Casobras de Diego Siha 
Velazquez (1886); Pedro dc Madrazo, Catalogue dfs tableaux du 
Muste du Prado (1913) ; Randall Davies, Velazquez (1914) ; A. Bral, 
Velazquez (1919) ; C. Justi, Velazquez und sein Jahrhundert (ard ed. 
2 vols., Bonn, 1922-23). (J. F. W.; X.) 

VELEIA, an ancient town of Acmilia, Italy, situated about 
20 m. S. of Placentia, mentioned by Pliny. Its inhabitants were in 
the census of Vespasian found to be remarkable for their longe- 
vity. Nothing further was known of it until 1747, when some 
ploughmen found the famous Tabula aliment-aria. This, the largest 
inscribed bronze tablet of antiquity (4 ft. 6 in. by 9 ft. 6 in.) 
contains the list of estates in the territories of Veleia, Libarna, 
Placentia, Parma and Luca, in which Trajan had assigned (before 
A.D. 102), 72,000 sesterces (720) and then 1,044,000 sesterces 
(10,440), on a mortgage bond to forty-six estates, the total 
value of which was reckoned at over 13,000,000 sesterces (130,- 
ooo), the interest on which at 5% was to serve for the support of 
266 boys and 36 girls, the former receiving 16, the latter 12 ses- 
terces a month. Excavations were begun in 1760, and the forum 
and basilica, the thermae and the amphitheatre, private houses, 
etc., with many statues and inscriptions (from 49 B.C. to A.D. 276) 
were discovered. Most of the objects found are in the museum at 
Parma. Oil has been extracted in the neighbourhood since 1890. 

See G. Antolini, Le Ravine di Veleia (Milan, 1831). 

VELEZ DE GUEVARA, LUIS (1579-1644), Spanish 
dramatist and novelist, was the author of over 400 plays, of which 
the best known are Relnar de spues de morir and Mds pesa el rey 
que la sangre. He won considerable fame as the author of El 
Diablo cojuelo (1641), a fantastic novel which suggested to Le 
Sage the idea of his Diablc boiteux. 

VELEZ-MALAGA, a town of southern Spain, in the 
province of Malaga, finely situated in a fertile valley at the 
southern base of the lofty Sierra de Alhama, and on the left bank 
of the small river Velez, i m. from its mouth and 27 m. by road 
E.N.E. of Malaga. Pop. (1920), 24,893. Velez-Malaga was taken 
from the Moors in 1487 by Ferdinand of Castile. Under Moorish 
rule the citadel was built and the town became an important 
trading station and fortress. 

VELIA, an ancient town of Lucania (Gr. TtXrj, later 'EXea), 
Italy, on the hill now crowned by the mediaeval castle of Cas- 
tellammare della Bruca, 440 ft. above sea-level, on the south-west 
coast, i m. N.W. of the modern railway station of Ascca, 25m. 
S.E. of Paestum. Remains of the city walls, with traces of one 
gate and several towers, of a total length of over 3 m., still exist. 
It is celebrated for the philosophers who bore its name. (See 
ELEATIC SCHOOL.) About 530 B.C. the Phocaeans, driven from 
Corsica, seized it from the Oenotrians. Its coins were widely dif- 
fused in S. Italy, and it kept its independence till 78 B.C. 

VELIKA KIKINDA,,a town in the Voivodina, Yugoslavia, 
Pop. (1921) 25,809; about 60% being Serbs. It is one of the 
centres of production of the famous wheat of the Banat. 

VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, MARCUS (c. 19 B.C.-C. 

A.D. 31), Roman historian. Although his praenornen is given as 
Marcus by Priscian, some modern scholars identify him with 
Gaius Velleius Paterculus, whose name occurs in an inscription on 
a north African milestone (C.I.L. viii. 10, 311). He belonged to 
a distinguished Campanian family, and early entered the army. 
He sprved as military tribune in Thrace, Macedonia, Greece and 
the East, and in A.D. 2 was present at the interview on the 
Euphrates between Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus, and the 
Parthian king. Afterwards, as praefect of cavalry and legatus, 
he served for eight years (from A.D. 4) in Germany and Pannonia 
under Tiberius. He was quaestor in A.D. 7, praetor in 15, and was 
still alive in 30. He may have been put to death in 31 as a friend 
of Seianus. He wrote a compendium of Roman history from 
the dispersion of the Greeks after the siege of Troy down to the 
death of Livia (A.D. 29). The period from the death of Caesar to 
that of Augustus is treated most fully, and the disproportion is 
accentuated by the loss of a great deal of the early history. Most 
of the work is professedly a compendium; where he allows him- 
self scope his style shows distinct traces of the Silver Age: antith- 



esis, epigram, the breakdown of the periodic sentence. 

Editio princcps, Basle, 1520; early editions by Justus Lipsius, J, 
Grutcr, N. Heinsius, P. Burmann; modern editions, Ruhnken and 
Frotscher (1830-39), J. C. Orelli (1835), F. Kritz (1840, ed. min. 
1848), F. Haase (1858), C. Halm (1876), R. Ellis (1898). Eng. trans, 
by J. S. Watson in Bonn's Classical Library. See also J. Wight Duff, 
Literary History of Rome in the Silver Age (1927). 

VELLETRI (anc. Velitrae), a town and episcopal see of the 
province of Rome, Italy, at the south-cast foot of the outer ring 
wall of the Alban crater, 26 m. S.E. of Rome by rail and 24 by 
electric tramway, 1,155 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1921) 19,660 
(town), 25,781 (commune). It is the seat of the bishop of Ostia. 
Good wine is made in the vineyards and there is a government ex- 
perimental station for viticulture. Velletri is the junction of the 
Terradna line and a branch to Segni, on the main line to Naples. 
At the highest point is the municipal palace. The internal facade 
of the Palazzo Ginetti is finely decorated with stucco, and has a 
curious detached baroque staircase by Martino Lunghi the 
younger. The lofty campanile of S. Maria del Trivio, erected in 
J 353> is in the style of contemporary brick campanili in Rome, but. 
built mainly of black selce (lava), with white marble columns at 
the windows. The cathedral, reconstructed in 1660, contains traces 
of the 1 3th century structure. 

The ancient city of Velitrae was Volscian in Republican times, 
and it is the only Volscian town of which an inscription in that 
language is preserved (4th century B.C.). It mentions the two 
principal magistrates as medix. Velitrae was important as com- 
manding the approach to the valley between the Alban and* Vol- 
scian mountains. Interesting terra cotta reliefs from a Volscian 
temple have been found (esp. 5th cent. B.C.) belonging to the 
period when it had regained its freedom after its first capture by 
Rome. It was only reduced in 338 and was punished by the 
destruction of its walls and the banishment of its town councillors 
to Etruria, while their lands were handed over to Roman col- 
onists. It was the home of the %ens Octavia, to which the 
Emperor Augustus belonged. (T. A.) 

VELLORE, a town of British India, headquarters of the 
North Arcot district of Madras, on the river Palar and 5 m. from 
a station on the South Indian railway, 87 m. W. of Madras city. 
Pop. (1921) 50,210. It has a strongly built fortress, which was 
famous in the wars of the Carnatic. Dating traditionally from the 
1 3th century, but. more probably only from the i7th, it is a fine 
example of Indian military architecture, and contains a finely 
sculptured temple. In 1780 it withstood a siege for two years 
by Hyder AH. After the fall of Seringapatam (7799) Vcllore was 
selected as the residence of the sons of Tippoo Sahib, and to 
them have been attributed the mutiny of the sepoys here in 1806. 

VELLUM: see PARCHMENT. 

VELOCITY OP LIGHT. The fact that light is propagated 
with a definite speed was first brought out by Ole Roemer at Paris, 
in 1676, through observations of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites 
made in different relative positions of the Earth and Jupiter in 
their respective orbits. It is possible in this way to determine 
the time required for light to pass across the orbit of the earth. 
The dimensions of this orbit, or the distance of the sun, being 
taken as known, the actual speed of light could be computed. (See 
also PARALLAX.) Since this computation requires a knowledge of 
the sun's distance, which has not yet been acquired with certainty, 
the actual speed is now determined by experiments made on the 
earth's surface. Were it possible by any system of signals to 
compare with absolute precision the times at two different sta- 
tions, the speed could be determined by finding how long was 
required for light to pass from one station to another at the 
greatest visible distance. But this is impracticable, because no 
natural agent is under our control by which a signal could be com- 
municated with a greater velocity than that of light. It is there- 
fore necessary to reflect a ray back' to the point of observation and 
to determine the time which the light requires to go and come. 
Two systems have been devised for this purpose. One is that of 
Fizeau, in which the vital appliance is a rapidly revolving toothed 
Wheel; the other is that of Foucault, in which the corresponding 
appliance is a mirror revolving on an axis in its own plane. 

Fizeau, 1849. The principle underlying Fizeau's method is 



VELOCITY OF LIGHT 



35 



shown in the accompanying figs, i and 2. Fig. i shows the course 
of a ray of light which, emanating from a luminous point L t strikes 
the plane surface of a plate of glass M at an angle of about 45. 
A fraction of the light is reflected from the two surfaces of the 
glass to a distant reflector R, the plane of which is at right angles 
to the course of the ray. The latter is thus reflected back on its 
own course and, passing through the glass M on its return, reaches 




FIG. 1. FIZEAU'S METHOD OF MEASURING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT 
BY MEANS OF A TOOTHED WHEEL 

a point E behind the glass. An observer with his eye at E looking 
through the glass sees the return ray as a distant luminous point 
in the reflector R, after the light has passed over the course in 
both directions. 

In actual practice it is necessary to interpose the object glass 
of a telescope at a point O, at a distance from M nearly equal to 
its focal length. The function of this appliance is to render the 
diverging rays, shown by the dotted lines, nearly parallel, in order 
that more light may reach R and be thrown back again. 

Conceiving the apparatus arranged in such a way that the ob- 
server sees the light reflected from the distant mirror R, a fine 
toothed wheel WX is placed immediately in front of the glass M, 
with its plane perpendicular to the course of the ray, in such a 
way that the ray goes out and returns through an opening between 
two adjacent teeth. This wheel is represented in section by WX in 
fig. i, and a part of its circumference, with the teeth as viewed by 
the observer, is shown in fig. 2. We conceive that the observer sees 
the luminous point between two of the teeth at K, Now, conceive 
that the wheel is set in revolution. The ray is then interrupted as 
every tooth passes, so that what is sent out is a succession of 
flashes. Conceive that the speed of the wheel is such that while 
the flash is going to the distant mirror and returning again, each 
tooth of the wheel takes the place of an opening between the 
teeth. Then each flash sent out will, on its return, be intercepted 
by the adjacent tooth, and will therefore become invisible. If the 
speed be now doubled, so that the teeth pass at intervals equal to 
the time required for the light to go and come, each flash sent 
through an opening will return through the adjacent opening, and 
will therefore be seen with full brightness. If the speed be con- 
tinuously increased the result will be suc- 
cessive disappearances and reappearances 
of the light, according as a tooth is or is 
not interposed when the ray reaches the 
apparatus on its return. The computation 
of the time of passage and return is then 
very simple. The speed of the wheel being 




known, the number of teeth passing in. one FIG. 2. F i z E A u 
second can be computed. METHOD OF MEASURING 

Foucault, 1862.-The Foucault system THE VELOC1TY OF LICHT 
is much more precise, because it rests upon the measurement of 
an angle, which can be made with great precision. 

The vital appliance is a rapidly revolving mirror. Let AB (fig. 
3) be a section of this mirror, which we shall first suppose at rest. 
A ray of light LM emanating from a source at L, is reflected in the 
direction MQR to a distant mirror R, from which it is perpendicu- 
larly reflected back upon its original course. This mirror R should 
be slightly concave, with the centre of curvature near M, so that 
the ray shall always be reflected back to M on whatever point of 
R it may fall. Conceiving the revolving mirror M as at rest, the 
return ray will after three reflections, at M, R and M again, be 
returned along its original course to the point L from which it 



emanated. An important point is that the return ray will always 
follow the fixed line ML no matter what the position of the mov- 
able mirror M, provided there is a distant reflector to send the 
ray back. Now, suppose that, while the ray is going and coming, 
the mirror M, being set in revolution, has turned from the position 
in which the ray was reflected to that shown by the dotted line. 
If a be the angle through which the surface has turned, the course 
of the return ray, after reflection, will then deviate from ML by 
the angle 2 or, and so be thrown to a point E, such that the angle 
LME = 2a. If the mirror is in rapid rotation the ray reflected from 
it will strike the distant mirror as a scries of flashes, each formed 

by the light reflected when the 
mirror was in the position AB. If 
the speed of rotation is uniform, 
the reflected rays from the suc- 
cessive flashes while the mirror is 
in the dotted position will thus 




FIG. 3. PRINCIPLE OFFOUCAULT-S all follow the same direction ME 

METHOD OF DETERMINING THE VE- after thdr second re fl CC tion from 
LOCITY OF LIGHT ,1 / , T . . . e 

the mirror. If the motion is suf- 
ficiently rapid an eye observing the reflected ray will see the 
flashes as an invariable point of light so long as the speed of 
revolution remains constant. The time required for the light to 
go and come is then equal to that required by the mirror to turn 
through half the angle LME, which is therefore to be measured 
In practice it is necessary on this system, as well as on that of 
Fizeau, to condense the light by means of a lens, Q, so placed that 
L and R shall be at conjugate foci. The position of the lens may 
be either between the luminous point L and the mirror M, or 
between M and R, the latter being the only one shown in the 
figure. A diflkulty associated with the Foucault system in the 
form in which its originator used it is that if the axis of the mirror 
is at right angles to the course of the ray, the light from the 
source L will be flashed directly into the eye of the observer, on 
every passage of the revolving mirror through the position in 
which its normal bisects the two courses of the ray. This may be 
avoided by inclining the axis of the mirror. 

In Foucaulfs determination the measures were not made upon 
a luminous point, but upon a reticule, the image of which could not 
be seen unless the reflector was quite near the revolving mirror. 
Indeed the whole apparatus was contained in his laboratory. The 
effective distance was increased by using several reflectors; but 
the entire course of the ray measured only 20 metres. The result 
reached by Foucault was 298,000 kilometres per second. 

Cornu, 1874. The most elaborate determination yet made by 
Fizeau's method was that of Cornu. The station of observation 
was at the Paris Observatory. The distant reflector, a telescope 
with a reflector at its focus, was at Montlhcry, distant 22,910 
metres from the toothed wheel. Of the wheels most used one had 
150 teeth, and was 35 millimetres in diameter; the other had 200 
teeth, with a diameter of 45 mm. The highest speed attained was 
about 900 revolutions per second. At this speed, 135,000 (or 
180,000) teeth would pass per second, and about 20 (or 28) would 
pass while the light was going and coming. But the actual speed 
attained was generally less than this. The definitive result derived 
by Cornu from the entire series of experiments was 300,400 km. 
per second. Further details of this work need not be set forth 
because the method is in several ways deficient in precision. The 
eclipses and subsequent reappearances of the light taking place 
gradually, it is impossible to fix with entire precision upon the 
moment of complete eclipse. The outcome of the inherent 
difficulties of the method is that, although Cornu's discussion of 
his experiments is a model in the care taken to determine so far 
as practicable every source of error, his definitive result is shown 
by other determinations to have been too great by about 
part of its whole amount. 

Michelson, 1878-79-82, and Newcomb, 1881-82. The 
first marked advance on Foucault's determination was made by 
Albert A. Michelson, then a young officer on duty at the U.S. 
Naval academy, Annapolis. The improvement consisted in using 
the image of a slit through which the rays of the sun passed after 
reflection from a heliostat. In this way it was found possible to 



VELOCITY OF LIGHT 



sec the image of the slit reflected from the distant mirror when 
the latter was nearly 600 metres from the station of observa- 
tion. The essentials of the arrangement are those we have used in 
fig. 3, L being the slit. It will be seen that the revolving mirror 
is here interposed between the lens and its focus. It was driven 
by an air turbine, the blast of which was under the control of 
the observer, so that it could be kept at any required speed. The 
speed was determined by the vibrations of two tuning forks. One 
of these was an electric fork, making about 120 vibrations per 
second, with which the mirror was kept in unison by a system of 
rays reflected from it and the fork. The speed of this fork was 
determined by comparison with a freely vibrating fork from time 
to time. The speed of the revolving mirror was generally about 
275 turns per second, and the deflection of the image of the slit 
about 112-5 mm. The mean result of nearly 100 fairly accordant 
determinations was: 



jyo.,828 km. per sec. 
"4-82 



Velocity of light in air 
Reduction to a vacuum 
Velocity of light in a vacuum . 

Simon Newcomb about this time obtained the official support 
necessary to make a determination on a yet larger scale. The 
most important modifications made in the Foucault-Michelson 
system were the following: 

1. Placing the reflector at a distance of several kilometres. 

2. In order that the disturbances of the return image due to the 
passage of the ray through more than 7 km. of air might be re- 
duced to a minimum, an ordinary telescope of the "broken back" 
form was used to send the ray to the revolving mirror. 

3. The speed of the mirror was, as in Michelson's experiments, 
completely under control of the observer, so that by drawing one 
or the other of two cords held in the hand the return image could 
be kept in any required position. In making each measure the 
receiving telescope hereafter described was placed in a fixed posi- 
tion and during the "run" the image was kept as nearly as prac- 
ticable upon a vertical thread passing through its focus. A "run" 
generally lasted about two minutes, during which time the mir- 
ror commonly made between 25,000 and 30,000 revolutions. The 
speed per second was found by dividing the entire number of 
revolutions by the number of seconds in the "run." The extreme 
deviations between the times of transmission of the light, as 
derived from any two runs, never approached to the thousandth 
part of its entire amount. The average deviation from the mean 
was indeed less than -g^Vs P ar t f ^ ne whole. 

To avoid the injurious effect of the directly reflected flash, as 
well as to render unnecessary a comparison between the directions 
of the outgoing and the return ray, a second telescope, turning 
horizontally on an axis coincident with that of the revolving mir- 
ror, was used to receive the return ray after reflection. This re- 
quired the use of an elongated mirror of which the upper half 
of the surface reflected the outgoing ray, and the lower other half 
received and reflected the ray on its return. On this system it was 
not necessary to incline the mirror in order to avoid the direct 
reflection of the return ray. The 
greatest advantage of this sys- 
tem was that the revolving mirror 
could be turned in either direc- 
tion without break of continuity, 

so that the angular measures 

were'made between the directions FIG. 4. MICHELSON'S EARLIER 
of the return ray after reflection APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE 
when the mirror moved in oppo- VELOCITY OF LIGHT 
site directions. In this way the speed of the mirror was as good 
as doubled, and the possible constant errors inherent in the refer- 
ence to a fixed direction for the sending telescope were eliminated. 
The essentials of the apparatus are shown in fig. 4. The revolving 
mirror was a rectangular prism M of steel, 3 in. high and ii in. on 
a side in cross section, which was driven by a blast of air acting on 
two fan-wheels, not shown in the fig., one at the top, the other at 
the bottom of the mirror. NPO is the object-end of the fixed send- 
ing telescope the rays passing through it being reflected to the 
mirror by a prism P. The receiving telescope ABO is straight, and 




has its objective under O. It was attached to a frame which could 
turn around the same axis as the mirror. The angle through which 
it moved was measured by a divided arc immediately below its 
eye-piece, which is not shown in the figure. The position AB is 
that for receiving the ray during an anti-clockwise rotation of the 
mirror; the position A'B' that for a clockwise rotation. 

In these measures the observing station was at Fort Myer, on a 
hill above the west bank of the Potomac river. The distant re- 
flector was first placed in the grounds of the Naval observatory, 
at a distance of 2,551 metres. But the definitive measures were 
made with the reflector at the base of the Washington monu- 
ment, 3,721 metres distant. The revolving mirror was of nickel- 
plated steel, polished on all four vertical sides. Thus four reflec- 
tions of the ray were received during each turn of the mirror, 
which would be coincident were the form of the mirror invariable. 
During the preliminary series of measures it was found that two 
images of the return ray were sometimes formed, which would 
result in two different conclusions as to the velocity of light, ac- 
cording as one or the other was observed. The only explanation 
of this defect which presented itself was a tortional vibration of 
the revolving mirror, coinciding in period with that of revolution. 

In the summer of 1881 the distant reflector was removed from 
the Observatory to the Monument station. Six measures made in 
August and September showed a systematic deviation of -f 67 
km. per second from the result of the Observatory series. This 
difference led to measures for eliminating the defect from which 
it was supposed to arise. The pivots of the mirror were reground, 
and a change made in the arrangement, which would permit of the 
effect of the vibration being determined and eliminated. This 
consisted in making the relative position of the sending and re- 
ceiving telescopes interchangeable. In this way, if the measured 
deflection was too great in one position of the telescopes, it would 
be too small by an equal amount in the reverse position. As a 
matter of fact, when the definitive measures were made, it was 
found that with the improved pivots the mean result was the 
same in the two positions. But the new result differed systemat- 
ically from both the former ones. Thirteen measures were made 
from the Monument in the summer of 1882. The mean results 
for the three series were: 



Observatory, 1880-1. 
Monument, 1881 
Monument, 1882 



V in air 299,627 
V in air = 299,694 
V in air = 299, 7 78 



The last result being the only one from which the effect of dis- 
tortion was completely eliminated, has been adopted as definitive. 
For reduction to a vacuum it requires a correction of +82 km. 
Thus the final result was concluded to be 

Velocity of light in vaeuo=* 299,860 km. per second. 
This result being less by 50 km. than that of Michelson, the lat- 
ter made another determination with improved apparatus and 
arrangements at the Case School of Applied Science in Cleve- 
land. The result was 

Velocity in vacua = 299,853 km. per second. 

So far as could be determined from the discordance of the sepa- 
rate measures, the mean error of Newcomb's result would be less 
than itio km. But making allowance for the various sources of 
systematic error the actual probable error was estimated at 
nt30 km. 

The angle <x in Foucault's experiments cannot be measured with 
the required accuracy by any of the preceding methods, but, as 
was pointed out by Newcomb, this difficulty is avoided by giving 
the revolving mirror a prismatic form, and making the distance 
between the two stations so great that the return light is reflected 
at the same angle by the next following face of the prism. 

Michelson, 1924-26, arranged for an attempt to realise such a 
project between stations on Mt. Wilson and Mt. San Antonio, 
near Pasadena, about 22 m. apart. For this distance, given a 
speed of rotation of 1,060 turns per second, the angular displace- 
ment of the mirror, during the double journey, will be 90, or, 
if the speed were half as great, an angle of 45 would suffice. 
Accordingly, the revolving mirror may have the form of an octa- 
gon. It is, of course, very important that the angles of the octagon 



VELOCITY OF LIGHT 



37 



should be equal, at least to the order of accuracy desired. It has 
been found possible, by special methods, to produce an octagon 
on which the average error is of the order of one-millionth, that 
is, about one-tenth to one-twentieth of a second. 

Difficulties arise from the direct reflection and the scattered 
light from the revolving mirror. The former may be eliminated, 
as already mentioned, by slightly inclining the revolving mirror, 




FIG. 5. MICHELSON'S LATER APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE VE- 
LOCITY OF LIGHT; THE UPPER FIGURE SHOWING THE COMPLETE DISPOSI- 
TION, AND THE LOWER FIGURE, THE APPARATUS AT THE MOUNT WILSON 
END IN MORE DETAIL 

but to avoid scattered light, it is essential that the return ray be 
received on a different surface from the outgoing. Again, in 
order to avoid difficulty in maintaining the distant mirror per- 
pendicular to the incident light, the return of the ray to the home 
station may be accomplished exactly as in Fizeau's experiment, 
the only precaution required being the very accurate focussing of 
the beam on a small plane (or better, concave) mirror at the 
focus at the distant collimator. Fig. 5 shows the arrangement of 
apparatus which fulfilled these requirements. 

In Michelson's experiments the speed of rotation (529 rev. 
per second; of the revolving mirror was determined by an electric 
tuning fork. The fork was compared, before, and after every set 
of observations, with a free pendulum, whose rate was found by 
comparison with an invar pendulum furnished and rated by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. The 1924 results, gave, for the veloc- 
ity of light in air 299,735 km. per second; the 1925 results 
using the same fork and pendulum 299,690 km. per second; and 
a third scries, in which the electric fork was replaced by a free 
fork maintained by an audion circuit, gave 299,704 km. per sec- 
ond. Applying the correction of 67 km. for reduction to vacuo 
gives, finally, 299,771 km. per second. 

Observations with the same lay-out were resumed in the summer 
of 1926, with an assortment of revolving mirrors. The first of 
these was the small octagonal glass mirror used in the preceding 
work; the result obtained this year was 299,813 km. per second. 
The other mirrors were a steel octagon, a glass 1 2-sided, a steel 
i2-sided, and a glass i6-sided. The final results are summarized 
in Table A. 



TABLE A 


Mirror 


Number of 
observations 


Velocity of light 
in vacuo in kms. 
per sec. 


Glass octagon . 
Steel octagon 
Glass i2-sided . 
Steel 1 2 -sided . 
Glass 1 6-sided . 


576 

195 
270 
->i8 

504 


299,797 

299,705 
299,796 
299,796 
290,796 



Weighted mean: 299,796+ 1 km. per second. 

VELOCITY AND WAVE-LENGTH 

The experimental measures thus far cited have been primarily 
those of the velocity of light in air, the reduction to a vacuum 
being derived from theory alone. The fundamental constant at 
the basis of the whole theory is the speed of light in a vacuum, 



such as the celestial spaces. The question of the relation between 
the velocity in vacuo, and in a transparent medium of any sort, 
belongs to the domain of physical optics (see LIGHT). We shall 
in the present part of the article confine ourselves to the experi- 
mental results. With the theory of the effect of a transparent 
medium is associated that of the possible differences in the speed 
of light of different colours. 

The question whether the speed of light in vacuo varies with 
its wave-length seems to be settled with entire certainty by 
observations of variable stars. These are situated at different 
distances, some being so far that light must be several centuries 
in reaching us from them. Were there any difference in the speed 
of light of various colours it would be shown by a change in the 
colour of the star as its light waxed and waned. The light of 
greatest speed preceding that of lesser speed would, when ema- 
nated during the rising phase, impress its own colour on that which 
it overtook. The slower light would predominate during the fall- 
ing phase. If there were a difference of 10 minutes in the time 
at which light from the two ends of the visible spectrum arrived, 
it would be shown by this test. As not the slightest effect of the 
kind has ever been seen, it seems certain that the difference, if 
any, cannot approximate to f^J^ part of the entire speed. The 
case is different when light passes through a refracting me- 
dium. It is a theoretical result of the undulatory theory of light 
that its velocity in such a medium is inversely proportional 
to the refractive index of the medium. This being different for 
different colours, we must expect a like difference in the velocity. 

Foucault and Michelson have tested these results of the un- 
dulatory theory by comparing the time required for a ray of light 
to pass through a tube filled with a refracting medium, and 
through air. Foucault thus found, in a general way, that there 
actually was a retardation; but his observations took account only 
of the mean retardation of light of all the wave-lengths, which he 
found to correspond with the undulatory theory. Michelson went 
further by determining the retardation of light of various wave- 
lengths in carbon bisulphide. He made two series of experiments, 
one with light near the brightest part of the spectrum; the other 
with red and blue light. Putting Vo for the speed in a vacuum 
and Vi for that in the medium, his result was: 

Yellow light . \VVi = 1-758 

Refractive index for yellow 1-64 

I) ilTcrence from theory -f-o*i2. 

The estimated uncertainty was only 0-02, or of the difference 
between observation and theory. 

The comparison of red and blue light was made differentially. 
The colours selected were of wave-length about 0-62 for red and 
0-49 for blue. Putting V r and V& for the speeds of red and blue 
light respectively in bisulphide of carbon, the mean result com- 
pares with theory as follows: 

Observed value of the ratio Vr, Vt 1*0245 

Theoretical value (Vcrdet) 1-025. 

This agreement may be regarded as perfect. It shows that the 
divergence of the speed of yellow light in the medium from theory, 
as found above, holds through the entire spectrum. 
Lord Rayleigh found the following explanation of the discrep- 
ancy. In the method of the 
toothed wheel the disturbances 
are propagated in the form of 
isolated groups of wave-trains. 
Let fig. 6 represent such a group 
of wave-trains. The wave-ve- 






FlG. 6. DIAGRAM INDICATING THE 
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WAVE-VE- 
LOCITY AND GROUP-VELOCITY 

locity is that required to carry a wave crest A to the position of 
the crest B in the wave period (T). But when a flash of light like 
that measured passes through a refracting medium, the front 
waves of the flash are continually dying away, as shown at the 

end of the figure, and the place of each is taken by the wave 
following. A familiar case of this sort is seen when a stone is 
thrown into a pond. The front waves die out one at a time, to 
be followed by others, each of which goes further than its prede- 
cessor, while new waves are formed in the rear. Hence the group, 
as represented in the figure by the larger waves in the middle, 
moves as a whole more slowly than do the individual waves. The 



VELOUR VELVET 



simplest way of considering such a group analytically is to add 
two simple harmonic wave-trains of slightly different frequency. 
When the speed of light is measured the result is not the wave- 
velocity as above defined, hut something less, because the result 
depends on the time of the group passing through the medium. 
It can be shown that this applies to measurements made with the 
revolving mirror method as well as the toothed wheel method. 
This lower speed is called the group-velocity of light. The rela- 
tionship of the group velocity to the wave velocity is shown in 
the equation: 



where V ~ group velocity, V wave velocity, and A = wave 
length. In a vacuum there is no dying out of the waves, so that 
the group-speed and the wave-speed are identical. The value of 

(T -) ----- ) for carbon disulphide for the mean wave-length of 
V n \/ 

the visible spectrum is 0-93. Hence 

\ d\'\ 1-64 



which agrees with the experimental order quoted above. 

BlHMOGKAPHY. A good general account of the experimental deter- 
mination of the velocity of light is given in Preston, The Theory of 
Li^ht, ch. xix. (5th ed., 1928), See. also A. A. Michelson, Studies in 
Optics (1027), For a detailed account of Michelson's Mt. Wilson 
experiments see Astro physical Journal, vol. Ixv., p. j (1927). For a 
discussion of the various determinations sec M. K. J. Ghcury de Bray, 
Nature, vol. cxx. (1927). (A. A. M.) 

VELOUR. The term velour (French for velvet) refers in par- 
ticular to a large variety of woollen textures, and in general to 
several varieties both of woollen and cotton textures, and also 
to union fabrics, that are formed with a short furry nap or fur 
on either one bide only or on both sides of the fabric, and de- 
veloped, subsequent to weaving, by operations of milling and 
raising. Velour fabrics are characterized by a soft and full "handle" 
or "feel" and used as dress and costume fabrics, suitings, coatings 
and dressing gowns according to the texture. Velour is also ap- 
plied as a general description of many other varieties of fabrics 
produced from a mixture both of wool and cotton, and to some 
varieties of all-cotton fabrics on which there is developed the 
characteristic "velour finish," after weaving. 

The nap or pile surface of a velour fabric, produced by milling 
and raising, is not analogous to the velvet or plush pile of true 
velvet or plush, nor of velveteen (cotton velvet) in which the 
pile is produced by a series of tufts, that stand erect from a 
foundation texture, and are developed by severing the pile warp 
threads, in velvet and plush fabrics (q.v.), and the pile picks of 
weft in velveteen or cotton velvet. 

VELSEN, a town of Holland, in the province of North Hol- 
land, close to Ymuiden, with which it forms a single municipal 
administration. Pop. (1927), 35,103. Velscn is situated on the 
North sea canal, and forms the port of entrance for Amsterdam. 

VELVET. The term "velvet." applies strictly 1o the true type 
of the plain silk velvet of the lighter textures, constructed with a 
short "velvet" or plush pile surface, which is developed during 
weaving by severing certain warp threads of silk, thereby causing 
the severed threads to stand erect in the form of short tufts from 
a substantial foundation texture of silk, cotton or other textile 
material. Velvet has been greatly in the popular favour for many 
centuries as a dress material, also for garments for use en such 
occasions as state, social and religious ceremonies and an infinite 
variety of uses such as curtain drapery, hangings and furniture up- 
holstery and many other purposes. The richest velvet fabrics are 
those of Dutch (Utrecht) and Genoese manufacture, and that 
variety known as "collar velvet" for use specially in making the 
collars of men's overcoats. The velvet pile warp consists of pure 
silk yarn, though the foundation texture may be woven from a 
silk warp and cotton weft, or all cotton for both warp and weft. 

One of the oldest examples of velvet is that forming part of a 
1 4th century embroidered cape in the college of Mount St. Mary, 
Chesterfield. In the earliest of the inventories relating to church 



vestments, there is a reference, in St. Paul's, London, A.D. 1295, 
to the use of "velvet" with its kindred web "fustian," for "chas- 
ubles": while in that of Exeter cathedral, in 1327, velvet, for the 
first time is mentioned as being "in two pieces not made up, of 
which some yards had been then sold for vestment making." 

Velvet Weaving. Velvet fabrics of the lighter textures are 
woven in hand-looms and produced from two distinct series of 
warp threads and one series of weft threads, viz., "ground" threads 
to form the foundation texture, and "pile" threads to form the 
pile, arranged in the fabric in the order of two ground threads and 
one pile thread, uniformly. Also, each system of warp threads is 
contained on a separate warp beam or roller in order to permit of 
the tension and rate of delivery of each system being adjusted 
and controlled independently. This provision is essential by rea- 
son of the two warps contracting at different rates during weav- 
ing; that of the pile warp being considerably greater than that of 
the ground warp, and in the ratio of about 6 or 8 to one, respec- 
tively, according to the length or depth of the pile. 

During weaving, the pile is developed by raising all the pile 
warp threads whilst the ground threads remain down, and then 
inserting through the warp shed thus formed, a long, thin steel 
wire, having a narrow groove formed in the upper edge, and ex- 
tending for its entire length. This wire, termed a "pile wire" is 
then beaten-up by the reed right up to the "fell" of the cloth, just 
as an ordinary pick of weft, after which (in one velvet structure), 
three picks of weft are inserted in succession. These interweave 
with the ground warp threads on the plain calico principle to pro- 
duce a firm foundation texture for the tufts of pile. Also, for the 
first and third of these picks, all pile warp threads are left down, 
but are raised on the second or intermediate pick, thereby inter- 
weaving these threads on the principle known as "fast" or "lashed" 
pile which binds them very securely to the foundation texture, 
with less risk of their accidental withdrawal, when the fabric is in 
use. After these three picks of weft, are inserted, another pile 
wire is inserted in the warp shed, formed, as before, by raising 
all pile war]) threads only and leaving down all ground threads. 
Then follow the next three ground picks in succession, and so on, 
in the same regular sequence, uniformly. 

Producing the Pile. From this brief description, it will be 
apparent that all the pile warp threads simply bend over the 
grooved pile wires and thus form a horizontal row of loops extend- 
ing across the entire width of the fabric, between the two sel- 
vedges, while those wires virtually constitute thick picks of weft 
which, along with the three fine picks, are all beaten-up close 
together, by the reed, in the usual manner. After the second pile 
wire has been inserted, and followed by the three ground picks, 
the weaver now releases the first wire by severing, w r ith a knife 
specially adapted for that purpose, all the pile threads that pass 
over it. This wire is then removed and inserted in the next pile 
warp shed to be followed by three more ground picks, after which 
the second wire is also released, and removed to be again inserted 
in the next following pile warp shed, and so on, continuously. The 
severing of the loops formed by the pile warp threads causes these 
to stand erect as short tufts and thus produce the pile surface. 

The instrument employed by a velvet weaver, for cutting the 
pile warp threads, consists of a special form of knife blade, bent 
at an angle and fixed adjustably in a frame described as a "tre- 
vette." This frame serves both as a handle and guide for the 
blade, of which the thin and sharp edge is inserted by the weaver 
into the narrow groove of the pile wires, and drawn quickly, by 
the right hand, from the left selvedge to the right, with the rear 
side of the "trevette" bearing against the pile wire last inserted, 
to serve as a guide, whilst the knife edge passes along the groove of 
the pile wire nearest the weaver. 

Types of Velvet. Velvet fabrics also comprise many other 
varieties ranging from the light, plain textures employed for per- 
sonal adornment, to the heavier and stronger figured textures for 
furniture upholstery, curtain drapery, mats, rugs, and similar 
articles of a more durable character. These comprise such types as 
Utrecht velvet, "frieze" velvet, "moquette" velvet, and others 
of a similar kind. Many of these varieties of figured velvets, with 
the pile produced from mohair and wool, are woven in power-looms 



VELVETEEN VEND 



39 



furnished with special mechanism adapted to insert the "pile 
wires" into the warp sheds, and afterwards withdraw them from 
the cloth, automatically. 

Figured velvet fabrics are also sometimes embellished with both 
a cut or "velvet" pile and an uncut (i.e., looped or "terry") 
pile, with very pleasing effect owing to the lighter and darker 
tones of colour resulting from the difference in the reflection of 
light from the "velvet" and "terry" pile surfaces, which appear 
to be of darker and lighter tones, respectively, although produced 
from warp threads of exactly the same material, colour and counts 
of yarn. Very beautiful varieties of figured, plush pile fabrics are 
those described as "embossed plush pile fabrics" which are de- 
scribed under "ARTIFICIAL SILK FABRICS" (q.v.). (H. N.) 

VELVETEEN. One of the most important varieties of the 
type of fabrics comprised under the general description of "fus- 
tians" (q.v.). Such fabrics are virtually "cotton velvets" con- 
structed with a short weft pile surface and bear a very close re- 
semblance to the true velvets (q.v.) constructed with a warp 
pile of silk. Although "velveteen" and "velvet" have a similar 
general appearance, they are each constructed on distinctly differ- 
ent principles of fabric structure. 

Before being submitted to the operation of fustian cutting, all 
velveteen fabrics have a smooth and even weft surface very 
similar to that of ordinary cotton weft-face satin textures known 
as "sateen" (q.v.), and may be made to assume, during that 
operation, either a plain pile surface uniformly, or else a ribbed 
or corded surface with the ribs extending lengthwise of the fabric, 
i.e., in the direction of the warp threads. Although they com- 
prise several different modifications in respect of their structural 
details, they all embody the same essential features in their con- 
struction. This consists of the development of a series of short 
tufts of weft, pile on a foundation of the plain calico, a simple 
twill, or other elementary weave structure of a suitable character. 
They consist essentially of one series of warp threads and two 
series of weft threads, viz., "face" or pile picks and "back" picks, 
respectively, of the same kind of weft from a single shuttle. The 
warp threads and "back'' picks are interwoven on some elemen- 
tary principle to constitute the foundation texture, while the 
"face" or pile picks are allowed to "float" somewhat freely on 
the face, as in a sateen fabric, to be afterwards severed by the 
fustian knife, in order to develop the tufts of pile. Face and 
back [ricks may be employed in any suitable ratio ranging from 
two to as many as nine pile picks for each ground pick, and with 
the face picks floating loosely over from three to eleven warp 
threads chiefly according to the character of texture as regards 
the length (or depth) and density of the pile and the weight and 
quality of the fabric and its particular use. 

Forming the Pile. During the operation of fustian cutting, 
all the floating pile weft is severed by the fustian knife, thereby 
causing that weft to stand erect, and thus form the short tufts of 
pile which lie in close formation and thus develop the charac- 
teristic velvet or plush pile over the entire surface of the fabric. 

The picks are cut by the fustian knife. This knife-blade 
is formed with a very fine and sharp cutting edge at the extreme 
end of a long, square, steel shank inserted in a wooden haft to 
be held by the fustian cutter. After the velveteen fabric has been 
prepared in a suitable manner for cutting and stretched taut in 
a frame for that purpose, the fustian cutter, commencing at one 
selvedge, proceeds to cut that stretch of cloth one "race" or 
''run" at a time, taking each "race" in succession. 

Varieties of Velveteen. The different varieties of velveteen 
are distinguished chiefly by the particular weave structure on 
which the foundation texture is based. Hence, they are described 
as "plain," or "tabby-back"; "jean" or "jeanettc-back"; and 
"Genoa-back" velveteens. The "tabby-back" variety signifies a 
foundation texture based on the plain calico weave; while "jean- 
back" signifies those based on the three-end ( ) regular twill 
weave, as indicated in the design fig. 3 ; and "Genoa-back" those 
based on the four-end two-and-two (~~) regular twill weave; 
while there are many other weaves employed in their construction. 
In addition to these variations, some velveteens are also con- 
structed as "fast" or "lashed" pile velveteen, from the method of 




interweaving the picks of pile weft with the warp threads in 
such a manner that the tufts of pile are thereby interlocked 
or "lashed" more securely in the foundation texture. Thus, in- 
stead of each tuft of pile being looped underneath only one warp 
thread by the usual method, each tuft in a "lashed-pile" velveteen 
intersects with three warp threads in succession. 
See H. Nisbet. Grammar of Textile Design (1927). (H. N.) 

VELVET- WEED (A bnti- 
lon Theopkrasti) , an annual vel- 
vety-hairy plant of the mallow 
family (Malvaceae, q.v.), known 
also as Indian mallow, native to 
southern Asia and widely natur- 
alized in the warmer parts .of the 
United States, often becoming a 
pestiferous weed. It grows from 
3 ft. to 6 ft. high, with large, 
heart -shaped leaves, yellow flow- 
ers, and a close head of beaked 
seed-pods. 

VENAFRUM, an ancient 
town of Campania, Italy, close to 
the boundaries of both Latium 
Adjectum and Samnium. Its site 
is occupied by the modern Vena- 
suRVEY U " ItJI " r '"' " J "~ *""'"'"-'" f r( ^ a village with 4,353 inhabi- 
VELVET WEED OR INDIAN MALLOW, tants (1921), on the railway from 
(ABuriLON THEOPHRASTD, SHOW- Jsernia to Caiancllo, 15 m. S.VV. 

ING FLOWERS AND SEED-PODS of ^ formcr> ^ R .^^ ^ 

level. Ancient authors tell us but little about it, except that it 
was one of those towns governed by a prefect sent yearly from 
Rome, and that in the Social War it was taken by the allies by 
treachery. Augustus founded a colony there and provided for the 
construction of an aqueduct (cf. the long decree relating to it in 
Corp. /user. Lat. x. No. 4842). It seems to have been a place of 
some importance. Its olive oil was the best in Italy, and Cato 
mentions its brickworks and iron manufactures. The original line 
of the Via Latina probably ran through Venafrum, making a 
detour, which the later road seems to have avoided (cf. LATINA, 
VIA). Rufrac was probably dependent, on it. Roads also ran from 
Venafrum to Aesernia and to Telesia by way of Allifae. Of ancient 
remains hardly anything is left some traces of an amphitheatre 
and fragments of polygonal walls only. (T. As.) 

VENAISSIN, formerly a province of France, bounded on 
the north and north-east by Dauphine, on the south by the 
Durance, on the east by Provence, and on the west by the Rhone. 
It comprises the present department of Vaucluse. Its capital is 
Carpentras (q.v.). 

Vcnaissin is a picturesque territory, varying in scenery between 
the foothills of the Alps arid magnificent plains, which are irrigated 
by canals supplied by the Rhone, the Durance and the Sorgue. 

The Comtat-Venaissin (Comitatus V eiuissinns) , the territory 
of the Gallic people the Cavares, belonged first to the counts 
of Provence, and then to the counts of Toulouse. Ceded to the 
pope in 1218 by Raymond VII. count of Toulouse, and again 
in 1274 by Philip the Bold, it was only united to France in 
1791. The town of Avignon (q.v.), anciently distinct from the 
Comtat-Venaissin, was incorporated in it by Pope Clement VI. 
at the beginning of the i4th century. Avignon, a bishopric since 
the ist century, became an archbishopric in 1475. Carpentras was 
a bishopric from 483 till 1805. 

For history see L. Loubet, Carpentras el le Comtat-Venaissin avant, 
et apres I'annexion (1891). 

VENANTIUS: see FORTUNATUS, VEXANTIVS HONORIUS 
CLEMENTIANUS. 

VEND, LIMITATION OF THE, the name of the oper- 
ations of a combination of north of England colliery owners, 
which existed between 1771 and 1844, formed for the purpose of 
limiting the supplies of coal to consumers to raise prices. 

The system of price control by coal owners using the ports of 
the Tyne, the Wear and the Tees, began as early as 1665 and be- 
came systematic in 1771. The owners established a control office at 



VENDACE VENDEE 



Newcastle-on-Tyne with what is described by Porter in his Pro- 
gress of the Nation as "a very costly establishment of clerks and 
agents." The governing committee held regular meetings at 
which the quantities to be sold by each colliery were determined 
and the prices to the consumer fixed. By this means, during a 
period of nearly three-quarters of a century, every British coal 
consumer using seaborne coal was heavily taxed. Moreover, as the 
limitation of the vend only applied to coal shipments to London, 
which was then the great market for seaborne coal, and not to 
shipments made to foreign countries, the system taxed British 
consumers while cheapening coal prices to foreign consumers. 

The limitation of the vend became the subject of a number of 
parliamentary enquiries. It was examined by parliamentary com- 
mittees in 1800, 1829, 1830 and 1836 and finally expired in 1844. 

VENDACE (Coregomis vandesius) , a small fish of the salmon 
family, from the lakes of Lochmaben, in Dumfriesshire, Scot- 
land; the name is also given to an allied form (C. gracilior), from 
Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite. These differ from other British 
species in having the lower jaw prominent; the scales are larger 
than in related species from the Arctic ocean and the countries 
round the Baltic. (See WHITEFISII, SALMON AND SALMONIDAE.) 

VENDEE, a maritime department of western France, formed 
in 1790 out of Bas-Poitou, and taking its name from an unim- 
portant tributary of the Sevrc Niortaisc. It is bounded by Loirc- 
Inf6rieurc and Maine-et-Loire on the north, by Deux-Sevres on 
the east, by Charente-Inferieure on the south and by the Atlantic 
ocean on the west for 93 m. Pop. (1926) 395,602. Area, 2,690 
square miles. The islands of Yeu (area, 84 sq.m.) and Noirmou- 
tier are included. The department stretches from the Hau- 
teurs de la Gatine (748 ft.) in the north-east down the 
wooded slopes of the Bocage Vendccn to the plain bordered 
towards the sea by the Marais, largely salt-marshes reclaimed 
during the last four centuries. The Gatine is a south-east to 
north-west axial line of the Armorican system, and the Bocage 
on its flank is formed mainly of Palaeozoic rocks, but the plain 
on the edge of the Marais is of Jurassic limestone. The three 
chief rivers are the Sevre Nantaise, draining the Gatine longi- 
tudinally, the Lay, and, in the south, the Scvre Niortaise. The 
climate is that of the Girondine region, mild and damp, the 
temperature rarely rising above 77 or falling below 18 F; 120 
to 150 days of rain give an average annual rainfall of 25 in. The 
woodland is colder than the plain, and the marsh is unhealthy. 

Vend6c is served by the Ouest-tat railway and has 81 m. of 
navigable rivers and canals. The department forms the diocese 
of Luc,on, has its court of appeal and educational centre at Poitiers, 
and is in the district of the XI. Army Corps (Nantes). There 
are three arrondisscments (La Roche-sur-Yon, Fontenay-le- 
Comte and Sables-d'Olonne), 30 cantons, and 306 communes. 
The chief towns are La Roche-sur-Yon, the capital, Les Sables- 
d'Olonne, Fontenay-le-Comte and Luc.on (q.v.). Foussais, Nieul- 
sur-l'Autise and Vouvant have Romanesque churches: Pouzaugcs 
has a stronghold of the I3th century; Maillezais has the ruins of 
a T2th century cathedral; Talmont and Tiffauges possess ruined 
castles; and Le Bernard and Noirmoutier have dolmens. 

VENDEE, WARS OF THE, a counter-revolutionary insur- 
rection which took place during the French Revolution (q.v.)< 
not only in Vend6e proper but also in Lower Poitou, Anjou, 
Lower Maine and Brittany. The district was mainly inhabited 
by peasants; it contained few important towns, and the bourgeois 
were but a feeble minority. The ideas of the Revolution were 
slow in penetrating to this ignorant peasant population, which had 
always been less civilized than the majority of Frenchmen, and 
in 1789 the events which roused enthusiasm throughout the rest 
of France left the Vend6ans indifferent. Presently, too, signs of 
discontent appeared. The priests who had refused to submit to 
the Civil Constitution of the Clergy perambulated these retired 
districts, and stigmatized the revolutionists as heretics. In 1791 
two "representatives on mission" informed the Convention of the 
disquieting condition of Vend6e, and this news was quickly fol- 
lowed by the exposure of a royalist plot organized by the mar- 
quis de La Roueric. 

The signal for a widespread rising was the introduction of 



conscription acts for the recruiting of the depleted armies on 
the eastern frontiers. In February 1793 the Convention decreed 
a levy on the whole of France, and on the eve of the ballot the 
Vende*e, rather than comply with this requisition, broke out in 
insurrection. In the month of March 1793 the officer com- 
manding at Cholet was killed, and republicans were massacred at 
Machecoul and St. Florcnt. Giving rein to their ancient antip- 
athy, the revolted peasantry attacked the towns, which were 
liberal in ideas and republican in sympathies. 

These first successes of the Vendeans coincided with grave 
republican reverses on the frontier war with England, Holland 
and Spain, the defeat of Neerwinden and the defection of 
Dumouriez. The bmigris then began to throw in their lot with the 
Vendeans. Royalist nobles like the marquis de Bonchamp, Char- 
ette dc la Contrie, Gigot d'Elbee, Henri de la Rochejaquelein and 
the marquis de Lescure placed themselves at the head of the peas- 
ants. Although several of these leaders were Voltairians, they held 
up Louis XVI., who had been executed in Jan. 1793, as a martyr 
to Catholicism, and the Vendeans, who had hitherto styled them- 
selves the Christian Army, now adopted the name of the Catholic 
and Royal Army. 

The Convention took measures against the emigres and the 
refractory priests. By a decree of March 19, 1793, every person 
accused of taking part in the counter-revolutionary revolts, or of 
wearing the white cockade (the royalist emblem), was declared 
an outlaw. The prisoners were to be tried by military commissions, 
and the sole penalty was death with confiscation of property. The 
Convention also sent representatives on mission into Vendee to 
effect the purging of the municipalities, the reorganization of the 
national guards in the republican towns and the active prosecu- 
tion of the revolutionary propaganda. These measures proving in- 
sufficient, a decree was promulgated on April 30, 1793, for the 
despatch of regular troops; but, in spite of their failure to capture 
Nantes, the successes of the Vendeans continued. 

At the end of Aug. 1793, the republicans had three armies in the 
Vendee the army of Rochclle, the army of Brest and the Mayen- 
(ai$] but their generals were either ciphers, like Ronsin, or divided 
among themselves, like Rossignol and Canclaux. They were un- 
certain whether to cut off the Vendeans from the sea or to drive 
them westwards; and moreover, their men were undisciplined. 
Although the peasants had to leave their chiefs and work on the 
land, the Vendeans still remained formidable opponents. They 
were equipped partly with arms supplied by England, and partly 
with fowling-pieces, which at that period were superior to the 
small-arms used by the regular troops, and their intimate knowl- 
edge of the country gave them an immense advantage. 

The dissensions of the republican leaders and the demoralizing 
tactics of the Vendeans resulted in republican defeats at Chan- 
tonnay, Torfou, Coron, St. Lambert, Montaigu and St. Fulgent. 
The Convention resolved to bring the war to an end before Octo- 
ber, and placed the troops under the undivided command, first 
of Jean Lechelle and then of Louis Turreau, who had as subor- 
dinates such men as Marceau, Kleber and Westermann. On Oct. 
7 the various divisions concentrated at Bressuire, took Chatillon 
after two bloody engagements, and defeated the Vend6ans at 
Cholet, Beaupreau and La Tremblaye. After this repulse, the 
royalists, under Stoffiet and La Rochejaquelein, attempted to 
rouse the Cotentin and crossed the Loire. Beaten back at Gran- 
ville, they tried to re-enter the Vende*e, but were repulsed at 
Angers. They re-formed at Le Mans, where they were defeated 
by Westermann, and the same officer annihilated the main body of 
the insurgents at Savenay (Dec. 1793). 

Regular warfare was now at an end, although Turreau and his 
"infernal columns'' still continued to scour the disaffected districts. 
After the 9th Thermidor attempts were made to pacify the coun- 
try. The Convention issued conciliatory proclamations allowing 
the Vendeans liberty of worship and guaranteeing their property. 
Gen. Hoche applied these measures with great success. He re- 
stored their cattle to the peasants who submitted, "let the priests 
have a few crowns," and on July 20, 1795, annihilated an imigri 
expedition which had been equipped in England and had seized 
Fort Penthievre and Quiberon. Treaties were concluded at La 



VEND^MIAIRE VENER 



Jaunaie (Feb. 15, 1795) and at La Mabillaic, and were fairly well 
observed by the Vend6ans; and nothing remained but to cope with 
the feeble and scattered remnant of the Vendeans still under 
arms, and with the Chouans (q.v.). On July 30, 1796, the state of 
siege was raised in the western departments. 

During the Hundred Days there was a revival of the Vendan 
war, the suppression of which occupied a large corps of Napoleon's 
army, and in a measure weakened him in the northern theatre 
of war. (Sec WATERLOO CAMPAIGN.) 

In 1832 again an abortive insurrection broke out in support of 
the Bourbons, at the instigation of the duchess of Berry; the Ven- 
dean hero on this occasion was the baron de Charette. 

There are numerous articles on the Vcnddan insurrection of 1793 
in the Revue du Bas-Poitou, Revue historique de I'Anjou, Revue de 
Rretagne, de Vendee et d'Anjou, Revue historique de I'Oucst, Revue 
historique et archeologique du Maine, and La Vendee historique. See 
also R. Bittard dcs Fortes, "Bibliographic historique et critique des 
guerres de Vendee et de la Chouannerie" in the Revue du Bas-Poitou 
(1903 scq.) ; C. L. Chassin, Atudes sur la Vendte et la Chouannerie 
(La Preparation de la guerre La Vendte patriote Les Pacifications 
de I'Ouest) (Paris, 1892 seq.), n vols. (the best general work on the 
.subject); C. Port, Les Origines de la Vendee (Paris, 1888); C. 
Leroux-Cesbron, "Correspondance des reprsentants en mission 
ca l'arme de 1'ouest (1794-95)" in the Nouvelle Revue retrospective 
(1898) ; Blachez, Bonchamps et P insurrection vendtenne (Paris, 
1902); P. Mautouchct, Le Conventional Philippeaux (Paris, 1901). 
On 1815 a modern work is Les Cent Jours en Vendte; le general 
Lamarque, by B. Lasserre (Paris, 1907) ; on 1832 see La Vendte, by 
Vicomtc A. dc Courson (1909). (R. AN.) 

VEND^MIAIRE, the name given during the French Revo- 
lution to the first month of the year in the Republican calendar 
(from Lat. viudemia, vintage). Vendemiaire began on Sept. 
22, 23 or 24, and ended on Oct. 22, 23 or 24, according to the 
year, and was the season of the vintage in the wine districts of 
northern France. See CALENDAR. 

VENDETTA, the custom of the family feud, by which the 
nearest kinsman of a murdered man was obliged to take up the 
quarrel and avenge his death. (Ital. from Lat. vindicta, revenge.) 
From being an obligation upon the nearest, it grew to be an 
obligation on all the relatives, involving families in bitter private 
wars. In primitive communities, the injury done was held to be 
more than personal, a wrong done to the whole gens. The term 
originated in Corsica, where the vendetta long played an im- 
portant part in the social life. If the murderer could not? be 
found, his family were liable to fall victims to the vendetta. 

VEND6ME, LOUIS JOSEPH, Due DE (1654-1712), 
marshal of France, was the son of Louis, 2nd duke of Vendome, 
and the great-grandson of Henry IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrees. 
Entering the army he distinguished himself in the Dutch wars, 
and by 1688 had risen to the rank of lieutenant-general. In the 
war of the Grand Alliance he rendered conspicuous service and 
in 1695, in command of the army operating in Catalonia, he took 
Barcelona. Soon afterwards he received the marshalate. In 1702, 
after the first unsuccessful campaign of Catinat and Villeroi, he 
was placed in command of the Franco-Spanish army in Italy. 
(See SPANISH SUCCESSION WAR.) During three campaigns in 
that country he proved a worthy antagonist to Prince Eugene, 
whom at last he defeated at Cassano. Next year he was sent to 
Flanders to repair the disaster of Ramillies with the result that 
his successors Marsin and Philip of Orleans were totally de- 
feated, while in the new sphere Vendome was merely the mentor 
of the pious and unenterprising duke of Burgundy, and was un- 
able to prevent the defeat of Oudenarde. He retired in disgust to 
his estates, but was soon summoned to take command of the 
army of Philip in Spain. There he won his last victories, crown- 
ing his work with the battle of Villaviciosa. Before the end of 
the war he died suddenly at Vinaros on June n, 1712. 

VEND6ME, a town of north-central France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Loir-et-Cher, 22m. N.W. of 
Blois by rail. Pop. (1926) 7,383. Vendome (Vindocinum) ap- 
pears originally to have been a Gallic oppidum, replaced later by 
a feudal castle, around which the modern town arose. Christianity 
was introduced by St. Bienheure" in the sth century, and the im- 
portant abbey of the Trinity was founded about 1030. When the 



reign of the Capetian dynasty began, Vendome was the chief town 
of a countship belonging to Bouchard, called "the Venerable." 
The succession passed by various marriages to the houses of Ne- 
vers, Preuilly and Montoire. Bouchard VII., count of Vendome 
and Castres (d. c. 1374), left as his heiress his sister Catherine, 
the wife of John of Bourbon, count of la Marche. The countship 
of Vendome was raised to the rank of a duchy and a peerage of 
France for Charles of Bourbon (1515); his son Anthony of Bour- 
bon, king of Navarre, was the father of Henry IV., who gave the 
duchy of Vendome in 1598 to his natural son Caesar (1594-1665). 
Caesar, duke of Vendome, had as his sons Louis, duke of Vendome 
(1612-69), who married a niece of Mazarin, and Francis, duke 
of Beaufort. The last of the family in the male line (1654-1712) 
was Louis XIV.'s famous general, Louis Joseph, duke of Ven- 
dome (q.v.). 

Vendome stands on the Loir, which here divides and intersects 
the town. To the south stands a hill on which are ruins of the 
1*1 th century castle of the counts of Vendome. The abbey-church 
of the Trinity (i2th to I5th century) has a fine facade in the 
florid Gothic style and a transitional i2th century belfry, with a 
stone steeple, stands isolated in front of the church. Abbey build- 
ings of various periods lie round the church. The church of La 
Madeleine (isth century) is surmounted by a stone spire, an in- 
different imitation of that of the abbey. Of the church of St. 
Martin (i6th century) only the tower remains. The town hall 
occupies the old gate of St. George, with two large crenelated 
and machicolated towers, connected by a pavilion. The i5th cen- 
tury chapel of the ancient hospital of St. Jacques, in the most 
florid Gothic style, is preserved. 

VENEER, a thin sheet of superior wood, covering the sur- 
face of inferior wood. Veneers may be sliced with a knife (knife- 
cut) or cut with a saw (saw-cut) from a section of a tree (flitch). 

The art of producing and using veneers dates back to the 
earliest days of civilization, and it may be looked upon even as a 
standard of human development, since efficient veneering has 
always followed the wake of human progress. (See Wilkinson's 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, Perrot and 
Chipiez' History of Art in Chaldca and Assyria, etc.) Intarsia 
and marquetry work are closely allied to and inter-dependent 
upon the art of veneering. 

In the usual process of manufacture, the flitches are steamed 
before being cut, and the sheet of veneer thus obtained is care- 
fully dried. Veneers may be cut along the grain, through the log, 
or from cross-sections of the log; the figure and design of the 
veneer obtained from the different methods employed vary 
widely and the art of veneering consists as much in the most 
effective utilization of the log as in the careful and suitable appli- 
cation and matching of the veneers afterwards. Veneers are also 
produced by means of the rotary cutting process as a raw material 
for plywood. A part of a log is inserted lengthwise between two 
pins on a rotating lathe, and a knife, pressed against it, peels off 
an endless ribbon of vcnccr. (See PLYWOOD.) 

See Sidney J. Duly, Timber and Timber Products (1024) ; E. Vernon 
Knight and Mcinrad Vulpi, Veneers and Plywood (N.Y., 1927) ; E. 
Brocard, L'Art de decouper le bois eomprcnunt tgalement la Mar- 
queterie et la Sculpture Simple (Paris, 1873). (A. MOR.) 

VENER, the largest lake in Sweden and the third largest in 
Europe; area 2,149 sq.m.; maximum length 87 m.; maximum 
breadth 44 m. ; maximum depth 292 ft. The surface of the lake is 
normally 144 ft. above the sea but may rise 10 ft. or more higher, 
for the lake receives numerous streams, the largest being the Klar, 
which drains the forests of Vermland and Kopparberg to the 
north. It is drained by the Gota river to the Cattegat. It is 
divided into two basins by two peninsulas and a group of islands, 
the western half being Lake Dalbo. The northern shores are 
high, rocky and in part wooded, the southern open and low, though 
isolated hills occur, such as the Kinnekulle (1,007 ft-)- 

By means of the Dalsland Canal from Kopmannabro, midway 
on the west shore of Dalbo, the lake, which is busy in the traffic in 
timber, iron and agricultural produce, has communication with 
Fredrikshald in Norway; and it is traversed from Venersborg on 
the south to Sjotorp on the east by the Gota (q.v.) Canal route. 



VENERABLE VENEREAL DISEASES 



The principal lake-ports arc on the north shore Carlstad and 
Crist inehamn, with iron-works and tobacco factory; on the east 
Mariestad, chief town of the district of Skaraborg; on the south 
Lidkoping, and Vcnersborg with its iron foundries, tanneries and 
match and paper factories. 

VENERABLE, worthy of honour, respect and reverence, 
especially a term applied to dignified or honourable age [Lat. 
venerabilis, worthy of reverence]. It is specifically used as a title 
of address given to archdeacons in the Anglican Church. It was 
naturally a term of respectful address from early times; thus 
St. Augustine (Epist. 76, 88, 139) cites it of bishops, and Philip 
I. of France was styled venerabilis and venerandus (sec Du Cange, 
Gloss, s.v. Vcnerabilitas). In the Roman Church the granting of 
the title "venerable"' is the first step in the long process of the 
canonization of saints (see CANONIZATION). 

VENEREAL DISEASES, a general term for the diseases 
resulting from impure sexual intercourse. Three distinct affections 
arc included under this term gonorrhoea, local contagious ulcers, 
known as soft chancres, and syphilis. They are three distinct 
diseases, due to different causes. Broadly speaking, gonorrhoea 
attacks the mucous membranes, especially that of the urethra, the 
vagina, uterus and Fallopian tubes; soft chancres attack the 
mucous membranes and the skin; syphilis, after a short local 
manifestation, affects the whole body. 

Though these three affections generally result from impure 
sexual intercourse, there are other methods of contagion, as when 
the accoucheur is poisoned whilst delivering a syphilitic woman, 
the surgeon when operating on a syphilitic patient, the wet-nurse 
who is suckling a syphilitic infant, and so on. An individual may 
be attacked by any one or any two of the three, or by all at the 
same time, as the result of one and the same connection. But they 
do not show themselves at the same time; they have different 
stages of incubation. In gonorrhoea and soft chancre the first 
symptoms appear as a rule three or four days after inoculation; 
in syphilis, the period of incubation is twenty-eight days, though 
it may be much longer. 

GONORRHOEA 

Gonorrhoea is a s[x?cific intlnrnmntion of the mucous membrane 
of the urethra and other passages caused by M. gonorrhoea, a 
diplococcus discovered by Neisscr and often called the gono- 
coccus. 

The germs find entrance during coitus and multiply at enormous 
rate, spreading to all the glands and crevices of the membrane, 
and setting free in their development a toxin which causes great 
irritation of the passage with inflammation and swelling. They 
remain quietly incubating for three or four days, or even longer; 
then acute inflammation comes on, with profuse discharge of thick 
yellow matter, with much scalding during micturition, and there 
may be so much local pain that it is difficult for the person to move 
about. Microscopic examination of the discharge shows abundant 
pus corpuscles and epithelial cells from the membrane, together 
with swarms of intra- and extra-cellular diplococci (gonococci). 

The inflammatory process may extend backwards and give rise 
to acute prdstatitis (sec BLADDER AND PROSTATE, DISEASES OF), 
with retention of urine; to the duct of the tcstes and give rise 
to acute epididymitis (swollen testicle) ; and to the bladder, caus- 
ing acute cystitis. It may also cause local abscesses, or, by irrita- 
tion, set up crops of warts. 

In ten days or a fortnight the inflammation gradually subsides, 
a thin watery discharge remaining which is known as f>lcct. But 
inasmuch as this discharge contains gonococci it may, though 
scarcely noticeable, set up acute specific inflammation in the 
opposite sex. 

In the case of the female the inflammation is apt to extend to 
the uterus and along the Fallopian tubes, perhaps to give rise to 
an abscess in the tube (pyosalpinx) which, bursting, may cause 
fatal peritonitis. 

A lingering gleet may be due to the presence of a definite ulcera- 
tion in the urethra, and this, being chronic, is accompanied by 
the formation of much fibrous tissue which contracts and causes 
narrowing of the urethra, or stricture. Thus gleet and stricture 
are often associated, and the occasional passage of a large bougie 



may suffice to cure both. Often, however, a stricture of the 
urethra proves rebellious in the extreme, and leads to diseases 
of the bladder and kidneys which may prove fatal. 

One of the most important points in the management of a case 
of gonorrhoea is to prevent risk of the septic discharge coming 
into contact with the eye. If this happens, prompt and energetic 
measures must be taken to save the eye. If at the time of delivery 
a woman be the subject of gonorrhoea, there is great probability 
of the eyes of the infant being affected. The symptoms appear 
on the third day after birth, and the disease may end in complete 
blindness. The name of the disease is ophthalmia neonatorum, 
(Sec BLINDNESS.) 

By the term gonorrhoeal rheumatism it is implied that the gono- 
cocci have been carried by the blood stream to one or more joints 
in which an acute inflammation has been set up. It is apt to occur 
in the third week -of the disease, and may end in permanent stiff- 
ness of the joints or in abscess. 

In rare cases the germs find their way to the cardiac valves, 
pleura or pericardium, setting up an inflammation which may end 
fatally. 

For a man to marry whilst there is the slightest risk of his still 
being the subject of gonorrhoea is to subject his wife to the prob- 
ability of infection, ending with chronic inflammation of the 
womb or of septic peritonitis. Yet it is often extremely difficult 
to say when a man is cured. That there is no longer any discharge 
does not suffice to show that he has ceased to be infective. Noth- 
ing less than repeated examinations of the urethral mucus by the 
microscope, ending in a negative result, should be accepted as* 
evidence of the cure being complete. And these examinations 
should be made after he has returned to his former ways of eating, 
drinking and working. 

LOCAL CONTAGIOUS ULCERS 

Chancroid, Soft Chancre or Soft Sore is so named in con- 
tradistinction to the Ilunterian sore of syphilitic infection, the 
great characteristic of which is its hardness. The soft chancre 
is a contagious ulcer of the genitals, due to the inoculation of the 
bacillus of Ducrey; and, provided that the specific germ of 
syphilis is not inoculated at the same time, the chancre is not 
followed by constitutional affection. In other words, the disease 
is purely local, and if some of the discharge of one of these ulcers 
is inoculated on another part of the body of the individual a sore 
of an exactly similar nature appears. This reproduction of the 
sore can be done over and over again on the same individual, 
always with the same result. But in the case of the Hunterian sore, 
inoculation of the individual from the primary sore gives no 
result, because the constitutional disease has rendered the individ- 
ual proof against further infection. The soft sore is often mul- 
tiple. It appears about three days after the exposure, and as it 
increases in size free suppuration takes place. Its base remains 
soft. In individuals broken down in health, the ulceration is apt 
to extend with great rapidity, and is then spoken of as phagedaenic. 

Just as an individual may contract syphilis and gonorrhoea at 
the same connection, so also he may be inoculated simultaneously 
with the bacilli of the soft chancre and the spirochacte of syphilis. 
In this case the soft chancres appear, as usual, within the first 
three or four days, but though passing through the customary 
stages they may refuse quite to heal, or, having healed, they may 
become indurated in the second month, constitutional symptoms 
following in due course. 

Bubo. The bacilli from the soft sore may pass by the lym- 
phatic vessels to the glands in the groin, when they set up inflam- 
mation. 

SYPHILIS 

The cause of syphilis, whether inherited or acquired, which 
can be demonstrated in the primary and various secondary lesions, 
and in the internal organs, is Spirocftaeta or Treponema pallida, 
a motile protozoon of spiral form, from 4 to 20 /x in length and J p. 
in diameter, with a flagellum at either extremity. Inoculations of 
the spirochnetc in monkeys have produced the characteristic 
primary (Hunterian) sores, which have proved infective to other 
monkeys. And in the reproduced primary sores, as also in the 



VENEREAL DISEASES 



43 



secondary lesions following them, the same specific micro-organ- 
ism has been demonstrated. The organism can also be inoculated 
successfully into the testicles of rabbits. 

The syphilitic virus is introduced at the seat of an abrasion 
either on the genital organs or on some other part of the surface 
of the body. It has been conveyed during a fight by abrasion of 
the skin covering the knuckle against the tooth of an adversary 
with secondary syphilis. The poison lies quiescent for an average 
period of four weeks. A cartilaginous, button-like hardness ap- 
pears at the seat of inoculation. If this is irritated ulccration 
takes place; but ulceration is an accident, not an essential. The 
infection becomes systemic long before the chancre develops. 
The so-called period of quiescence does not exist. From the 
primary seat the system becomes infected. The virus, passing 
along the lymphatic vessels, attacks the nearest chain of lymphatic 
glands. If the original sore is in the genital organs, the glands in 
the groin are first attacked; if in the hand, the glands of the elbow 
or armpit; if on the lip, the glands below the jaw. The affected 
glands are indurated and painless; they may become acutely in- 
flamed, just as the primary lesion may, but this, too, is an acci- 
dent, not an essential. In due course the poison may affect the 
whole glandular system. Skin eruptions, often symmetrical, break 
out. Irritation of any mucous membrane is followed by papular 
eruptions with superficial ulccration, and in the later stages of the 
disease skin-eruptions, scaly, pimply, pustular or nodular in type, 
appear. These eruptions do not itch. The individual is as a general 
rule protected against a second attack of syphilis. In weakly peo- 
ple, in severe cases, or in cases that have not been properly treated, 
syphilitic deposits termed gummata are formed, which are very 
apt to break down and give rise to deep ulcerations. 

Gummata. The most characteristic form of the generalized 
syphilitic infection, which may not manifest itself for several 
years after the reception of the virus, is a nodular inflammatory 
formation in various organs the liver, tcstes or brain, the 
muscles (tongue and jaw-muscles especially), the periosteum, the 
skin and the lungs. The deposits are called gummata from the 
tenacious appearance of the fresh-cut surface and of the discharge 
oozing from it. The structure consists of granulation-tissue in 
which necrosis occurs at various central points. One remarkable 
feature of the process is the overgrowth of cells in the inner coat 
of the arteries (see ARTERIKS, DISEASES OF), within the affected 
area, which obliterate the vessel and are the chief cause of the 
central degeneration of the gumma. Gummata, and the ulcers left 
by them, constitute the tertiary manifestations of syphilis. 

In a large proportion of cases only the secondary symptoms 
occur, and not the tertiary, the virus having presumably exhausted 
itself or been destroyed by treatment in the earlier manifestations. 

Inherited Syphilis.- -In the syphilis of the offspring it is nec- 
essary to distinguish two classes of effects there are the effects of 
general intra-utcrinc mal-nutrition, due to the placental syphilis 
of the mother; and there arc the true specific effects acquired by 
inheritance from either parent and conveyed in the sperm-ele- 
ments or in the ovum. These two classes of effects are commingled 
in such a way as not to be readily distinguished; but it is prob- 
able that the ill-organized growth of bone, at the cpiphysial line 
in the long bones (sometimes amounting to suppuration), and on 
the surfaces of the membrane-bones of the skull (Parrot's nodes) 
is a result of general placental mal-nutrition, like the correspond- 
ing errors of growth in rickets. The rashes and fissures of the skin, 
the snuffles and such-like well-known symptoms in the offspring 
are characteristic effects of the specific taint; so also the peculiar 
overgrowth in the liver, the interstitial pneumonia alba of the 
lungs and the like. It is in many cases some months after birth 
before the congenital syphilitic effects show themselves, while 
other effects come to light during childhood and youth. 

The moist eruptions and ulcerations about the mouth and anus 
of the infant, as well as the skin affections generally, are charged 
with the spirochaetes and are highly contagious. 

From the second to the sixth year there is commonly a rest in 
the symptoms that are regarded as characteristic, but the tibiae 
may become thickened from periostitis, or a joint may become 
swollen and painful. 



The characteristic physiognomy gradually manifests itself if the 
child is not treated the flattened nose, the square forehead, the 
radiating lines from the mouth, the stuntecl figure and pallid face. 
During the second dentition, the three signs, as pointed out by 
Jonathan Hutchinson, may be looked for the notched incisor 
teeth of the upper jaw, interstitial corneitis and syphilitic deaf- 
ness. Perforation of the soft or hard palate may occur, and 
ulcerations of the skin and cellular tissue. Destruction of the 
nasal bones, caries of the forehead and skull, of the long bones, 
may also take place. 

Colics' Law. A woman giving birth to a syphilitic infant can- 
not be inoculated with syphilis by the infant when she is suckling 
it; in other words, though the mother may have shown no definite 
signs of syphilis, she is immune; whereas the syphilitic infant put 
to the breast of a healthy woman may inoculate her nipple and 
convey syphilis to her. This is known as Colics' Law, and it is 
explained by the theory that, the mother's blood being already 
infected, her skin is proof against a local cultivation of germs in 
the form of a Hunterian sore. 

General Remarks. It by no means follows that because the 
infecting sore is small, unimportant or quickly healed, the attack, 
of which the sore is the first, (primary) symptom, will be mild. 
Indeed, it not infrequently happens that the most serious forms of 
secondary or tertiary symptoms succeed a sore which was re- 
garded as of such trivial nature that the individual declined to 
submit himself to treatment, or quickly withdrew himself from it 
to enter a fool's paradise. The advisability of ceasing from treat- 
ment should always be determined by the surgeon, never by the 
patient; treatment must be continued long after the disappearance 
of the secondary eruptions. It is the disease which the surgeon 
has to cure, not the symptoms. The patient is apt to think only of 
the symptoms. 

"Is the disease curable?" The answer is: "Yes; beyond doubt." 
But the individual must be made to understand the necessity of 
his submitting himself to a prolonged course of treatment. A 
second question is whether, in the course of the disease, his hair 
will fall out, his body will be covered with sores and his face with 
blotches, and if his bones will be attacked. Here, again, the 
answer is that prompt submission to treatment will render all 
such calamities extremely improbable. Another question often put 
is whether the disease is contagious or infectious. During the 
primary and secondary stages he is infectious as far as his lesions 
are concerned. Obviously, if a man has a primary sore or a sec- 
ondary eruption he should use his own pipe, razor, glass, cup or 
spoon, should refrain from kissing any one, and desist from sexual 
intercourse. If clue care thus be taken no danger is likely to ensue. 

Syphilis and Marriage.Thc question as to how soon it 
would be safe for a person with secondary syphilis to marry is of 
extreme importance, and the disregard of it. may cause lasting 
mental distress to the parent and permanent physical injury to the 
offspring. A man who finds himself to be the subject of secondary 
syphilis when he is engaged to be married would do well honour- 
ably to free himself from responsibility. But should a person who 
has been under regular and continuous treatment desire to marry, 
consent may be given when he has, seen no symptoms of his 
disease for two full years. But even then no actual promise can 
be made that his troubles are at an end. 

The transmission of syphilis to the third generation is quite pos- 
sible, but it is difficult of absolute proof because of the chance of 
there having been intercurrent infection of the offspring of "the 
second generation. (E. 0.; X.) 

GENERAL PREVENTIVE MEASURES 

The period since 1910 has been marked by the commencement 
of. a campaign which has developed mto a world-war against 
venereal diseases. In this work Great Britain has taken a prom- 
inent part. 

In 1913 a royal commission was set up to inquire into "the 
prevalence of venereal diseases in the United Kingdom, their 
effects on the health of the community, and the means by which 
those effects can be alleviated or prevented." The royal commis- 
sion reported in 1916, and their recommendations were imme- 



VENEREAL DISEASES 



diately acted upon by the Local Government Board of England 
and Wales (now the Ministry of Health), and the public meas- 
ures for combating venereal diseases in England and Wales are 
now as mentioned below, while in Scotland and Ireland the cam- 
paign is being conducted on the same principles. 

Legislative Action. r. By an Act of Parliament passed in 
1917 the treatment of patients for venereal disease by others than 
registered medical practitioners and the sale without the pre- 
scription of a registered medical practitioner or the advertisement 
to the lay public of remedies for the treatment or prevention of 
venereal diseases are forbidden. 

2. There are 193 centres chiefly in voluntary hospitals for the 
treatment, free of charge, of persons suffering from venereal 
disease. 

3. Fourteen hostels exist for the care and treatment of females 
who are infected, and would, unless helped by shelter, become 
professional prostitutes. 

4. Seven institutions are specially for the care of pregnant fe- 
males who are infected. 

5. Treatment of venereal disease is also provided in poor law 
institutions. 

6. Arscnobenzol (salvarsan) compounds are given free of charge 
to medical practitioners qualified to administer these remedies. 

7. Specimens from persons suspected to be suffering from 
venereal disease can be examined free of charge in 73 laboratories 
which have been approved for the purpose. 

8. The work of educating the public in the dangers of venereal 
diseases and the importance of early and continued treatment is 
carried out by the British Social Hygiene Council (formerly the 
National Council for Combating Venereal Diseases), which re- 
ceives from the Government a grant in aid of its expenses. Propa- 
gandist work is also undertaken by the county councils and county 
borough councils, cither directly or in conjunction with the British 
Social Hygiene Council. 

The arrangements for establishment of free treatment facilities 
for distribution of arsenobcnzol compounds and for laboratory 
examinations are under the control of county councils and county 
borough councils, which receive from the Government 75% of 
their approved expenditure on this account. 

Results Obtained. Some idea of the results obtained may be 
gathered by comparing the returns of cases seen for the first time 
in 1920, when the numbers were highest, with those seen for the 
first time in 1924, as presented hereunder: 



Year 


Syphilis 


Soft 

Chancre 


Gonor- 
rhoea 


Non-ven. 


Total 


IQ20 
1924 


42,805 

22,010 


2,442 
1,098 


40,284 
31,272 


i Q/> 54 
18,842 


105,185 

73,222 



The table discloses a substantial reduction in the number of 
cases of syphilis, and the figures indicate that the incidence of 
syphilis in the community has declined considerably. Similar 
results have been reported by other countries which have set up 
venereal-disease schemes on the principle of treating the infected. 
The attendance at the centres in 1920 was 1,488,514 and in 1924 
had increased to 1,645,415. 

Gonorrhoea. No outstanding remedy has been discovered 
analogous to that of arsenobenzol in syphilis, but, particularly 
since 1914, improvements in detail have made the diagnosis and 
cure of gonorrhoea more certain. In diagnosis, improvements in 
methods of cultivating the gonococcus on artificial media have 
placed the surgeon on firmer ground when determining the ques- 
tion of cure. In treatment the practice of administering vaccines 
to raise the patient's resistance has become much more common. 
- In complications of gonorrhoea, such as gonorrhoeal rheumatism 
and iritis, what is known as protein-shock therapy has proved 
useful. 

The remedies employed in this form of treatment are quite 
varied; for example, colloidal silver or anti-typhoid vaccine in- 
jected into a vein; milk or turpentine injected into the muscles. 
They have the immediate effect of raising the patient's tempera- 
ture and by the next day there is usually a definite improvement 



in the symptoms. 

Another form of treatment which has been in use by a few for 
a number of years but is only now becoming more general is 
diathermy. (Sec ELECTRO-THERAPY.) The principle of its use in 
gonorrhoea and its complications is that the gonococcus is very 
sensitive to heat, being killed at temperatures which are supported 
with comparative ease by human tissues. 

Good results have been obtained in gonorrhoea of females by 
this method, but undoubtedly its best effects are in epididymitis 
and in gonorrhoeal rheumatism in men. In gonorrhoeal rheuma- 
tism and iritis the reservoir from which the joints and eyes are 
continually being infected is commonly in the prostate and the 
seminal vesicles, both situated at the base of the bladder. The 
current is applied by means of an electrode placed in the rectum 
and is increased in strength until the patient feels the part becom- 
ing uncomfortably hot. 

Soft Chancre or Chancroid. The figures showing the new 
cases which have been seen at treatment centres indicate that 
chancroid is not now very prevalent in Great Britain. The treat- 
ment is now more conservative than formerly. The chancroid is 
viewed as possibly harbouring also the germs of syphilis, and 
with the object of avoiding any action which may prejudice the 
microscopical search for the more severe disease, the surgeon with- 
holds for as long as possible the application of antiseptics. 

When a bubo forms in the groin, a comparatively rare event" 
under modern practice, it is more usual now to attempt to secure 
resolution by protein-shock therapy (see GONORRHOEA) and by 
aspiration of the abscess followed by injection into the abscess" 
cavity of some drug which will lead to the destruction of the 
germs. 

Detection of Syphilis. Improvements irrmethods of detect- 
ing the germ, Spirochaeta pallida, under the microscope, viz., by 
dark-ground illumination, have made it possible to diagnose the 
disease very rapidly on the day it makes its first appearance. For 
the Wassermann and allied tests of blood and cerebro-spinal fluid 
for the presence of syphilis the article WASSERMANN REACTION 
should be consulted. 

Great strides have been made in treatment since 1910 when 
Ehrlich introduced dioxy-diamino-arsenobenzol clihydrochloride, 
commonly known as "606" or salvarsan (q.v.), as a remedy for 
syphilis. The effect of a single dose of this remedy is usually to 
cause the spirochaetes to disappear from the discharge of syphilitic- 
sores in 24 hours and syphilitic lesions heal with a rapidity which 
was a source of great wonder to those who had toiled in the 
treatment of syphilis with the help of only mercury and prep- 
arations of iodine. 

The original preparation has largely been supplanted by a com- 
pound introduced by Ehrlich in 1912 under the name of neosal- 
varsan or "914," which is much more convenient to use and less 
disturbing to the patient than was the original preparation. These 
advantages are somewhat offset by a lower therapeutic activity of 
the newer preparation. Combinations of arsenobenzol with silver 
and with zinc are also used. The manufacture of arsenobenzol 
preparations spread during the War into the hands of a number 
of firms each of which has attached to the same chemical com- 
pounds trade names of their own to an extent which may be some- 
what bewildering to the uninitiated. 

Every arsenobenzol compound is made in batches each of which 
receives a distinctive mark and must pass a certain test of toxicity 
and of therapeutic activity before it can be issued to the public. 
The testing in Great Britain is carried out by the Medical Research 
Council. Experience has shown that, although the arsenobenzol 
preparations act very promptly, a number of injections in succes- 
sive courses must be administered to secure eradication of syphilis 
and that it is advisable to supplement them by administering 
another metallic compound. 

Arsenobenzol will not penetrate into the nerve tissue of the 
brain, and this limitation has led to the introduction of an arsen- 
ical preparation of another order, viz. : tryparsamide or n-phenyl 
glydne-amido-p-arsonic acid into the therapy of locomotor ataxy 
and general paresis. The results show generally that tryparsamide 
is valuable for this purpose. 



VENEREAL DISEASES 



45 



In 1920 Sazerac and Levaditi showed that tartro-bismuthate 
of potassium and sodium is more powerful than mercury in de- 
stroying the spirothaetes of syphilis, and a large number of 
bismuth preparations have been placed on the market since it was 
found that it is the metal rather than the compound which matters 
in the therapeutic action. Generally it can be said that bismuth 
injections effect more towards the cure of syphilis than do mer- 
curial and that preparations of bismuth can be used which cause 
less discomfort than do any mercurial. 

Bismuth is useless for the cure of syphilis if given by the mouth 
and its injection into veins is practised very little on account of its 
greater toxicity when administered by this route. Bismuth is gen- 
erally considered to be an adjuvant rather than a substitute for 
arscnobenzol treatment. It is retained in the tissues for long after 
a series of injections has been given, and it thus prolongs the anti- 
syphilitic effect after all the arsenobenzol has been excreted. 

The powerful effect of the arsenobenzol and bismuth com- 
pounds on the germ of syphilis has led to a number of experiments 
to determine whether or not they prevent the development of 
syphilis after inoculation. 

There is strong evidence to the effect that a few arsenobenzol 
injections given after contamination with syphilitic virus does 
protect against the disease. Kolle has produced experimental evi- 
dence tending to show that the injection cf bismuth carbonate 
protects against infection resulting from inoculation with syphilitic 
virus so long as the compound remains in the muscles. Rabbits 
treated thus proved resistant to inoculation with syphilitic mate- 
rial for as long as 109 clays after injection of the bismuth. 

The disadvantage of injections as a method of preventing syph- 
ilis after venereal risk led Levaditi to try an arsenical compound 
called stovarsol or acctyl-oxyamino-phenyl arsenic acid, which is 
administered by the mouth. There is good evidence that the 
ingestion of stovarsol in suitable doses prevents infection, but 
considerably more work on the subject will be necessary before 
stovarsol can safely be given to the public as a prophylactic against 
syphilis. 

General Paralysis of the Insane. A great advance has been 
made in the treatment of a form of syphilis which is acknowledged 
lo be the most incurable of all, namely general paralysis of the 
insane. This disease is one which has almost always ended fatally, 
defying the most intensive treatment by anti-syphilitic remedies. 
Its course is marked by remissions of varying length, during 
which the patient may appear to have recovered. It has been 
known for a century or more that an intcrcurrent infection ac- 
companied by fever often results in a long remission, and this 
knowledge has led Wagner von Jauregg and his colleagues in 
Vienna since 1887 to inoculate patients with a variety of sub- 
stances designed to make their temperatures rise. The best of all 
the agents has proved to be the parasite of benign tertian malaria 
and since its introduction in 1919 the method has been tested all 
over the world. The results have been very encouraging. The 
inoculation is by injection of malarial blood or by the bites of 
infected mosquitoes, and eight to twelve attacks of fever are 
allowed before quinine is given. 

BrBLTOGRAPirv. L. W. Harrison, "The Public Control of Venereal 
Diseases," St. Thomas' Hospital Gazette, vol. 29, Nos. 7 and 8 (1913) ; 
L. W. Harrison, The Modern Diagnosis and Treatment of Syphilis, 
Chancroid and Gonorrhoea (1924) ; W. Kolle and K. Zieler, Handbuch 
der Salvarsantherapie, Bd. i and 2 (1924 and 1925) ; Royal Commission 
on Venereal Diseases, Final Report, Cd. 8189 dqi6) ; Ministry of 
Health Reports on Public Health and Medical subjects, No. i. The 
Complement Fixation Test in Syphilis, Commonly Known as the 
Wassermann Test, H.M.S.O. (1920) ; Ministry of Health, Annual 
Reports (Stationery Office, London) ; Medical Research Council, 
Special Report on laboratory diagnosis of gonococcal infections, No. 
19; on laboratory tests of syphilis, Nos. 14, 19, 21, 25, 45, 47, 55 and 78; 
on salvarsan, Nos. 44 and 66 (Stationery Office, London) ; D'Arcy 
Power and J. Keogh Murphy, A System of Syphilis, 6 vols. (1008-10) ; 
C. H. Browning and I. Mackenzie, Recent Advances in the Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Syphilis (2nd cd. 1024, bibl.) ; G. Luvs, A Text- 
Book on Gonorrhea (^rd ed. 1922) ; L. W. Harrison, The Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Venereal Diseases in General Practice (j*rd ed. 
JQ26) ; J. E. R. McDonagh, Venereal Diseases, their Clinical Aspect 
and Treatment (1920) ; N. P. L. Lumb, Gonococcal Infection in the 
Male (1920) ; E. Sergent, TraiU de Pathologie Mtdicale, "Syphilis," 



vol. 19 (1921) ; C. F. Marshall and E. G. Ffrcnch, Syphilis and Venereal 
Diseases (1921), which is the 4th ed. of Sy philology and Venereal 
Disease (1906); E. R. T. Clarkson, The Venereal Clinic (1022); 
A. R. Fraser, A Monograph on Gonorrhea (1923) ; D. Thomson, 
of Gonococcal Injection by Diathermy (1925). (L. W. H.; X.) 

CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES 

The plan which has been developed in the United States for 
combating the venereal diseases is the result of many years of 
scientific study. As early as 1912, there were organizations dealing 
with the venereal diseases and with prostitution; but in 1914, it 
,was recognized that any plan for combating venereal diseases must 
combine the social and legal with the medical and public health 
aspects and a national organization, the American Social Hygiene 
Association, which combined in its programme all phases of the 
problem of combating venereal diseases was established. The entry 
of the United States into the World War made it necessary for all 
medical and public health agencies of the country to consider what 
special measures could be taken to protect the armed forces of the 
United States from disability due to the venereal diseases. Meas- 
ures were instituted, therefore, in which the medical services of 
the army and navy, the U.S. Public Health Service and other 
Federal Government agencies co-operated with the health depart- 
ments of the States and cities, and with voluntary agencies such 
as the American Social Hygiene Association, in combating venereal 
diseases. This plan of control has been continued, with various 
modifications, and provides for the prevention and treatment of 
venereal diseases through three main groups of measures; viz., 
medical, legal and protective, and educational. 

Medical Measures. It is an essential of the plan of control of 
the venereal diseases that facilities which are adequate, easily 
available and free when necessary, be provided for diagnosis and 
treatment. Responsibility for providing such facilities rests pri- 
marily upon the official health authorities of the various States and 
cities, and these are aided by national agencies, such as the U.S. 
Public Health Service (official), and the American Social Hygiene 
Association (voluntary). In addition, many agencies, both public 
and private, are engaged in activities aiming through scientific 
research and better training of physicians and nurses to improve 
diagnostic and therapeutic materials and procedures. Early 
diagnosis and thorough treatment of nil infected persons is en- 
couraged, and an organized effort is made to discover infected 
persons among the families and other associates of patients. In 
many States, reporting, or notification, of cases of syphilis or 
gonorrhea is required and the law gives the health authorities the 
power to isolate persons who are known to be infectious and who 
cannot be controlled by any other means. The number of cases 
of syphilis notified each year approximates 200,000 and of gonor- 
rhea 160,000. Syphilis often stands first in the total number of 
cases of infectious diseases notified, outranking even measles; 
gonococcal infections stand fourth. Studies as to the prevalence 
of syphilis and gonorrhea have been made in certain cities and 
States and these seem to show that a larger proportion of patients 
suffering from syphilis than of gonococcal infection place them- 
selves under medical care. There are now in the United States 
approximately 650 clinics and dispensaries, where syphilis and 
gonorrhea are treated gratuitously or at nominal cost to the 
patients. In these clinics alone more than one million patients 
have been treated during the past eight years, and during the past 
year nearly 900,000 scrological tests for syphilis were made by 
State laboratories, and 800,000 doses of arsenical preparations 
were dispensed by State health departments. But various studies 
indicate that of the patients under treatment the majority are 
under the care of private physicians. Thus, in New York State, 
private physicians were treating 61% of the cases of syphilis and 
89% of the cases of gonorrhea. 

Educational Measures. Instruction of the general public in 
regard to venereal diseases is, like other phases of public health 
instruction, a duty of official health agencies, but such agencies as 
the American Social Hygiene Association, and its affiliated socie- 
ties, co-operate in demonstrating to educational, social and relig- 
ious institutions and associations in the United States the means 
by which scientific sex instruction can be incorporated in the 



VENETI VENETIA 



activities of schools, colleges, churches, parent-teacher associa- 
tions, girls' and women's clubs, and numerous other organizations. 
In general, it is the aim of educational measures to promote among 
the general public a sound knowledge of sex problems and to inte- 
grate sex education with all forms of instruction which have for 
their object the development of sound moral standards as well as 
a knowledge of the elements of personal hygiene. Specifically, in 
regard to the venereal diseases, the educational programme aims 
to make it impossible that any persons should be infected with 
syphilis or gonorrhea through ignorance of the seriousness of these 
diseases and the means of their spread, and by making the socially 
sound uses of sex more appealing through right understanding of 
their enriching personal bearings. The methods and materials used 
in this educational work include lectures, motion pictures, exhibits 
and printed matter, and particularly the inclusion of the appro- 
priate sex teaching in such subjects as physiology, hygiene, biology, 
sociology and psychology, in the schools and colleges. 

Legal and Protective Measures. These aim to reduce com- 
mercialized prostitution and other forms of promiscuous conduct 
by either sex, because such conduct is antisocial and such persons 
tend to become carriers and disseminators of venereal diseases. 
By providing opportunities for the wholesome use of leisure time, 
and through child guidance clinics, vocational adjustment bureaux, 
visiting teacher associations, voluntary protective agencies and 
women police, protective measures aim to prevent young people 
from forming habits and associations which may lead to promis- 
cuity and prostitution. Legal measures involve the passage and 
enforcement of laws which penalize the recruitment, the exploita- 
tion and the traffic in women or girls for prostitution. They aim 
also to repress the activities of prostitutes and of their male 
customers. In addition to the passage of the necessary laws, legal 
measures include: the adequate training of the police, both men 
and women. 

The responsibility for legal and protective measures rests upon 
the law enforcement and correctional officials and institutions of 
the cities, counties and States, and the Federal Government. In 
addition, numerous voluntary organizations, such as the American 
Social Hygiene Association, International Association of Police- 
women, The Travellers Aid Society, and various local committees 
scattered about the country, aid and support the Government au- 
thorities. The duty of supervision and improvement of facilities 
for recreation and amusements belong to various official agencies, 
but many voluntary organizations, particularly the Playground and 
Recreation Association, are engaged in demonstrating that much 
can be done for the health and morals of the public, and especially 
of young people, by means of supervised playgrounds, community 
centers and through the activities of such organizations as the 
Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, the Young Men's and Young Women's 
Christian Associations, the Knights of Columbus, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association, National W.C.T.U. and the National Con- 
gress of Parents and Teachers. 

The U.S. army and navy have continued plans of control of the 
venereal diseases, similar to those of the World War period. 

Conclusions as to Results. It is too early yet to estimate the 
results of the public efforts which have been made to reduce and 
control the venereal diseases, but there arc certain indications of 
what may reasonably be expected in the future. The death rate 
from syphilis, locomotor ataxia and general paralysis of the insane 
combined has declined 20% between the peak in 1917-25 (from 
19-8 per 100,000 to 15-8 per 100,000), despite constantly increas- 
ing ability to recognize syphilis in all its manifestations. Figures 
from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company show an even more 
marked downward trend in the death rate from syphilis. The 
death rate from syphilis of infants under one year of age decreased 
about one-third during the same period (from 105 per 100,000 
years of life to 71). Both army and navy incidence rates show a 
large net decrease over a period of 20 years or more. It is reason- 
able to suppose that the combined medical, educational, legal and 
protective measures will in the course of one or two decades give 
substantial results. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. W. F. Snow, Venereal Diseases Medical. Nursing 
and Community Aspects (1924) ; W. M. Brunei, Notes Regarding 



Venereal Diseases in the Industries (1926) ; W. M..Brunet and M. S. 
Edwards, A Survey of Venereal Disease Prevalence in Detroit (1927) ; 
T. Parran, Jr., the United States Public Health Service, W. C. 
Smith and S. D. Collins, Venereal Disease Prevalence in 14 Com- 
munities (1928) ; the New York State Department of Health acting in 
co-operation with the United States Public Health Service, Pre- 
liminary Report of a One-Day Survey of Syphilis and Gonorrhea 
Prevalence in Up-state New York (1927) ; W. Healy and A. F. Bron- 
ncr, Delinquents and Criminals (1926) ; B. Johnson, Law Enforcement 
in Social Hygiene (1924) ; Special Body of Experts on, "Traffic in 
Women and Children," Report Pt. i and 2, League of Nations (1927) ; 
C. Owings, Women Police (1925) ; G. E. Worthington and R. Topping, 
Specialized Courts Dealing with Sex Delinquency (1925) ; T. M. Bal- 
liet, Introduction of Sex Education in Public Schools (New York, 
1927) ; M. A. Bigelow, The Established Points in Social Hygiene Edu- 
cation (1905-24) ; M. A. Bigelow, Adolescence (1924) ; T. W. Gallo- 
way, Sex and Social Health (1924) ; T. W. Galloway, Parenthood and 
Character Training of Children (1927) ; B. C. Gruenberg, Parents and 
Sex Education (1923) ; H. B. Torrey, Biology in the Elementary 
Schools and Its Contribution to Sex Education (1927) ; U.S. Public 
Health Service, Sex Education: a Symposium for Educators (1927) ; 
C.-E. A. Winslow and P. Williamson, Sex Hygiene for Parents and 
Teachers (1927). " (W. F. SN.) 

VENETI (wen'e-te), name of two ancient European tribes, 
(i) A Celtic people in the north-west of Gallia Celtica. They 
were the most powerful maritime people on the Atlantic and 
carried on a considerable trade with Britain. Their name still re- 
mains in the town of Vannes. In the winter of 57 B.C., with some 
of their neighbours, they took up arms against the Romans, and 
in 56 were decisively defeated in a naval engagement. (Caesar, 
B.C., iii.) 

(2) The inhabitants of a district in the north of Italy called" 
'E^rot by the Greeks. It was at first included in Cisalpine Gaul, 
but under Augustus was the tenth region of Italy (Venetia and 
Histria) bounded on the west by the Athesis (Adige), or, ac- 
cording to others, by the Addua (Adda) ; on the north by the 
Carnic Alps; on the east by the Timavus (Timavo) or the 
Formio (Risano); on the south by the Adriatic Gulf. The Vcneti 
were a peaceful people, chiefly engaged in commercial pursuits. 
They carried on a trade in amber, which reached them overland 
from the shores of the Baltic. They were famous for their skill in 
the training and breeding of horses. Homer (//. ii. 85) speaks 
of the Paphlagonian Henetoi as breeders of "wild mules." 

The first historical mention of the Veneti occurs in connection 
with the capture of Rome by the Gauls, whose retreat is said to 
have been caused by an irruption of the Veneti into their terri- 
tory (Polybius ii. 18). At the request of the Romans they ren- 
dered them assistance in their wars against the Gauls north and 
south of the Po, and remained their loyal allies. Some time 
during the Second Punic War they passed under Roman rule. 
At first, they possessed complete autonomy in internal adminis- 
tration; in 89 B.C. Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo bestowed upon them 
the ins Latinum; they probably obtained the full franchise from 
Caesar at the same time as the Transpadane Gauls (49). Under 
the Empire Venetia and Istria were included in the tenth region 
of Italy, with capital Aquileia. Down to the time of the An- 
tonines the country enjoyed great prosperity, which was inter- 
rupted by the invasion of the Quadi and Marcomanni and a 
destructive plague. It was devastated at intervals by the bar- 
barians by the Alamanni in A.D. 286; by the Goths under Alaric; 
and by the Huns under Attila (452). Under Theodoric the Great 
the land had rest, and in A.D. 568 was occupied by the Lombards. 
The most important river of Venetia was the Athesis (Adige); 
its chief towns were Patavium (see PADUA) and Aquileia (q.v.). 

We have nearly 100 inscriptions which record the language 
spoken by the tribe in pre-Roman days. The full Venetic alpha- 
bet is preserved for us on several interesting dedicatory objects 
found at Este, which were offered to the goddess of the place 
called Rehtia, a name obviously equivalent to Latin Rcctia, some 
of whose prerogatives, to judge from the long nails which were 
offered to her, would seem to have been those of the goddess 
whom Horace calls Necessitas (Odes, i. 35, 17). 

VENETIA (Venezia), formerly a territorial division of Italy, 
lying between the Alps and the Adriatic, and stretching from the 
frontier of Carinthia and Istria (Austria) in the north-east to 
the lower Po and Lombardy in the south-west. The World War 



VENETIA 



47 



led to the addition to Italy of a considerable territory which, 
though geographically Italian, had been Austrian since the fall 
of Napoleon; and Venetia has now been divided into three 
regions, which will be dealt with separately. 

(i) VENETIA PROPER corresponds to the older division, with 
certain additions amounting to 465 sq.m. in the north, comprises 
the provinces of Belluno, Padua, Rovigno, Treviso, Udine, Venice, 
Verona and Vicenza, and has an area of 9,941 sq. miles. Pop. 
(1881), 2,814,173; (1901) 3,192,897; (1921) 3,999,027. Marble 
is quarried, especially near Verona. The chief industries are the 
manufacture of woollens, especially in the province of Vicenza, 
textiles, cottons, silks, glass, laces, tobacco, straw-plait, 
paper, beet sugar and hemp, the breeding of silkworms, iron- 
founding and working, timber-cutting and shipbuilding. At Mira 
is a large candle factory. Irrigation is widely spread, and large 
pumping stations have made extensive schemes of land reclama- 
tion possible. A large hydroelectric plant utilizes the upper waters 
of the Piave, and there are other plants on other rivers. The 
cotton plants were wrecked by the war, but now employ about 
17,000. The extensive cattle breeding industry also suffered. 

The territory differs much in character; the Po and other 
smaller rivers, notably the torrential Tagliamento, which fall 
into the Adriatic, terminate in a huge and continually advancing 
delta which extends right along the coast, and is liable to inunda- 
tion. The shore lagoons are, however, rendered healthy by the 
ebb and flow of the tide, which is much more considerable than 
elsewhere in the Mediterranean. To the north of the Po, at the 
foot of the mountains, is a fertile territory, while the mountains 
themselves are not productive. A portion of the Dolomites (q.v.), 
notably the Val d'Ampezzo, with the tourist centre of Cortina 
d'Ampezzo, falls into the province of Belluno. To the east come 
the Carnic and Julian Alps, with extensive and fertile foothills, 
while the isolated Eugancan hills near Padua are of volcanic 
origin. The density of population varies very considerably, that 
of the province of Padua being very high; while in 1911 only 
53% lived in the towns, no less than 47% were spread over 
the countryside. There is a main railway line from Milan to 
Mestre (the junction for Venice) and thence to Trieste by a 
line near the coast, or by Treviso, Udine and Tarvisio into Aus- 
tria. Another route into Austria, the Brenner, leaves the Milan- 
Venice line at Verona, which is connected with Bologna (and 
so with central and southern Italy) by a railway through Nogara, 
while another line runs from Verona via Mantua to Moclena. A 
main line runs from Bologna to Ferrara, Rovigno and Padua, join- 
ing the Milan- Venice line at the last-named place. 

The first inhabitants of the region found shelter in the caves of 
the Carso (q.v ), in which, as well as on various sites in the 
Trentino, Neolithic remains have been found ; while in the Bronze 
age positions of natural strength were preferred, commanded by 
the so-called castellieri stone enceintes which, to some extent, 
recall the early citadels of Italy and the nuraghi of Sardinia 
many of which were occupied by Roman forts or mediaeval castles. 

Under the Roman republic the district was inhabited by a va- 
riety of tribes Celts, Veneti, Racti, etc. Under Augustus, Venetia 
and Histria formed the tenth region of Augustus, the latter in- 
cluding the Istrian peninsula as far as the river Arsia, i.e., with 
the exclusion of the strip along the east coast (Liburnia). It was 
thus far the largest of the regions of Italy, but possessed com- 
paratively few towns; though such as there were, with their large 
territories, acquired considerable power and influence. The easi- 
ness of the Brenner pass and the abundance of communication 
with the sea led to the rise of such towns as Verona, Padua and 
Aquileia, and Milan only became more important than any of 
these when the German attacks on Italy were felt farther west. 

When the Roman empire fell the towns were, many of them, 
destroyed by Attila. For the gradual growth of Venetian su- 
premacy over the whole territory, and for its subsequent history, 
see VENICE, and for the eastern portion see FRIULI. Among the 
architectural features may be specially noticed the beautiful 
country houses of the Venetian nobility. (See G. K. Loukomski, 
Palladia et les villas des Doges de Venise.) 

The following are the principal agricultural products for 1927: 





Acres 


Tons 


Wheat . . 


744,5 


467,100 


Oats . 


38,250 


25,290 


Rice ... 


9,900 


13,040 


Maixc ... 


781,250 


555,3 


Beans ... 


439,5 




Sugar beet . 




777,040 


Hemp ... 


14,000 


5,55 


Garden produce 


i5,*5 


75,54 


Potatoes 


5^250 


258,000 


Silk (cocoons) . 




15,122 


Tobacco . 


12,975 


5.914 


Hay ... 




3,044,600 




f 


367,200 Grapes 


Vines 


1,555, 


46,508,000 Wine 


Chestnuts .... 


I 


7,800 



(2) VENETIA TRIDENTINA, consisting of the provinces of Bol- 
zano and Trento, area 5,435 sq.m.; pop. (1921) 641,747. The 
greater part is mountainous. To the north-west arc the Ortler 
(q.v.) t and the Stelvio pass, traversed by an important road from 
Bormio to the Val Venosta, the upper valley of the Adige, at the 
head of which is the Resia (Reschen) pass, leading into the lower 
Engadine. (See SWITZERLAND.) The Wildspitz group of moun- 
tains separates this pass from the Brenner (q.v.), to the east of 
which the present frontier reaches the Vetta d'ltalia and the 
Pizzo dei Tre Signori, and then turns sharply southwards, only 
beginning to run eastwards after crossing the railway from 
Dobbiaco to Lienz. Between it and the Brenner are the Dolo- 
mites (q.v.). There are important marble quarries, as yet im- 
perfectly developed, and lead and zinc mines, notably that of 
Monteneve. A large amount of electric power is derived from 
hydroelectric plants on the Noce and the Adige. 

About one-half of the total area is under forest, while three- 
fifths of the remainder is under cultivation, much use being made 
of irrigation for pastures, and also for maize. Vegetables and 
fruit are grown in the sheltered districts of Merano and Bolzano. 
The production of silkworms is less important than about the 
middle of the igth century, and the spinncries have also de- 
creased. The only main railway line is the Brenner, which at 
Trento has a branch for Bassano, at Bolzano for Merano and 
Malles, at Pontc all' Isarco for Selva, and at Fortezza (formerly 
Franzensfeste) for Dobbiaco and S. Candido (the Italian frontier 
point) and thence to Lienz and Villach. 

The following are the principal agricultural products for 1927: 





Acres 


Tons 


Rye 


34o 


17,900 


Barley .... 


17,250 


8,140 


Oats 


15,750 


7,060 


Garden pnxluce 


6,550 


38,820 


Potatoes .... 


26,500 


137,800 


Hay 




852,600 


Vines 


84,75 { 


63,000 G rapes 
9,856,000 Wine (gal.) 


Fruit (various) . 




48,605 



(3) VENETIA JULIA (VENEZIA GIULIA), a territorial division 
of northern Italy, consisting of the provinces of Gorizia, Pola 
and Trieste (to which the detached provinces of Fiume and Zara 
are also aggregated). Pop. (1921) 930,108; area 3,389 sq. miles. 
The coast line to the east of the Tagliamento is fringed, by 
alluvial deposits and lagoons, mostly of very modem formation, 
for as late as the 5th century Aquileia was a great seaport. The 
harbour of Grado is unimportant, but to the east is the ship- 
building yard of Monfalcone, and beybnd that the great port of 
Trieste; while the Istrian peninsula has several small harbours: 
Capodistria, Parenzo and Rovigno, besides Pola, formerly the 
chief naval port of Austria. Fiume, at the head of the gulf of 
that name, is another fine harbour. The province of Gorizia, ex- 
cept towards the south-west, where it unites with the lowlands of 
Friuli (q.v.), is surrounded by mountains, and most of its area 
is occupied by mountains and hills. From the Julian Alps, which 
traverse the province in the north, the country descends in sue- 



VENETIC LANGUAGE 



cessive terraces towards the sea. The principal peaks in the 
Julian Alps are the Monte Canin (8,469 ft.), the Monte Nero 
(7,367 ft.), the Matajur (5,386 ft.), and the highest peak in the 
whole range, the Tricorno or Triglav (9,394 ft.). The southern 
part of the province and that of Trieste belong to the Carso 
(q.v.), in which the caves of Poslumia and San Canziano are 
situated. The principal river of the district is the Isonzo, which 
rises in the Tricorno, and pursues a strange zigzag course for a 
Jistance of 78 m. before it reaches the Adriatic. It is navigable 
>nly in its lowest section, where it takes the name of the 
sdobba. Its principal affluents are the Idria, the Vipacco and the 
Torre, with its tributary the Judrio. Of special interest is the 
Fimavus or Timavo, which appears near Duino, and after a very 
ihort course flows into the Gulf of Trieste. To the east is the 
lesolate limestone plateau of the Carso (q.v.). For the province 
>f Pola, see ISTRIA. 

Agriculture, and especially viticulture, is the principal occupa- 
:ion of the population, and the vine is here planted not only in 
egular vineyards, but is introduced in long lines through the 
>rdinary fields and carried up the hills in terraces locally called 
one hi. The rearing of the silk-worm, especially in the lowlands, 
instituted another great source gf revenue, but the quantity 

aised in 1927 was very small. 

Gorizia (Gorz) first appears distinctly in history about the 
:lose of the loth century, as part of a district bestowed by the 
jmperor Otto III. on John, patriarch of Aquilcia. In the nth 
:entury it became the seat of the Eppenstein family, who fre- 
quently bore the title of counts of Gorizia; and in the beginning 
)f the 1 2th century the countship passed from them to the 
Lurngau family, which continued to exist till the year 1500, and 
icquired possessions in Tirol, Carinthia, Friuli and Styria. On the 
leath of Count Leonhard (April 12, 1500) the fief reverted to 
.he house of Habsburg. The countship of Gradisca was united 
vith it in 1754. The province was occupied by the French in 
[809, but reverted again to Austria in 1815. It formed a district 
)f the administrative province of Trieste until 1861, when it 
Decame a separate crownland. In 1918 it passed to Italy. 

The following are the principal agricultural products for 
[927: 





Acres 


Tons 


Barley ... 
Garden produce. 
Potatoes .... 
Silk (cocoons) . 
Hay 


16,250 
10,325 
37,5 


7,850 
25,200 

5i5<*> 
98 
313,200 


Fruit, various . 
Vines 


79,000 | 


'5i565 
61,000 Grapes 
8,228,000 Wine (gals.) 



The railway system is well developed, mainly centring on 
Trieste and Gorizia. Besides the line from Trieste by Monfalcone 
:o Trcviso, which is the main line of communication with the 
rest of Italy, there is a line from Monfalcone to Gorizia and 
ihence up the Isonzo valley to the frontier at Piedicolle (thence 
to Villach and Klagenfurt), and a line direct from Trieste to 
Gorizia. Trieste also has lines to Postumia, the frontier station, 
and thence to Lubiana (with branches to Pola and Fiume, both 
running through the interior of Istria) and along the coast to 
Capodistria, Pirano and Parenzo. Shipbuilding is carried on at 
Trieste, Pqla and Monfalcone: Trieste (q.v.) is also a great port 
ind centre of industry, with many factories, notably oil mills and 
refineries, jute factories, rice mills, etc., while at Monfalcone 
soda and other chemicals arc made; at Cervignano, starch, at 
Capodistria, Pirano and Rovigno, preserved foods; tobacco at 
Rovigno, liqueurs at Rovigno and Parenzo; at Pirano and Capo- 
distria there are large salt works. Friuli produced, in 1926, 2,367 
tons of lead and 36,248 of zinc. The district of Trieste produced 
186,980 tons of coal of an inferior quality. Istria produced 85,000 
tons of bauxite, which were treated at Mestre for the extraction 
of aluminium. The mercury mines of Idria produced 600 tons 
of cinnabar (x,ooo workmen) in 1924. The fishing industry of 
Istria is important, and much of the canning is done at Trieste. 



See A. Tamaro, La Vtnltie Julienne et la Dalmatic (3 vols., 1919). 

(T. A.) 

VENETIC LANGUAGE. We have nearly 100 inscriptions 
which record the language spoken by the Veneti (q.v.) in pre- 
Roman days. Others have also come to light at Verona and 
Padua, and at different points along the great north and south 
route of the Brenner Pass, especially at Bolzano; and there are 
a few more scanty and scattered monuments in the Carinthian 
Alps now preserved chiefly in the museums at Klagenfurt and 
Vienna. The alphabet of the inscriptions, in all its varieties, is 
probably either derived from or at least influenced by some form 
of the Etruscan alphabet, since it not merely coincides with that 
alphabet in several characteristic signs, such as the use of the 
compound symbol vh (^~|) with the value of /, but lacks the 
symbols for the mediae BDG. These, or the sounds which had 
descended from them in Venetic, were represented by using sym- 
bols which in the Western Greek alphabets denoted kindred 
sounds; %z where we should expect d (zoto, "he gave"), <t>< 
where we should expect b (frohuos, "Boius"),^ (i.e., x) where 
we should expect g (-c-xo, "ego"). But though we find the sym- 
bols in positions where they correspond to the mediae in kindred 
languages, it is uncertain what was the precise variety of sound 
which they denoted. Thus, for example, Venetic --xo is certainly 
equivalent to the Latin ego, but we cannot be certain that the 
sound of the two words was precisely the same. The symbol for 
is not used to denote d (since that is represented by z). 
In the inscriptions of Padua and Verona the sign is O and 
seems there to denote some variety of sound closely akin to J,s 
the word which at Padua and Verona is written fkupeBari'S*, 
probably meaning "charioteer," appears as ecupetaris in Latin 
alphabet in an inscription published by Elia Lattes ("Iscrizioni 
Incdite Venete cd Etrusche," Rcndiconti del R. ist Lomb. di 
Sc. e Lett., Serie II. vol. xxxiv., 1901). The full Venetic alpha- 
bet at its best period is preserved for us on several dedicatory 
objects found at Este, which were offered to the goddess of 
the place called Re/ilia, a name obviously equivalent to Latin 
Rectia. The offerings in question are thin bronze plates of 
whose surface the greater part is covered by alphabetic signs, 
with an inscription stating that the worshipper makes an offering 
of the plate to the Goddess. These plates provide enough ma- 
terial to place the alphabet of Este beyond all doubt. It is 
written from right to left, and the alternate lines curl round so 
that the letters proceed in the opposite direction and stand with 
their feet turned towards those in the preceding line. This char- 
acteristic, technically known as "serpentine boustrophedon," with 
the sign for /*(|||), points to some connection with the alphabets 

of the East Italic ("Sabellic") inscriptions (see SABELLIC). 

The alphabet shows some marked differences from the western 
Greek alphabet used in Elis. The language belongs to the Indo- 
European group, but the forms with which the inscriptions of 
Este supply us are somewhat limited in number. The typical be- 
ginning for a dedication is mexo . . . zona- s- to sahnateh rehti- 
iahy i.e., "me dedit Rectiae Sanatrici," "so and so gave me to the 
Healing Goddess Rectia"; and sometimes the form of the verb 
is simply z-o-to. The correspondence of these two forms with 
the Greek middle aorist of the verb (-6oro), and with the Latin 
donare is obvious. One inscription of special linguistic interest 
is the artist's inscription of a vase of the 6th century B.C. found 
at Padua 

voBo kluBeari'S' vhax'S'to, 

where the first name appears to be identical with the Latin Ortho 
and also seems to explain its aspirate, and the last word of 
the inscription appears to be the Venetic equivalent of the 
Latin fecit, but to be in the middle voice without any argument. 
If this interpretation be correct and the use of lirolijat by Greek 
artists commends it strongly the form illustrates the character 
of the language as intermediate between Greek and Latin. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. %S* Carl Pauli (Altital. Studien vol. 3, "Die 
Veneter," Leipzig, 1891) ; T. Mommsen, Die Inschriften Norditalischen 
Alphabets (Zurich, 1853) ; and Notizie degli Scavi by Ghirardini in 
the volumes for 1880 and 1888, and by Prosdocimi in that for 1890; 
the Preliminary Report presented to the British Academy published 



VENETTE VENEZUELA 



49 



in the Athenaeum, Aug. 8, 1908; A. Meillet and M. Cohen, Les Langues 
du Monde (1924). 

VENETTE. JEAN DE (c. 1307-*. 1370), French chron- 
icler, born at Venette, near Compiegne, became prior of the 
Carmelite convent in the Place Maubert, Paris, in 1339, and 
was provincial of France from 1341 to 1366. In 1368 he was 
still living, but probably died within a year or two of that date. 
His Latin Chronicle, covering the years 1340 to 1368, was pub- 
lished by Achery (Spicilegium, vol. iii.) Jean de Venette was 
a child of the people, and his sympathies were entirely with the 
peasants. His point of view is thus directly opposed to that of 
Froissart. Jean de Venette also wrote a long French poem, 
La Vie des trois Maries, about 1347. 

See Lacurne de Sainte-Palayc in Memoires de I' Academic, vols. viii. 
and xiii.; Graud and D^prez in Melanges de Vecole de Rome (1899), 
vol. xix.; and A. Molinier, Les Sources de I'histoire de France (1904), 
tome iv. 

VENEZUELA, a republic of South America, on the coast 
of the Caribbean, lying between Brazil and British Guiana on 
the east and south, and Colombia on the west. The name means 
"little Venice," and is a modification of the name of Venecia 
(Venice), originally bestowed by Alonzo de Ojeda in 1499 on 
an Indian village, composed of pile dwellings on the shores of 
the Gulf of Maracaibo, which was called by him the Gulf of 
Venecia. Its area is 398,594 square miles. Pop. (1926) 3,026,878. 
The population of Caracas, the capital, in 1920 was 92,212; in 
1926 it was 135,253. That of Maracaibo, the next largest city, in 
1920 was 46,706, and in 1926 it was 60,000 (estimated by some to 
be as high as 100,000, due to the influx of many oil workers). 
That of Valencia was 29,466 in 1920, and 45,523 in 1926. 

Topography. The surface of Venezuela is broken into three 
irregular divisions by its mountain systems: (i) the mountainous 
area of the north-west and north; (2) the Orinoco basin with 
the llanos on its northern border and great forested areas in the 
south and south-west; and (3) the Guiana highlands. A branch of 
the eastern chain of the Andes enters Venezuela in the west 
about 7 N. lat., and under the name of the Sierra Nevada de 
Me*rida proceeds north-eastwards towards Trieste Gulf. This 
branch is of parallel chains enclosing elevated valleys, in one of 
which lies the town of Merida (5,410 ft.), overlooked by the 
highest summit of the chain (Picacho de la Sierra, 15,420 ft.). 
The sierra contains the water-parting between the basin of the 
Orinoco and those of the small rivers on the north-west. Hence 
it may be considered to terminate where the Rio. Cojedes, which 
drains the elevated valley in which Barquisimeto stands, after 
rising on its western slopes, flows eastwards into the basin of the 
Orinoco. Beyond the Cojedes begin two parallel ranges, the Mari- 
time Andes of Venezuela, which stretch east and west along the 
coast. The valley between these two ranges is the most densely 
peopled part of Venezuela. Behind the bay between Cape Codera 
and Cumana there is an interruption in the Maritime Andes, the 
llanos fronting on the coast for over 100 m.; but both ranges 
reappear between Cumana and the Gulf of Paria. West of the 
Maritime Andes low ranges (3,500-5,000 ft.) trend northwards 
from the end of the Sierra de Merida towards the coast on the 
east side of the lake of Maracaibo, while the region on the west 
of that lake consists of lagoon-studded lowlands. East and south 
of the Sierra de Merida and the Maritime Andes the region con- 
sists of two portions a vast mountainous area, densely wooded, 
in the south-east and south, and level plains in the north-west 
between the Orinoco and the Apure and the mountains. The 
latter is known as the llanos of the Orinoco, a vast grass-covered 
plain with scattered islands of wood. Along the Brazilian fron- 
tier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the east- 
ern slopes of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes 
broken with grassy campos. The general elevation of the llanos 
varies from about 375 to 400 ft., rising to 600-800 ft. around its 
immediate margins. So uniform is the level over a great part that 
in the rainy season hundreds of square miles are submerged, 
and the country is covered with connecting channels. North of 
the middle Orinoco, however, a series of low gravel capped mesas 
break the monotony and form the divide between the water of 
the Orinoco and the streams that flow northward into the Carib- 



bean. The lower basin of the Orinoco is contracted between the 
Guiana highlands and the northern uplands, and its tributaries 
come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of 
the actual valley are nearer and higher. About 62 30' W. long, 
the river reaches what may be thought sea-level; from this point 
numerous channels cross the silted-up delta-plain to the sea. This 
region, together with that of the Guiana frontier, is heavily 
forested. In the extreme south (territory of Amazonas) and 
south-east the surface again rises into mountain ranges, which 
include the Parima and Pacaraima sierras on and adjacent to the 
Brazilian frontier, with short spurs reaching northward toward 
the Orinoco, such as the Mapichi, Maraguaca, Maigualida, Matos, 
Rincote and Usupamo. This region belongs to the drainage basin 
of the Orinoco, and rivers of large volume flow between these 
spurs. Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the 
Cerros Yaparana (7,175 ft.) and Duida (8,120 ft.) in the Parima 
sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8,228 
ft.), and the flat-topped Mt. Roraima (8,530 ft.) in the Pacara- 
ima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana. 
Near the Orinoco the general elevation drops to about 1,500 feet. 
This region is densely forested, and is inhabited only by Indians. 
Probably not less than four-fifths of the territory of Venezuela 
belong to the drainage basin of the Orinoco (q.v.). The Orinoco 
is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, 
the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and 
Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, 
Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, 
Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the 
last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes. The 
Apure receives two large tributaries from the northern sierras 
the Guarico and Portuguesa. Apart from these, the rivers of 
Venezuela are small and, except those of the Maracaibo basin, 
are rarely navigable. The larger are the Guanipa and Guarapiche, 
which flow eastwards to the Gulf of Paria; the Aragua, Unare 
and Tuy, which flow to the Caribbean coast east of Caracas; the 
Yaracui, Aroa and Tocuyo to the same coast west of Caracas; and 
the Motatan, Chama, Escalante, Catatumbo, Apoan and Palmar, 
which discharge into Lake Maracaibo. The hydrography of the 
region last mentioned, where the lowlands are flat and the rain- 
fall heavy, is extremely complicated owing to the great number 
of small rivers and of lakes on or near the lower river courses. 
The deep lower courses of these streams and the lakes were 
once part of the great lake itself, which is being slowly filled by 

silt. The lakes of Venezuela are said to number 204. The largest 
are the Maracaibo (q.v.)\ the Zulia, with an area of 290 sq.m., a 
short distance south of Maracaibo among a large number of 
lakes, lagoons and swamps; Valencia, near the city of that name, 
in the Maritime Andes, about 1,350 ft. above sea-level, with an 
area of 216 sq.m.; Laguneta, in the State of Zulia; and Tacarigua, 
a coastal lagoon in the State of Miranda. 

The coast outline of Venezuela is indented. The larger inden- 
tations are the Gulf of Maracaibo, or Venezuela, which extends 
inland through the Lake of Maracaibo, with which it is con- 
nected by a comparatively narrow and shallow channel, and is 
formed by the peninsulas of Goajira and Paraguana; the Gulf 
of Paria, between the peninsula of that name and the island of 
Trinidad; the Gulf of Coro, opening into the Gulf of Mara- 
caibo; the Gulf of Cariaco, between the peninsula of Araya and 
the mainland; the Golfo Triste, on the east coast of the State of 
Lara; and the small Gulf of Santa F6, on the northern coast of 
the State of Sucre. Besides these there are small sheltered an- 
chorages formed by islands and reefs like that of Puerto Cabello, 
and estuaries and open roadsteads, like those of La Guaira and 
Carupano, which serve important ports. There are 71 islands, with 
an aggregate area of 14,633 sq.m., according to official calcula- 
tions. The largest of these is the island of Margarita, north of the 
peninsula of Araya near which is the island of Tortuga and 
several groups of islets, generally uninhabited. (A. J. L.) 

Geology. Venezuela may be divided into three principal 
physiographic regions: (i) The Venezuela or Guiana highlands 
which lie south of the Orinoco and consist of a great mass of 
Archaean granite, gneiss and other crystalline rocks and over- 



VENEZUELA 



[FAUNA 



lying beds of sandstone and shale; (2) the llanos, almost tree- 
less plains between the Orinoco and the Andes, which are in large 
part covered with Tertiary and Quaternary deposits of gravel, 
sand and clay loam; (3) the mountain ranges the Cordillera 
of Mcrida and the Coast or Caribbean range which consist of 
cores of granite and schist flanked by sedimentary beds folded 
in anticlinal structure. Minor physiographic units are the delta re- 




GNARLED CACTI ON THE GREAT PLAINS SURROUNDING BARQUISIMETO 



gion on the cast coast, at the mouths of the Orinoco and other 
rivers; and the basin of Lake Maracaibo, a large structural 
depression. The oldest rocks in northern South America form 
the basement complex of the Guiana highlands. In Venezuela 
these rocks consist chiefly of the granites and gneisses of the 
southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of 
the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain. Upon this basement 
lie beds of sandstone and shale, most of them of early Cre- 
taceous age and locally much altered, which at some places are 
overlain by Pleistocene or Recent deposits and into which are 
intruded dikes and masses of basalt and other igneous rocks. 

The range of the Andes that enters Venezuela from Colombia 
continues to the N.E. with gradually diminishing elevation and 
merges into the Coast range. In Venezuela these mountains reach 
their greatest heights in the snow-capped peaks of La Columna 
(16,410 ft.), Monte Humboldt (16,212 ft.) and La Concha (16,- 
146 ft). The granitic core of the Venezuelan Andes is cut by 
many intrusive bodies of pegmatite, basalt and quartz, and the 
sedimentary beds of the range, most of which are of Cretaceous 
and Tertiary age, are intricately folded. Cretaceous rocks crop 
out in places along each side of the Andes in Venezuela and along 
the south side of the Coast range. 

Around Lake Maracaibo, which lies in a basin that is to some 
extent outlined by faults, there is a surface deposit of Quaternary 
alluvium, which is underlain by folded Tertiary beds. Petroleum 
seeps from springs around the lake and is obtained in large 
quantity from wells sunk to Cretaceous and Tertiary beds. Re- 
cent terrestrial deposits consisting of unconsolidated sand, gravel, 
clay and alluvium cover a large part of the lower regions in 
Venezuela. In the delta region at the mouths of the Orinoco these 
deposits are thick and are accumulating rapidly. Gold has been 
mined in the eastern part of the Guiana highlands near Callao. 
Most of it occurs in quartz veins near basaltic intrusive rock. 
Iron" ore is mined in the Sierra Imataca south of the Orinoco, 
Copper is mined near Aroa and San Felipe, in the State of 
Yaracuy. Coal is found in Tertiary beds in the region north of 
the Orinoco, but it can be mined profitably at only a few places. 
The output of petroleum is shown in the following table: 





Barrels 


Barrels 


1917 . . 


119,692 


1923 . 4,003,662 


1918 . 


317,467 


1924 . 




. 9,041,999 


1919 . 


424,735 


1925 




. 19,687,406 


1920 . 


457oio 


1926 . 




. 37,226,019 


1921 . 


1,433,656 


1927 




63,391,764 


1922 . 


2,201,114 


1928 (est.) 


.100,000,000 


Venezuela 


ranked third (see p. 


52) among the petroleum pro- 



ducing countries of the world in 1927 and second in 1928 (see 
p. 52). (G. McL. Wo.) 

Climate. The climate of Venezuela is everywhere tropical 
except where modified by altitude. In the Maritime Andes at 
and above the altitude of Caracas it is semi-tropical, and in the 
still higher regions of western Venezuela it approaches the mild 
temperate. On the coast and the northern slopes of the Mari- 
time Andes the tropical heat is greatly modified by tire trade- 
winds. At La Guaira the mean temperature for the year is 81 
F, at Caracas (3,025 ft.) it is 70, at Cumani it is 83, at 
Valencia 76, Coro 82, Barquisimeto 78, Yaritagua 80-6, 
Merida 61, Trujillo 72 and Maracaibo 81. South of the sierras, 
the climate is much drier and hotter. The low night temperatures 
in these regions lower the mean annual temperatures. At Cala- 
bozo, for instance, the mean is about 88, though the maximum 
in summer is not far from ioo. t The lowest temperatures re- 
corded are those of Mucuchies, in the Sta!e of Merida, where the 
maximum is 68, the minimum 43 and the mean 56. The year 
is divided into two seasons, the dry and wet, the latter occurring 
from April to October, when the temperature is also the highest. 
On the llanos the dry season destroys the pasturage, dries up 
streams and compels animals of semi-aquatic habits to aestivate. 
At Caracas the annual rainfall ranged from 602 to 863 mm. be- 
tween 1894 and 1902. In general the climate of Venezuela is 
healthful. The sanitary condition is generally bad, and many 
forms of disease prevail that are not due to the climate. 

Fauna. The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar to those 
of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the 
open llanos of the Orinoco being something of a neutral district 
between the great forested regions on the east, south and west. 
Among the animals indigenous to the country are seven species 
of the cat family, including the puma, the jaguar and the ocelot; 
the wild dog (Canis azarae); representatives of the marten fam- 
ily, including two species of Galictis, two of the otter (Lutra 
brasiliensis and L. pteronura) and one of the skunk; two species 
of bear (Ursus ornatus and U. nasutus) ; and the "kinkajou." 
There are six species of monkey corresponding to those of Guiana 
and the Amazon valley, the sloth and ant-eater, 12 known genera 
of rodents, including many species of Mures, the cavy, the capy- 
bara, the paca, the nutria, the agouti, the tree porcupine, Lon- 
cheres cristata, Echimys cayen and the Brazilian hare. Among 
the pachyderms the tapir is found in the forests of the Orinoco. 
There are two species of the peccary, Dicotyles torquatus and 
D. labiatus. There are also two species of deer, Cervus rufus 
and C. simplicornis. There are three species of opossum. On the 
coast and in the Orinoco there may be found the manatee and the 
dolphin. The Reptilia include 1 1 species of the crocodile, alligator 

and lizard, including the savage 
jacar of the Amazon, several 
species of the turtle, four spe- 
cies of batrachians, and 29 species 
of serpents, including the striped 
rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), 
Lachesis mutus, and a rather rare 
species of Cophias. Among the 
non-venomous species, the com- 
monest are the boa-constrictor, 
the anaconda (Eunectesmuriniis) 
and the Coluber variabilis. Bird 
life is represented chiefly by mi- 
TAPPING A RUBBER TREE IN VENE. gra tory species, particularly of 
ZUELA genera that inhabit the shores of 

streams and lagoons. In the garzeros of Venezuela are to be found 
nearly every kind of heron, crane, stork and ibis, together with 
an incredible number of Grallatores. Ducks are also numerous, 
including a small bird called the guiriri, in imitation of its cry. 
Birds of prey are numerous. One species, the guacharo (Steator- 
nis caripensis), or oil-bird, is commonly said to occur only in 
Venezuela, though it is found in Colombia and Ecuador also, 
They live in caves, especially in Caripe, and are caught for the 
oil extracted from them. The bell-bird (Chasmorhynchus carun- 
culatus) is common in the forests of the Orinoco. In the 14 orders 




VENEZUELA 



PLATE I 




SCENES IN THE TOWNS AND COUNTRY OF NORTHERN VENEZUELA 



1. A wayside inn of Barquisimcto, in Andean state of Lara, market for 

cattle and agricultural produce 

2. Typical landscape in uplands of Andean state of Tachira. Although the 

southern part of Tachira is well-populated and thriving the north is 
unexplored territory 

3. Street scene in city of Merida, situated among the snow-capped Andes 

4. A village of tho Goajira Indians built near the shore of Lake Maracaibo. 

The houses are built on piles in shallow water 

5. House of Goajira Indian. These people, aborigines of Venezuela, have 

preserved their habits and customs and live as an independent nation 

6. House of a Qoajira Indian, showing the sides and roof made of curtains 

of palm leaves, braced with palm planks 

7. Entrance to library of University of Caracal, capital of Venezuela. 

The university was founded by Philip V. of Spain in 1721 



8. Main street of the port of Maracaibo, on the lake of the sarrYe* Tiame. 

showing the spire of the Church of the Immaculate Conception in 
background 

9. Old Spanish street in Caracas, which was founded by Spaniards in the 

early sixteenth century 

10. Street in Ciudad Bolivar, on right bank of Orinoco, port of entry for 

eastern gold mining region, and connected with outside world 
through Port of Spain, Trinidad 

11. A hotel of the Llanos (plains) of the Orinoco; vast areas of unexplored 

grass plains, interrupted occasionally by rivers with groups of palms 
and small trees 

12. The University of Caracas, founded in the 18th century. This is the 

centre of higher education for the republic 



XXIII 50 



PLATE TI 



VENEZUELA 




'm 



INDUSTRIAL 

1. VAqbftros rounding up a herd of cattle. The broad, grassy plains furnish 

excellent grazing for stock 

2. Primitive method of ploughing in Venezuela. This farm is high up in the 

Andes mountains 
3 An Andino taking his produce to market 

4. Unloading freight at Maracalbo. A large part of the goods consumed 

in eastern Colombia goes through this port 

5. A coconut harvest awaiting shipment 

6. Waterfront at Maracalbo showing shipping activity 

7. A milkman of Caracas, capital of Venezuela, delivering milk 



GENES IN VENEZUELA 
8. 



Water carriers of the Llanos. The scarcity of water has made its sale 
an established trade 

9. Burro train in Merida. In this mountainous region much of the freight 
is carried on burros 

10. A street vendor selling shoes in the old quarters of Caracas 

'J.1. Market for the sale of fruit and flowers In San Jaclnto. The house of 
Simon Bolivar, the liberator of South America, may be seen in the 
background 

12. Water carriers near Barquisimcto carrying bladders of water strapped 
to the sides of their burros to ell on the arid plains south of the city 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE] 



VENEZUELA 



5 1 



of insects there are no fewer than 98 families. There are eight 
families of Coleoptera, six of Orthoptera, 23 of Hymenoptera, 
14 of Lepidoptera and seven of Diptera. Locusts are numerous 
in the interior. Molluscs, including the pearl oyster, are common 
on the coasts and in the fresh-water streams and lakes. 

Flora, The flora covers a wide range because of the vertical 
climatic zones. The coastal zone and lower slopes of all the moun- 
tains, including the lower Orinoco region and the Maracaibo basin, 
are clothed with a typical tropical vegetation. There is no seasonal 
interruption in vegetation. The tropical vegetation extends to an 
altitude of about 1,300 ft., above which it may be classed as semi- 
tropical up to about 3,500 ft., and temperate up to 7,200 ft., above 
which the vegetation is Alpine. Palms grow everywhere; among 
them the coco-nut palm (Cocos nucifera) is the most prominent. 
There are some exotics in this zone, like the mango, which thrive 
so well that they are thought to be indigenous. The cacao is 
at its best in the humid forests and is cultivated in the rich alluvial 
valleys, and the banana thrives everywhere, as well as the exotic 
orange and lemon. On the mountain slopes orchids grow in pro- 
fusion. Sugar-cane is cultivated in the alluvial valleys and coffee 
on their slopes up to a height of about 7,000 feet. Among the 
many tropical fruits to be found in this region are guavas, man- 
goes, cashews, bread-fruit, aguacates, papayas, zapotes and 
granadillas. In the next zone are grown many cereals (includ- 
ing rice), beans, tobacco, sugar-cane, peaches, apricots, quinces 
and strawberries. The llanos have some distinguishing character- 
istics. They are extensive grassy plains, the lowest being the bed 
of an ancient inland lake about which is a broad terrace (mesa), 
the talus perhaps of the ancient encircling highlands. The lower 
level has extensive lagoons and swampy areas and suffers less from 
the long periodical drought. Its wild grasses are luxuriant and 
a shrubby growth is found along its streams. The decline in stock- 
breeding has resulted in a considerable growth of trees and chapar- 
ral over the greater part of the plain. 

One of the most remarkable palms is the "moriche" (Mauritia 
flexuosa). The fruit is edible and its juice is made into beer; the 
sap of the tree is made into wine, and its pith into bread; the 
leaves furnish an excellent thatch, and the fibre extracted from 
their midribs is used for fish lines, cordage, hammocks, nets, etc., 
and the wood is hard and makes good building material. The fruit 
of the Gidlielma is also widely used for food among the natives. 
Among other forest trees of economic importance are the silk- 
cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), the palo de vaca, or cow-tree (Brosi- 
mum galactodendron) , whose sap resembles milk and is used for 
that purpose, the Inga saman, the Hevea guayanensis, celebrated 
in the production of rubber, and the Atialea spedosa, distinguished 
for the length of its leaves. 

The principal economic plants of the country are cacao, coffee, 
cassava (manioc), called "mandioca" in Brazil, Indian corn, 
beans, sweet-potatoes, taro, sugar-cane, cotton and tobacco. Of 
these coffee and sugar-cane were introduced by Europeans. 

Population. The population of Venezuela consists of a small 
percentage of whites of European descent, chiefly Spaniards, a 
few tribes and settlements of Indians, largely of the Arawak and 
Carib families, and a large percentage of mestizos, or mixed 
bloods. There is a considerable admixture of African blood. 

Territorial Divisional-Venezuela's constitution of 1925 de- 
clared that the republic was composed of 20 States, two terri- 
tories, a Federal district and certain islands in the sea of the 
Antilles. It provided that the Federal District was to be organ- 
ized by a special law and should be composed of the city of 
Caracas with the neighbouring parishes. 

The States and territories, with their capitals, are now as 
follows: Federal District (Caracas); Anzoategui (Barcelona); 
Apure (San Fernando de Apure); Aragua (Maracay); Bolfvar 
(Ciudad Bolivar) ; Carabobo (Valencia) ; Cojedes (San Carlos) ; 
Falc6n (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto) ; 
Me*rida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Monagas (Maturin); 
Nueva Esparta (La Asunci6n); Portuguesa (Guanare); Sucre 
(Cumana); Tachira (San Crist6bal) ; Trujillo (Trujillo) ; Yaracuy 
(San Felipe); Zamora (Barinas); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the 
following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); 




Delta-Amacuro (Tucupita). 

Communications and Commerce. There has been no great 
development of railway construction in Venezuela, partly on 
account of political insecurity and partly because of the back- 
ward industrial state of the country. In 1924 tjiere were 13 
railway lines with a mileage of about 660 m., including the short 
lines. The best known, of the Venezuelan railways is the short 

line from La Guaira to Caracas 
(22$ m.), which scales the steep 
sides of the mountain behind La 
Guaira and reaches 3,135 ft. be- 
fore arriving at Caracas. It is 
now electrically operated. It is 
a British enterprise, and is one of 
the few railways in Venezuela 
that pay a dividend. The Puerto 
Cabello and Valencia line (34 
m.) is another British under- 
taking and carries a good traffic. 
Wireless communication with the 
outside world is maintained 
through the stations at Caracas, 
Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello and 
several other places. 

LOADING LLANOS CATTLE INTO A , The V****' is devoting 
RIVER BOAT AT CIUDAD BOLJVAR, lar S e SUmS t0 the Construction of 

BY MEANS OF A CHUTE WHICH motor roads. According to latest 

LEADS TO THE LOWER DECK OF THE reports SOttie 3,700 m. haVC been 

BOAT opened. The greatest of these is 

the transandine highway from Caracas to Tachira on the Colom- 
bian frontier, 804 miles. 

In domestic steamship lines it has relatively little to show. 
A regular service is maintained on Lake Maracaibo, one on 
Lake Valencia, and another on the Orinoco, Apure and Por- 
tuguesa rivers, starting from Ciudad Bolivar. That on Lake 
Maracaibo has assumed new importance since the development 
of the oil fields about the lake. 

The coast of Venezuela has an aggregate length of 1,876 m., 
and there arc 32 ports, large and small, not including those of 
Lakes Maracaibo and Tacarigua and the Orinoco. The majority 
have only a limited commerce. The first-class ports are La 
Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Car- 
upano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Cano 
Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar. The imports 
include hardware and building materials, earthenware, glassware, 
furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs and coal. The 
coasting trade is largely made up of products destined for 
exportation, or imports trans-shipped from the first-class ports 
to the smaller ones which have no direct relations with foreign 
countries. The Orinoco trade is carried on largely through Port 
of Spain, Trinidad, where merchandise and produce is trans- 
ferred between river boats and foreign ocean-going steamers. 

Industry and Commerce. The principal industries are agri- 
cultural and pastoral. Both have suffered heavily from military 
operations and disturbed political conditions, but peace has now 
been consolidated for many years and both have progressed. Much 
the greater part of the Republic is fertile and adapted to cultiva- 
tion. Irrigation, which has not been much used, is needed in 
some parts of the country and is being provided for. In other 
parts, as in the valleys and on the northern slopes of thf -Mari- 
time Andes, the rainfall is sufficiently well distributed to meet 
most requirements. The long dry season of the llanos and sur- 
rounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultiva- 
tion, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic 
irrigation. In colonial times the llanos were covered with immense 
herds of cattle and horses and were inhabited by a race of expert 
horsemen, the llaneros. Both sides in the War of Independence 
drew upon these herds, and the llaneros were among the bravest 
in both armies. The end of the war found the llanos almost 
deserted. Successive civil wars prevented their recovery, and 
these plains, which ought to be one of the chief sources of meat 
supply for the country, are comparatively destitute of stock, and 



VENEZUELA 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE] 




A BRICKYARD OF VENEZUELA 



the only source of revenue from this industry is the small number 
of animals shipped to the West Indies. The breeding of goats 
and swine is an irnportant industry in some regions. Other 
industries of the colonial period were the cultivation of indigo 
and tobacco. The former has nearly disappeared, but the latter is 
still an important product. The best known tobacco-producing 
localities are Capadare, Yaritagua, Merida, Cumanacoa, Guanape, 
Guaribe and Barinas. No effort 
is made to improve the Vene- 
zuelan product, a part of which is 
exported to Cuba for cigar-mak- 
ing. The principal agricultural 
products are coffee, cacao, sugar, 
Indian corn and beans. Coffee 
was introduced from Martinique 
in 1 784 and its exportation began 
five years later. A recent estimate 
(1926) gives the number of cof- 
fee trees in Venezuela as 250,- 
000,000 belonging to 25,000 
estates, occupying some 200,000 
ac.; the average annual yield is 
from 8s million to 100 million 
pounds. Cacao (Theobroma ca- 
cao} is an indigenous product and 
is extensively cultivated on the 
Caribbean slopes. It requires a high temperature (about 80 F), 
freedom from strong winds, rich soil and a high degree of humidity 
for the best development of the tree. The tree has an average 
height of 12-13 ft>, begins bearing five years after planting, the 
yield being from 490 to 600 Ib. per ac. of 100 trees. There are two 
grades of Venezuelan cacao the criollo or native, and the 
trinitario, or Trinidad, the first being superior in quality. The 
best cacao comes from Caracas and is marketed under that name. 
The average production in Venezuela is about 50 million pounds 
per year, most of which is exported, the larger part going to 
the United States and France. Sugar-cane is not indigenous, but 
it is cultivated with success in the lowlands of Zuiia, and on the 
coast. Its principal product is "pape!6n," or brown sugar, which 
is put on the market in the shape of small cylindrical and cubical 
masses of i j- to 3i Ib. weight. This quality is the only one which 
is consumed in the country, with the exception of a compara- 
tively small quantity of refined sugar. The annual output is 
about 60,000 tons. Cotton was produced in several places 
in colonial times, but the output has now declined to a few 
thousand pounds. The plant is indigenous and grows well, but, 
unlike cacao, it requires much manual labour in its cultivation 
and picking and does not seem to be favoured by the planters. 
Indian corn is widely grown and provides the staple food of the 
people. Beans also are a common food, and are universally 
produced. Wheat was introduced by the Spaniards immediately 
after their occupation of Venezuela, and is grown in the elevated 
districts of Aragua and the western states, but the production 
does not exceed home consumption. Rice is a common article of 
food, but not enough is grown to supply the local demand. Other 
agricultural products are sweet-potatoes, cassava (manioc), yuca, 
yams, white potatoes, maguey, okra, peanuts, peas, all the vege- 
tables of the hot and temperate climates, oranges, lemons, limes, 
bananas, plantains, figs, grapes, coco-nuts, pine-apples, straw- 
berries, plums, guavas, breadfruit, mangoes and many others. 
There are also many wild fruits like those of the cactus and 
various palms, and these are largely consumed. The forest prod- 
ucts, whose collection and preparation form regular industries, 
are rubber (called caucho or goma), tonka beans, vanilla, copaiba, 
sarsaparilla, divi-divi, dye-woods, cabinet-woods and fibres. The 
rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries. 

Mining. The principal minerals are petroleum, gold, copper, 
iron, sulphur, coal and asphalt. Oil seepages were known in 
Venezuela before the discovery of America, particularly in the 
Maracaibo Basin and in the delta of the Orinoco. Deposits of 
asphalt, associated with these seepages, were exploited for many 



years, the great asphalt lake of Bermudez, like that on the ad- 
jacent British island of Trinidad, yielding large quantities for 
shipment. About 1912 attention was attracted to the country as 
a possible source of oil, and several large companies began the 
drilling of wells. Disturbed political conditions in Mexico prob- 
ably hastened activities in Venezuela. Starting in earnest in 
1920, the development came rapidly, centring on the shores of 
Lake Maracaibo, where, by 1924, some 5,600,000 barrels of oil 
were being produced. Unusually large returns were secured from 
some wells, resulting in a veritable oil boom, and by 1927 
Venezuela had taken third place among the nations of the world 
in the production of petroleum. In that year there were 20 com- 
panies operating, with a total of 200 wells and a production of 
64,436,926 barrels. In 1928, Venezuela surpassed Russia in its 
output and ranked second only to the United States. Almost all 
the actual development is confine4 to the Maracaibo Basin, about 
whose margin numerous pools have been located. The most im- 
portant fields which are situated here are the Mene, Mene 
Grande, La Rosa, and Ambrosio; the La Paz, the Rio Palmar 
and the Concepci6n; the Rio de Oro and the Tarra fields; 
and the newer Falcon field. In eastern Venezuela is located the 
Guanoco field less developed than those about Lake Maracaibo. 
Petroleum is produced in Venezuela under serious handicaps. 
Tropical heat and humidity, poorly drained lands, rank growth of 
vegetation, a scarcity of .labour, and difficulty of transportation 
combine to render the task arduous. The entrance to Lake 
Maracaibo from the sea is so shallow that no vessels of over 
ii ft. draught can enter. Consequently most of the oil must 
be sent out in light-draught barges or tankers to be reloaded 
onto ocean-going vessels. A few deep-water stations have been 
established on the Paraguana peninsula, but the larger part of 
the oil is shipped first to the islands of Curazao or Aruba, where 
there are great refineries. As these islands belong to Holland there 
is less danger of political disorder than on Venezuelan territory. 
Gold is found chiefly in the Yuruari region, about 100 m. S.W. 
of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of 
British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are situated. 
These mines have produced as much as 181,040-2 Spanish oz. in 
one year (1886) and a total of 1,320,929-09 oz. from 1871 to 1890, 
while another report gives an output valued at $23,000,000 U.S. 

gold in the 15 years from 1884 to 
1899. Some 10 or 12 mines are 
still being worked and yield about 
one million dollars per year. 
There are 14 copper mines, those 
at Aroa, 70 m. W. of Puerto 
Cabello and in railway communi- 
cation with Tucacas (89 m.), 
being the most productive. The 
principal coal deposits developed 
are at Naricual, near Barcelona, 
and a railway has been con- 
structed to bring the output to 
the port of Guanta. Deposits 
are being worked also, on a small 
scale, near Coro in the State of 
Falc6n, and in several places 
about Lake Maracaibo. Asphalt 
is taken from several deposits 
from Maracaibo, Cumana, Peder- 
i th Orinoco dplta and 

f*," 1 "* ^nnOCO delta ' * n 

the famous Bermudez asphalt 
lake in the eastern part of the country. Sulphur is mined near 
Carupano, and salt in Zulia and on the peninsula of Araya. The 
latter is a government monopoly, and the high prices at which it 
is sold constitute a serious prejudice to the people and to indus- 
tries like that of meat packing. 

Pearl Fisheries. One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, 
the Margarita pearl fisheries, dates from the first exploration of 
this coast and was probably carried on before that by the natives. 
The fisheries are established about the islands of Margarita, 
Coche and Cubagua, the best producing beds being at El Tirano 



MILLIONS OF BARRELS 
OF 42 U. S. GALLONS 







60 
50 
40 
30 
20 

to 






























r-H~ 










22 8 s 8 3 

5 2 * 2 2 2 2 


3 


K> r- 

M *J 

222 



GRAPH SHOWING PRODUCTION OF 

CRUDE PETROLEUM IN VENEZUELA 



FINANCE] 



VENEZUELA 



53 



and Macanao, the first north-east and the other north-west of 
Margarita. 

Manufactures. There are few manufacturing industries, and 
these are usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour 
and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition. The 
manufactures of this class include aerated waters, beer, candles, 
chocolate, cigarettes, cotton fabrics, hats, ice, matches, boots 
and shoes, drugs and medicines. There are a number of electric 
plants, several of which use water-power, one at El Encantado, 
10 m. from Caracas, one at Mrida, and another at San Crist6bal, 
Tachira. There are plants using steam for motive power at 
Caracas, Maracaibo, Valencia and Puerto Cabello. 

The total foreign trade of Venezuela in 1923 amounted to 
309,396,512 bolivares (i bolivar = $.19295). The imports aggre- 
gated 152,692,315 while the exports came to 156,704,197 boli- 
vares. The countries furnishing the largest amounts of the 
imports were, in order: United States, Great Britain, Germany, 
France, the Netherlands, Spain and Italy, while the countries 
taking the largest amounts of exports were the Netherlands, 
United States, Spain, France, Great Britain and Germany. In 
1923 the chief exports were valued as follows in bolivares: coffee, 
68,945,726; petroleum, 27,321,920; cacao, 23,817,102; sugar, 
5,359,128; balata, 4,084,588; hides, 3,515.55; cattle, 1,901,455; 
gold, 1,300,000; asphalt, 1,332,940; heron plumes, 1,017,735; and 
pearls, 740,880. Since 1923, petroleum has become the largest 
item of export. 

Government. The Government of Venezuela is that of a 
Federal republic of nominally independent, self-governing States. 
According to the provisions of the constitution adopted in 1925, 
the legislative power is vested in a national Congress of two 
houses the Senate and Chamber of Deputies which meets at 
Caracas every year. The Senate consists of two members from 
each State, or 40 members, who are elected by the State legis- 
latures for a period of seven years. The Chamber consists of 
popular representatives, elected by direct vote, in the proportion 
of one deputy for each 35,000 of population, each State being 
entitled to at least one deputy, the Federal district and terri- 
tories being entitled to representatives on the same terms. 

The executive power is vested by the constitution in a presi- 
dent, two vice-presidents and a cabinet of ministers. The president 
and vice-presidents, who must be Venezuelans by birth and more 
than 30 years old, are elected by the national Congress. The 
presidential term is seven years, and the president cannot succeed 
himself. The president is assisted by a cabinet of seven ministers 
and the governor of the Federal district,- their respective depart- 
ments being interior, foreign relations, finance and public credit, 
war and navy, fomento (promotion), public works and public 
instruction. 

The judicial power is vested in a supreme Federal court, called 
the Corte Federal y de Casacion, and such subordinate tribunals 
as may be created by law. The Federal court consists of seven 
members, representing as many judicial districts of the republic, 
who are elected by Congress for periods of seven years, and are 
eligible for re-election. It is the supreme tribunal of the republic, 
and is also a court of appeal (Casacidn) in certain cases, as de- 
fined by law. The judicial organization of the States includes 
in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, 
courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts. The 
judicial terms in the States are for three years. In the territories 
there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal 
courts. The laws of Venezuela are well codified both as to law and 
procedure, in civil, criminal and commercial cases. 

The State Governments are autonomous and consist of legis- 
lative assemblies composed of deputies elected by ballot for a 
period of three years, and for each a president and two vice- 
nresidents chosen by the legislative assembly for a term of 
three years. The States are divided into districts and these into 
municipios, the executive head of which is a jefe civil. There is 
a municipal council of seven members in each district, elected by 
the municipios, and in each municipio a communal junta ap- 
pointed by the municipal council. The governors of the Federal 
territories are appointees of the president of the republic, and 



the jefe civil of each territorial municipio is an appointee of the 
governor. The Federal District is the seat of Federal authority, 
and consists of a small territory surrounding Caracas and La 
Guaira, known in the territorial division of 1904 as the West 
district, and the island of Margarita and some neighbouring 
islands, known as the East district. 

There are two classes of citizens in Venezuela native-born 
and naturalized. The first includes the children of Venezuelan 
parents born in foreign countries; the latter comprises four 
classes: natives of Spanish-American republics, foreign-born per- 
sons, foreigners naturalized through special laws and foreign 
women married to Venezuelans. The power of granting citizen- 
ship to foreigners is vested in the president of the republic, who 
is also empowered to refuse admission to the country to unde- 
sirable foreigners, or to expel those who have violated the special 
law (April n, 1903) relating to their conduct in Venezuelan 
territory. The right of suffrage is exercised by Venezuelan males 
over 21 years of age, and all electors are eligible to public office 
except where the constitution declares otherwise. Foreign com- 
panies are permitted to transact business in Venezuela, subject 
to the laws relating to non-residents and also to the laws of the 
country governing national companies. 

Defence. In 1925 the Venezuelan Navy consisted of three gun- 
boats and a training ship with a personnel of a few hundred men. 
The standing army was composed of some 9,000 infantry, artillery 
and cavalry. In addition there was a reserve estimated to con- 
sist of about 100,000 men. In 1919 military service was made 
compulsory for all adult male citizens with certain exceptions. 
Service in the army or navy for two years in peace-time and 
during war at the president's pleasure was made compulsory 
with relegation to the reserve until the age of 45. A decree of 
April 17, 1920, provided for a military aviation school at Maracay. 

Education. In popular education Venezuela has done almost 
nothing worthy of record. The ruling classes and the Church 
have taken little interest in the education of the Indians and 
mestizos. According to the law of 1921 primary education is 
free and compulsory between seven and 14 years. Secondary 
education comprises two courses; one of general study occupy- 
ing four years, and one of professional study occupying two 
years. Normal training is furnished by two institutions at 
Caracas. Among the special schools are schools of commerce 
and modern languages at the capital and other important cities, 
besides two schools of industrial arts and trades. Higher educa- 
tion is afforded by the Central University of Venezuela at Caracas. 
Physical education is compulsory in all schools up to the age of 
21. Expenditure on education for 1924-25 was 4,648,345 
bolivares. further educational facilities are provided by a national 
library with 50,000 volumes, a national museum, with a valuable 
historical collection, the Cajigal Observatory, devoted to astro- 
nomical and meteorological work, and the Venezuelan Academy 
and National Academy of History the first devoted to the 
national language and literature, and the second to its history. 

Religion. The Roman Catholic is the religion of the State, 
but freedom of worship is nominally guaranteed by law. The 
president, however, is empowered to deny admission into the 
country of foreigners engaged in special religious work not meet- 
ing his approval. Practically no other form of worship exists than 
that of the Roman Catholic Church. There is one archbishop 
(Caracas) and four suffragan bishops (Merida, Guaiana, Bar- 
quisimeto and Guarico). ' ~ '""" 

Finance. The financial situation in Venezuela was for a long 
time extremely complicated and discreditable, owing to defaults 
in the payment of public debts, complications arising from the 
guarantee of interest on railways and other public works, respon- 
sibility for damages to private property during civil wars and bad 
administration. To meet increasing obligations, taxation has been 
heavily increased. The public revenues are derived from customs 
charges on imports and exports, transit taxes, cattle taxes, profits 
on coinage, receipts from State monopolies, receipts from various 
public services such as the post office, telegraph, Caracas water- 
works, etc., and sundry taxes, fines and other sources. 

The public debt of Venezuela dates back to the Revolutionary 



54 



VENEZUELA 



War, when loans were raised in Europe for account of the united 
colonies of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The separation of 
the Colombian republic into its three original parts took place 
in 1830, and in 1834 the foreign debt contracted was divided 
among the three, Venezuela being charged with 28j%, or 2,794,- 
826, of which 906,430 were arrears of interest. Other items 
were afterwards added to liquidate other obligations than those 
included in the above, chiefly on account of the internal debt. 
Several conversions and compositions followed, interest being 
paid irregularly. Jn 1 880-81 there was a consolidation and con- 
version of the republic's foreign indebtedness through a new loan 
of 2,750,000 at 3%, and in 1896 a new loan of 50,000,000 
bolivares (1,980,198) for railway guarantees and other domestic 
obligations. In Aug. 1904 these loans and arrears of interest 
brought the foreign debt up to 5,618,725, which in 1905 was 
converted into a "diplomatic" debt of 5,229,700 (3%). During 
these years Venezuela had been pursuing the dangerous policy 
of granting interest guarantees on the construction of railways 
by foreign corporations, which not only brought the Government 
into conflict with them on account of defaulted payments, but 
also through disputed interpretations of contracts and alleged 
arbitrary acts on the part of Government officials. In the civil 
wars the Government was also held responsible for damages to 
these properties and for the maltreatment of foreigners residing 
in the country. Some of these claims brought Venezuela into 
conflict with the Governments of Great Britain, Germany and 
Italy in 1903. Venezuelan ports were blockaded and there was 
an enforced settlement of the claims (about 104,417), which were 
to be paid from 30% of the revenues of the La Guaira and Puerto 
Cabello custom-houses. This settlement was followed by an ad- 
justment of all other claims, payment to be effected through the 
same channels. In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela 
(according to official returns) consisted of the following items: 





Bolivares 


Consolidated internal debt 
Diplomatic debt (Spanish, French and Dutch) 
(French, IQOJ-O^) .... 
M f T Q05 ... 


63,171,818 
7,014,569 
5,733,490 

132 O J.O O "> C 


Unconsolidated debt in circulation . 


4c6l 7x2 






Total 
or, at 25! bolivares per 


21^,531,544 
8,417,091 



Since 1909 the financial condition of Venezuela has steadily 
improved. The new law concerning public credit which came into 
force on June 15, 1923, introduced reforms in the administration 
of Venezuela's finances. Among other provisions it stipulated that 
certificates of the internal national consolidated debt which were 
received by the Treasury should be burned. The following details 
of the public debt of Venezuela in bolivares as outstanding on Dec. 
31, 1923, are taken from the report of the Minister of Finance 
for 1924: 

External debt : 

National three per cent, diplomatic debt . . 9,169,490-26 
Three per cent diplomatic debt of 1905 . . 5 8,948, 145-0x5 

Total 68,117,635-26 

Internal debt: 

National internal three per cent consolidated debt 42,647,277-93 

Three per cent inscribed debt 2,098,652-50 

Total 44,745,930-43 

The total indebtedness of the Venezuelan Government on Dec. 31, 
1923 thus amounted to 112,863,565-69. The budget for 1924-25 
estimated expenditure at 63,354,500 bolivares. Over one-fourth 
of this amount was allotted to the Ministry of Finance and Public 
Credit, one-fifth was assigned to the Ministry of War and the 
Navy, while more than one-sixth was given to the Ministry of 
the interior. In the budget the receipts of that year were estimated 
at 66,167,000 bolivares, an increase of 3,322,000 over those for 
1923-24. In his message to Congress on April 25, 1925 President 
G6mez stated that the total national debt had been reduced to 
99.445, 7*3 bolivares by Jan. i, 1925, and that on Dec. 31, 1924 



there was in the treasury a surplus of 64,692,080-46 bolivares. 
On Dec. 31, 1926 the debt had been reduced still further to 85,- 
108,452 bolivares and was being cancelled at the rate of about 
8,000,000 bolivares per year. The bolivar was relatively stable 
during the World War. On Dec. 31, 1923 there were in circula- 
tion in Venezuela 35,129,695 bolivares of bank-notes, while the 
gold reserve aggregated 55,149,749. Of the paper currency 25,- 
293,340 bolivares was supplied by the Banco de Venezuela. A 
shortage of silver in the circulating media has been met under the 
provisions of a law of 1918 by the minting of new silver coins. 
The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of 
silver and nickel is restricted, and the State issues no paper notes. 
Foreign coins were formerly legal tender but this has been changed 
by the exclusion of foreign silver coins and the acceptance of 
foreign gold coins as a commodity at a fixed value. Under the 
currency law of March 31, 1879, <thc thousandth part of a kilo- 
gramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a 
bolivar , in honour of the Venezuelan liberator. The denominations 
provided for are : 

Gold: TOO, 20, bolivares. 

Silver: 5, 2, 2.50, 2, i bolivares; 50, 20 ctntimos. 
Nickel: 12 V and 5 cMimos. 

The silver $-bollvar piece is usually known as a "dollar," and 
is equivalent to 4$i pence, or 96^ cents U.S. gold. The old "peso" 
is no longer used except in accounts, and is reckoned at 4 boli- 
vares, being sometimes described as a "soft" dollar. Silver and 
nickel arc legal tender for 50 and 20 bolivares respectively. Papery 
currency is issued by the banks of Venezuela, Caracas and Mara- 
caibo under the provisions of a general banking law, and their 
notes are accepted at their face value. 

The metric weights and measures have been officially adopted 
by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used 
throughout the country. (G. M. McB.) 

History. The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the 
American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third 
voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the 
coast of the delta of the Orinoco. In the following year a much 
greater extent of coast was traced out by Alonzo de Ojeda, who 
was accompanied by the more celebrated Amerigo Vespucci. In 
1550 the territory was erected into the captain-generalcy of 
Caracas, and it remained under Spanish rule till the early part 
of the 1 9th century. 

In 1 8 10 Venezuela rose against the Spanish and on July 14, 
1811 the independence of the territory was proclaimed. A war 
ensued which lasted for upwards of ten years, the principal events 
of which are described under BOLIVAR (q.v.), a native of Caracas 
and the leading spirit of the revolt. It was not till March 30, 
1845 that the independence of the republic was recognized by 
Spain in the Treaty of Madrid. Shortly after the battle of Cara- 
bobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part 
of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with thfi Federal 
State of Colombia, which embraced Colombia and Ecuador; but 
the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agita- 
tion in 1829 resulted in the issue of a decree (Dec. 8) by Gen. 
Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign 
and independent State. The following years were marked by re- 
curring attempts at revolution, but on the whole Venezuela, during 
the period 1830-46, was less disturbed than the neighbouring 
republic owing to the dominating influence of Gen. Paez, who 
during the whole of that time exercised practically dictatorial 
power. In 1849 a successful revolution broke out and Paez was 
driven out of the country. The author of his expulsion, Gen. Jose 
Tadeo Monagas, had in 1847 been nominated, like so many of 
his predecessors, to the presidency by Paez, but he was able to 
win the support of the army and assert his independence of his 
patron. For a period of ten years, amidst continual civil war, 
Monagas was supreme. In 1854 slavery was abolished by presi* 
dential decree. After some years of civil war and confusion, 
Gen. Juan Cris6stomo Falcon established himself at the head of 
affairs where he remained from 1863 to 1868. In 1864 he divided 
Venezuela into 20 States and formed them into a Federal Republic. 
The two parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and 



VENEZUELA 



55 



bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized govern- 
ment, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semi- 
autonomous provinces. The latter now triumphed. A revolt headed 
by Monagas broke out in 1868 and Falc6n left the country and 
resigned the Presidency. In the following year Antonio Guzman 
Blanco succeeded in making himself dictator, after a long series 
of battles in which he was victorious over the Unionists. 

For two decades after the close of these revolutionary troubles 
in 1870 the supreme power in Venezuela was, for all practical 
purposes, in the hands of Guzman Blanco. He evaded the clause 
in the constitution prohibiting the election of a president for 
successive terms of office by invariably arranging for the nomina- 
tion of some adherent of his own as chief of the executive, and 
then pulling the strings behind this figurehead. The tenure of the 
presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate 
election Guzman Blanco was* declared to be duly and legally 
chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 
1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so 
long in vogue and Guzman Blanco was overthrown. An election 
was held and Gen. Andueza Palacios was chosen president. A 
movement was set on foot for the reform of the constitution, the 
principal objects of this agitation being to prolong the presidential 
term to four years, to give Congress the right to choose the presi- 
dent of the republic, and to amend certain sections concerning 
the rights of persons taking part in armed insurrection arising 
out of political issues. All might have gone well for President 
Andueza had he not supposed that this extension of the presi- 
dential period might be made to apply to himself. His attempt to 
force this question produced violent opposition in 1891, and 
ended in a rising headed by Gen. Joaquin Crespo. This revolt, 
which was accompanied by severe fighting, ended in 1892 in the 
triumph of the insurgents, Andueza and his followers being forced 
to leave the country to save their lives. General Crespo became 
all-powerful; but he did not immediately accept the position of 
president. The reform of the constitution was agreed to, and in 
1894 Gen. Crespo was duly declared elected to the presidency by 
Congress for a period of four years. 

In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary 
between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis 
by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors 
Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of 
their subordinates, on the Cuytini river, the charge being that, they 
were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Vene- 
zuelan territory. Messrs. Barnes and Baker were subsequently 
released, and in due course made their report on the occurrence. 
The question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan 
minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to 
take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles 
of the Monroe doctrine. On Dec. 18, 1895 a message was sent 
to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically 
stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government 
to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary 
between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration 
would be considered as a casus belli by his Government. The 
news of this message caused violent agitation in Caracas and other 
towns. A league was formed binding merchants not to deal in 
goods of British origin; patriotic associations were established 
for the purpose of defending Venezuela against British aggression, 
and the militia were embodied. The question was subsequently 
arranged in 1899 by arbitration, and by the payment of a moderate 
indemnity to the British officers and men who had been captured. 
Diplomatic relations between the two countries, which had been 
broken off in consequence of the dispute, were resumed in 1897. 

In 1898 Gen. Crespo was succeeded as president by Sefior 
Ignacio Andradc. Towards the end of the year a revolutionary 
movement took place with the object of ousting Andrade from 
power. The insurrection was crushed, but in one of the final 
skirmishes a chance bullet struck Gen. Crespo, who was in com- 
mand of the Government troops, and he died from the effects 
of the wound. A subsequent revolt overthrew President Andrade 
in 1900. Gen. Cipriano Castro then became president. During 
1901 and 1902 the internal condition of the country remained 



disturbed, and fighting went on between the Government troops 
and the revolutionists. President Castro was for eight years 
a dictator, ruling by corrupt and revolutionary methods, and in 
defiance of obligations to the foreign creditors of the country. 
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of 
various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enter- 
prises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 
1903 by English, German and Italian warships. Finding that di- 
plomacy was of no avail to obtain the reparation from Castro 
that was demanded by their subjects, the three powers unwillingly 
had recourse to coercion. The president, however, sheltered him- 
self behind the Monroe doctrine and appealed to the Government 
of the United States to intervene. The dispute was finally referred 
by mutual consent to The Hague Court of Arbitration. The Wash- 
ington. Government had indeed no cause to be well disposed to 
Castro, for he treated the interests of Americans in Venezuela 
with the same high-handed contempt for honesty and justice as 
those of Europeans. The demand of the United States for a re- 
vision of what is known as the Olcott Award in connection with 
the Orinoco Steamship Company was in 1905 met by a refusal 
to reopen the case. Meanwhile the country, which up to the 
blockade of 1903 had been seething with revolutions, now became 
much quieter. In 1906, the President refused to allow M. Taigny, 
the French minister, to land, on the ground that he had broken 
the quarantine regulations. In consequence, France broke off 
diplomatic relations. In the following year, by the decision of The 
Hague Tribunal, the Venezuelan Government had to pay the 
British, German and Italian claims, amounting to 691,160; but 
there was still 840,000 due to other nationalities, which remained 
to be settled. The year 1907 was marked by the repudiation of 
the debt to Belgium, and fresh difficulties with the United States. 
Finally, in 1908 a dispute arose with Holland on the ground of 
the harbouring of refugees in Curaqoa. The Dutch minister was 
expelled, and Holland replied by the despatch of gunboats, which 
destroyed the Venezuelan tleet and blockaded the ports. In Dec. 
Gen. Castro left upon a visit to Europe. In his absence a rising 
against the dictator took place at Caracas, and his adherents 
were seized and imprisoned. Juan Vicente Gomez, the vice-presi- 
dent, now placed himself at the head of affairs. 

Under the constitution of 1909, on Aug. 27, 1910 Congress 
elected Gomez constitutional President for four years. In June 
and July, 1911 Venezuela observed the centenary of her declara- 
tion of independence. During the rule of Gomez diplomatic rela- 
tions with foreign nations that had been ruptured were resumed, 
and Venezuela undertook to pay those obligations to foreign 
nations upon which payments had lapsed. 

According to the constitution the term of office of President 
Gomez ended on April 19, 1914. Upon that day a Congress of 
Deputies from the Venezuelan States adopted a provisional con- 
stitutional statute for the Union, which declared that all laws 
not inconsistent therewith should remain in force. It further 
provided that this Congress should elect, a commander-in-chief 
of the national army at the same time that it elected a pro- 
visional president of the republic. Congress was also to frame a 
new pact of union for Venezuela, which should be submitted to 
the assemblies of the States for approval. The period of pro- 
visional rule should last until the new constitution had been 
ratified by the States and until the constitutional functionaries 
had taken their posts. On the same day Congress elected Vic- 
torino Marqucz Bustillos, who had been Minister of \Var arid the 
Navy, provisional President, and by a decree of the same day 
Bustillos appointed his ministers of State. Congress elected 
General Gomez commander-in-chief of the national army. 

On May 3, 1915 the Congress chosen under the constitution 
of 1914 unanimously elected Gen. G6mez President of the Re- 
public for the term ending April 19, 1922, but the president-elect 
did not assume the presidency. The provisional president con- 
tinued to exercise authority while Gen. Gomez remained com- 
mander-in-chief of the army with the title president-elect of the 
republic. In May, 1922 Gen. Gomez was unanimously re-elected 
to the office of President of Venezuela. On June 19, a new 
constitution was promulgated which made some slight but im- 



VENICE 



portant changes in the constitution of 1914. Articles 137 and 138 
of that fundamental law, which stipulated that the provisional 
president and the vice-presidents of the republic should hold their 
offices until the new magistrates were inaugurated and that the 
commander of the national army should exercise his functions 
until the inauguration of the constitutional president, were 
omitted from the constitution of 1922. This constitution further 
provided that in case the president should be permanently dis- 
abled, he should be succeeded by the ranking vice-president. On 
June 24 following, Gen. Gomez relieved Marquez Bustillos of 
the nominal authority which the latter had exercised since 1914, 
and assumed the powers of president for the term ending in 
1929. Venezuela became a member of the League of Nations in 
1920. On July 24, 1925 a new constitution was adopted, making 
some slight changes in that of 1922. 

Boundary Disputes. The boundary dispute between Colom- 
bia and Venezuela, which had been submitted to the arbitration 
of the Swiss Federal Council, was decided in March, 1922 in 
favour of the Colombian contention; namely, that she was 
entitled to take possession of such portions of the territory in 
dispute as had been adjudged to her in accordance with the 
decision of the king of Spain in 1891. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. C. E. Akers, History of South America (New York, 
1906) ; E. Andre, A Naturalist in the Guianas (London, 1904) ; 
A. F. Bandclier, The Gilded Man (New York, 1893) ; W. Barry, 
Venezuela (London, 1886) ; M. B. and C. W. Beebe, Our Search for 
a Wilderness (New York, 1910) ; P. L. Bell, Venezuela, a commercial 
and industrial handbook, U.S. Dept. Com. Sp. Ag. series No. 212 
(Wash., 1922) ; A. Codazzi, Resumen de la Geografia de Venezuela 
(Paris, 1841) ; L. V. Dalton, Venezuela (London, 1912) ; R. H. Davis, 
Three Gringos in Venezuela and Central America (London, 1896) ; J. C. 
Dawson, The South American Republics, vol. ii. (New York, 1905) ; 
Dr. A. Ernst, Les Produits de Venezuela (Bremen, 1874) ; A. von Hum- 
boldt and Aim6 Bonpland, Personal Narrative of Travel to the Equi- 
noctial Regions of America (London, 1900) ; M. Landaeta Resales, 
Gran Recopilacidn Geogrdfica, Estadistica e Histdrica de Venezuela 
(1889) ; P. E. Martin, Through Five Republics of South America (Lon- 
don, 1905) ; Bartolome Mitre (condensed translation by William 
Pilling), The Emancipation of South America (London, 1893) ; G. Orsi 
de Mombello, Venezuela y sus riquezas (Caracas, 1890) ; H. J. Mozans, 
Up the Orinoco and down the Magdalena (New York, 1910) ; F. 
Pimentel y Roth, Resumen cronologico de las leyes y decrrtos del crid- 
ito publico de Venezuela, desde el ano de iSid'hasta tl de 1872-1873; 
W. L. Scruggs, The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics (2nd ed., 
Boston, 1905) ; W. L. Scruggs and J. J. Storrow, The Brief for Vene- 
zuela [Boundary dispute] (London, 1896) ; J. M. Spence, The Land of 
Bolivar: Adventures in Venezuela (2 voJs., London, 1878) ; J. Strick- 
land, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between 
Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896) ; S. P. Triana, Down 
the Orinoco in a Canoe (London, 1902) ; N. Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela: 
Esbozo Geogrdfico, Caracas, 1904 (Venezuela: Geographical Sketch, 
Natural Resources, Laws, etc.) I Bur. of American Republics] (Wash- 
ington, 1904) ; Gen. J. A. Paez, Memorias (Madrid, 1916) ; C. Parra- 
Perez, Hist, de la Colombie et du Venezuela (1921); M. J. Gomes 
Macpherson, Venezuela (Geneva, 1921) ; 0. Burger, Venezuela, Fuhrer 
dutch das Land und seine Wirtschaft (Leipsic, 1922) ; W. S. Robert- 
son, Hist, of the Latin- American Nations (N.Y., 1922) ; N. V. Gorti- 
coa, Venezuela: Geographic Sketch (Caracas, 1924); Cunningham, 
/. A. Paez (1929). (W. S. Ro.) 

VENICE (Vencsia), a city and seaport of Italy, occupying 
one of the most remarkable sites in the world. At the head of the 
Adriatic, between the mountains and the sea, lies that part of 
the Lombard plain known as the Veneto. The whole of this plain 
has been formed by the ddbris swept down from the Alps by the 
rivers Po, Ticino, Oglio, Adda, Mincio, Adige, Brenta, Piave, 
Livenzd, lagliamento and Isonzo. The substratum of the plain 
is a bed of boulders, covered during the lapse of ages by a deposit 
of rich alluvial soil. The rivers when they debouch from the 
mountains assume an eastern trend in their effort to reach the 
sea. The result is that the plain is being gradually extended in 
an easterly direction, and cities like Ravenna, Adria and Aquileia, 
which were once seaports, lie now many miles inland. The en- 
croachment of land on sea has been calculated at the rate of about 
three miles in a thousand years. A strong current sets round the 
head of the Adriatic from east to west. This current catches the 
silt brought down by the rivers and projects it in long banks, or 
lidi, parallel with the shore. In process of time some of these 
banks, as in the case of Venice, raised themselves above the level 




of the water and became the true shore-line, while behind them 
lay large lagoons, formed partly by the fresh water brought down 
by the rivers, partly by the salt-water tide which found its way in 
by the channels of the river mouths. On a group of these mud 
banks about the middle of the lagoon of Venice stands the city 
of Venice. The soil is an oozy mud which can only be made 
capable of carrying buildings by the artificial means of pile- 
driving; there is no land fit for 
agriculture or the rearing of 
cattle; the sole food supply is 
fish from the lagoon, arid there 
is no drinking-water save such as 
could be stored from the rain- 
fall. 

The whole site of Venice is 
dominated by the existence of 
one great main canal, the Grand 
Canal, which, winding through 
the town in the shape of the let- 
ter S, divides it into two equal 
parts. This great canal was prob- 
ably at one time the bed of a 
river flowing into the lagoons 
^^ near Mestre. The smaller canals 

VENICE, SHOWING THE" BRIDGE OF a11 serve as arteries to the Grand 
SIGHS. JOINING THE DUCAL PALACE Canal and their windings follow 

TO THE STATE PRISON, BUILT BY the lines Of Construction OHgi- 

CONTINO IN THE 16TH CENTURY na u y determined by the channels 
which traversed the islands of the lagoon. One other broad canal, 
once the bed of the Brenta, divides the island of the Giudccca from 
the rest of the city and takes its name from that island. The 
alleys or calli number 2,327, with a total length of 89^ m.; the 
canals number 177 and measure 28 m. The ordinary Venetian 
house was built round a courtyard, and was one storey high; on 
the roof was an open loggia for drying clothes; in front, between 
the house and the water, ran the fondamenta or quay. The earliest 
churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we 
find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of 
dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus, 
secretary to Theodoric the Great, says, in a letter dated A.D. 523, 
like sea-birds' nests over the face of the waters. Some of the islets 
were then still uninhabited, overrun with a dense low growth 
which served as cover for game and even for wolves. 

Gondolas. The characteristic conveyances on the canals of 
Venice are the gondolas, flat-bottomed boats, some 30 ft. long 
by 4 or 5 ft. wide, curving out of the water at the ends, with 
ornamental bow and stern pieces and an iron beak (ferro), re- 
sembling a halberd, which is the highest part of the boat. The 
gondolier stands on a poppa at the stern with his face towards 
the bow, and propels the gondola with a single oar. There is a 
low cabin (felze) for passengers; the ordinary gondolas can take 
four or six persons, and larger ones (barca or battello} take eight. 
Gondolas are mentioned as far back as 1094, and, prior to a 
sumptuary edict passed by the great council in 1562 making black 
their compulsory colour, they were very different in appearance 
from now. Instead of the present boat, with its heavy black 
cabin and absence of colouring, the older forms had an awning of 
rich stuffs or gold embroideries, supported on a light arched 
framework open at both ends; this is the gondola still seen in 
Carpaccio's and Gentile Bellini's pictures (c. 1500). There are 
also frequent steamer services along the Grand Canal to the Lido 
and the other islands of the lagoon. 

Byzantine Architecture. We can trace the continuous 
growth of Venice through the successive styles of Byzantine, 
Gothic, early Renaissance and late Renaissance architecture. (See 
Ruskin's Stones of Venice.) The two most striking buildings in 
Venice, St. Mark's and the Doge's Palace, at once give us an 
example of the two earlier styles, the Byzantine and the Gothic, 
at least in their general design, though both are so capricious in 
development and in decoration that they may more justly be 
considered as unique specimens rather than as typical examples 
of their respective styles. In truth, owing to its isolated position 



VENICE 



57 



on the very verge of Italy, and to its close connection with the 
East, Venetian architecture was a distinctly independent develop- 
ment.* 

St. Mark's. The church of St. Mark's, originally the private 
chapel of the doge, is unique in respect of its richness of material 
and decoration. It was adorned with the spoils of countless other 
buildings, both in the East and on the Italian mainland. A law 
of the republic required every merchant trading to the East to 
bring back some material for the adornment of the fane. Indeed, 
the building is a museum of sculpture of the most varied kind, 
nearly every century from the 4th down to the latest Renaissance 
being represented. The present church is the third on this site. 
Soon after the concentration at Rialto (see History below), a 
small wooden church was erected about the year 828 for the re- 
ception of the relics of St. Mark, brought from Alexandria. St. 
Mark then became the patron saint of Venice in place of St. 
Theodore. This church was burned in 976 along with the ducal 
palace in the insurrection against the Doge Candiano IV. Pietro 
Orseolo and his successors rebuilt it on a larger scale. About 1063 
the Doge Contarini began to remodel St. Mark's, Byzantine archi- 
tects having a large share in the work: but Lombards were also 
employed, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district. 

In plan (see the article ARCHITECTURE) St. Mark's is a Greek 
cross of equal arms, covered by a dome in the centre, 42 ft. in 
diameter, and by a dome over each of the arms. The plan is 
derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, 
now covered by the mosque of Mahommed II., and bears a strong 
resemblance to the plan of St. Front at Perigueux in France 
(1120). The addition of a narthex before the main front and a 
vestibule on the northern side brings the whole western arm of 
the cross to a square on plan. In elevation the fagade seems to 
have connection with the five-bayed fagade of the Kahriyeh Jame, 
or mosaic mosque, at Constantinople. The exterior facade is en- 
riched with marble columns brought from Alexandria and other 
cities of the East. Mosaics are employed to decorate the span- 
drils of the arches. Only one of the original mosaics now exists. 
It represents the translation of the body of St. Mark, and gives 
us a view of the west facade of the church as it was at the be- 
ginning of the 1 3th century before the addition of the ogee gables. 
The top of the narthex forms a wide gallery, communicating with 
the interior at the triforium level. In the centre of this gallery 
stand the four colossal bronze horses which belonged to some 
Graeco-Roman triumphal quadriga, and were brought to Venice 
by the Doge Enrico Dandolo in 1 204. The south facade was recon- 
structed in 1865-78. 

Mosaic is the essential decoration of the church, and the archi- 
tectural details are subordinated to the colour scheme. The old- 
est remaining belong to the i2th century, and many of them, for 
example those of the domes of the atrium, are among the finest 
of their kind; but the greater part have been restored in the 
i6th-i9th centuries. Below the mosaics the walls and arches 
are covered with rare marbles, porphyries and alabaster from 
ancient columns sawn into slices and so arranged in broad bands 
as to produce a rich gamut of colour. 

The eastern crypt, or confessio, extends under the whole of the 
choir and has three apses, like the upper church. Below the nave 
is another crypt. The floors of both crypts have sunk consider- 
ably and are often under water; this settlement accounts for the 
inequalities of the pavement. The original part of the magnificent 
mosaic pavement probably dates from the same period as the 
pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and work- 
manship, which bears the date 1140. The pavement consists 
partly of opus Alexandrinum of red and green porphyry mixed 
with marbles, partly of tessellated work of glass and marble. 

The choir stands about 4 ft. above the nave and is separated 
from it by a marble rood-screen, on the architrave of which stand 
fourteen figures, the signed work of Jacobello and Pietro Paolo 
delle Masegne, 1394. 

The Pala d'oro, or retable of the high altar (within which 
rests the body of St. Mark), is one of the chief glories of St. 
Mark's. It is one of the most magnificent specimens of gold- 
smiths' and jewellers' work in existence. It was ordered in 976 



at Constantinople by the Doge Pietro I. Orseolo, and was en- 
larged and enriched with gems and modified in form, first by a 
Greek artificer in 1105, and then by Venetians between 1209 and 
1345. It is composed of figures of Christ, angels, prophets and 
saints, in Byzantine enamel run into gold plates. The treasury 
of St. Mark's contains magnificent church plate and jewels. 

Byzantine Palaces; Fine examples of Venetian Byzantine 
palaces at least of the facades are still to be seen on the 
Grand Canal and in some of the small canals. The interiors have 
been modified past recognition of their original disposition. The 
Byzantine palace seems to have had twin angle-towers such as 
those of the Ca' Molin on the Riva degli Schiavoni, where Pe- 
trarch lived. The Fondaco dei Turchi (i3th century), now the 
Natural History Museum, also has two angle-towers. The fa- 
gades presented continuous colonnades on each floor with semi- 
circular high stilted arches, leaving a very small amount of wall 
space. The buildings were usually battlemented in fantastic 
form. A good specimen may be seen in Lazzaro Sebastiani's pic- 
ture of the piazzetta, in the Museo Civico. There on the right we 
see the handsome building of the old bakery, occupying the site 
of the present library; it has two arcades of Saracenic arches and 
a fine row of battlements. Other specimens still in existence are 
Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti (now the municipal build- 
ings), and the splendid Palazzo *Da Mosto, all on the Grand 
Canal. The richest ornamentation was applied to the arches and 
string courses while plaques of sculpture, roundels and coats of 
arms adorned the facades. The remains of a Byzantine facade 
now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca' Foscari 
offer us excellent illustration of this elaborate style of decorative 
work. 

Gothic Architecture. Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical 
and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian 
Gothic generally. The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the 
determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic. 

The Ducal Palace. Soon after the concentration at Rialto 
the doge Angelo Particiaco began an official residence for the head 
of the state, a small, strongly fortified castle; one of its massive 
angle-towers is now incorporated in St. Mark's and serves as the 
treasury. It was burnt in 976 and again in 1106. Sebastian Ziani 
(1173-1179) restored and enlarged the palace. Of his work some 
traces still remain in the richly sculptured bands built in at inter- 
vals along the 14th-century facade on the Rio, and part of the 
handsome larch-wood beams which formed the loggia of the 
piazzetta facade, still visible on the inner wall of the present 
loggia. The palace was begun by Pietro Gradenigo in 1309. 




TYPICAL CANAL SCENE IN VENICE. THE "QUEEN OF THE ADRIATIC," A 
CITY OF CANALS AND BRIDGES. THERE ARE 177 CANALS. SPANNED BY 
MORE THAN 4OO BRIDGES. AND GONDOLAS TAKE THE PLACE OF CARRIAGES 
AND MOTORS 

Towards the end of the i4th century, this facade, with its lower 
colonnade, upper loggia with handsome Gothic tracery, and the 
vast impending upper storey, which give to the whole building 
its striking appearance and audacious design, had been carried as 
far as the tenth column on the piazzetta side. In 1424 the building 
was resumed and carried as far as the north-west angle, near St. 
Mark's, thus completing the sea and piazzetta fagades of two 
storeys with open colonnades, forming a long loggia on the ground 



VENICE 



and first floors, with seventeen arches on the sea front and eighteen 
on the other faqade. Above this is a lofty third storey, pierced 
with a few large windows, with pointed arches once filled with 
tracery, which is how lost. The whole surface of the ponderous 
upper storey is covered with a diaper pattern in slabs of creamy 
white Istrian stone and red Verona marble, giving a delicate rosy- 
orange hue to the building. Very beautiful sculpture, executed 
with an ivory-like minuteness of finish, is used to decorate the 
whole building with wonderful profusion. The great gateway, the 
Porta della Carta, was added in 1439-43 from designs by Gio- 
vanni Buon and his son Bartolomeo. The block of buildings 
in the interior, connecting the Porta della Carta with the Rio wing, 
was added about 1462. Later a tire consumed the earlier build- 
ings along the Rio, which were replaced by the present structure. 

The great internal court is surrounded with a reading. From the 
interior of the court access is given to the upper loggia by a very 
beautiful early Renaissance staircase, built in 1484-1501 by 
Antonio Rizzo. Two colossal statues of Neptune and Mars at 
the top of these stairs were executed by Jacopo Sansovino in 1554 
hence the name "giants' staircase." Owing to the fire of 1574, 
the fine series of early Paduan and Venetian frescoes in the chief 
rooms was lost. At present the magnificent council chambers for 
the different legislative bodies of the Venetian republic and the 
state apartments of the doges are highly decorated with gilt carv- 
ing and panelling in the style of the later Renaissance. On the 
walls of the chief council chambers are a magnificent series of 
oil-paintings by Tintoretto and others among them his master- 
piece, "Bacchus and Ariadne," and his enormous picture of Para- 
disc, the largest oil-painting in the world. 

Gothic Churches and Palaces. Among the many Gothic 
churches of Venice the largest arc the Franciscan church of Santa 
Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (begun in 1338), and the Dominican 
church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo (1246-1430). The Frari is re- 
markable for its splendid works of art, including Titian's famous 
Assumption of the Virgin, and its fine choir-stalls and for the 
series of six eastern chapels which from outside give a very good 
example of Gothic brickwork, comparable with the even finer 
apse of the now desecrated church of San Gregorio. The church 
of SS. Giovanni e Paolo was the usual burying-place of the doges, 
and contains many noble mausoleums of various dates. Besides 
these two churches we may mention Santo Stefano, an interesting 
building of central Gothic, "the best ecclesiastical example of it 
in Venice." The west entrance is later than the rest of the edifice 
and is of the richest Renaissance Gothic, a little earlier than the 
Porta della Carta. 

But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the 
most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The intro- 
duction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the 
Venetian constitution and the development of Venetian com- 
merce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders. 

The finest example of the ogival style is undoubtedly the Ca' 
d'Oro, so-called from the profusion of gold employed on its facade. 
It was built for Marino Contarini in 1422-40, a comparatively 
late date. With a fine collection of pictures and furniture, it was 
given to the State by Baron Franchetti in 1916. 

Contarini was to some extent his own architect. He had the 
assistance of Marco d' Amadeo, a master-builder, and of Matteo 
Reverti, a Milanese sculptor, who were joined later on by Giovanni 
Buon and his son Bartolomeo. By the year 1431 the facade was 
nearly completed, and Contarini made a bargain with Martino and 
Giovanni Benzon for the marbles to cover what was yet unfinished. 
But Contarini was not content to leave the marbles as they were. 
He desired to have the facade of his house in colour. The con- 
tract for this work, signed with Master Zuan de Franza, conjures 
up a vision of the Ca' d' Oro ablaze with colour and gleaming with 
the gold ornamentation from which it took its name. 

Other notable examples are the Palazzo Ariani at San Raffaelle, 
with its handsome window in a design of intersecting circles; the 
beautiful window with the symbols of the four Evangelists in the 
spandrils, in the facade of a house at San Stae; the row of three 
Giustinian palaces at S, Barnaba; the Palazzo Priuli at San 
Severo, with a remarkably graceful angle-window, where the 



columnar mullion carries down the angle of the wall; the flam- 
boyant balconies of the Palazzo Contarini Fasan; the Palazzo 
Bernardo on a side canal near S. Polo, a late central Gothic build- 
ing (1380-1400). 

Early Renaissance. Towards the close of the isth century 
Venetian architecture began to feel the influence of the classical 
revival; but, lying far from Rome and retaining still her connec- 
tion with the East, Venice 'did not fall under the sway of the 
classical ideals either so quickly or so completely as most Italian 
cities. Indeed, in this as in the earlier styles, Venice struck out 
a line for herself and developed a style of her own, known as 
Lombardesque, after the family of the Lombardi (Solan) who 
came from Carona on the Lake of Lugano. The essential point 
about the style is that it is intermediary between Venetian Gothic 
and full Renaissance. We find it retaining some traces of Byzan- 
tine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and 
in the roundels of porphyry and verde antico, while it also retained 
certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed 
arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal 
palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499). 

Churches. The most perfect example of this style in eccle- 
siastical architecture is the little church of S. Maria dei Miracoli 
begun by Pietro Lombardo in 1481. The church is without aisles, 
and has a semicircular roof, and the choir is raised twelve steps 
above the floor of the nave. The walls, both internally and ex- 
ternally, are encrusted with marbles. The facade has the char- 
acteristic circular pediment with a large west window surrounded^ 
by three smaller windows separated by two ornamental roundels 
in coloured marble and of geometric design. Below the pediment 
comes an arcade with flat pilasters, which runs all round the ex- 
terior of the church. Two of the bays contain round-headed 
windows; the other three are filled in with white marble adorned 
by crosses and roundels in coloured marble. 

Similar results are obtained in the magnificent facade of the 
Scuola di San Marco, at SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which has six semi- 
circular pediments of varying size crowning the six bays, in the 
upper order of which are four noble Romanesque windows. The 
lower order contains the handsome portal with a semicircular 
pediment, while four of the remaining bays are filled with quaint 
scenes in surprisingly skilful perspective. The facade of San 
Zaccaria (1458-1515), the stately design of Anton Marco Gam- 
bello and Mauro Coducci, offers some slight modifications in the 
use of the semicircular pediment, the line of the aisle roof being 
indicated by quarter-circle pediments abutting on the faqade of 
the nave. San Salvatore, the work of Tullio Lombardo (1530), is 
severer and less highly ornamented than the preceding examples, 
but its plan is singularly impressive, giving the effect of great 
space in a comparatively small area. In this connection we must 
mention the Scuola of S. Giovanni Evangelista at the Frari, with 
its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated 
with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double 
flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola. This also was 
the work of Pietro Lombardo and his son Tullio. 

Early Renaissance palaces occur frequently in Venice and form 
a pleasing contrast with those in the Gothic style. The Palazzo 
Dario with its dedication, Urbis genio, and the Vendramin- 
Calergi or Non nobis palace, whose fagade is characterized by its 
round-headed windows of grouped twin lights between columns, 
are among the more important; though beautiful specimens, such 
as the Palazzo Trevisan on the Rio della Paglia, and the Palazzo 
Corner Reali at the Fava, are to be found all over the city. 

Later Renaissance. In this period architecture in Venice 
lacks any peculiarly individual imprint. It is still characterized 
by great splendour; indeed, the library of San Marco, begun by 
Jacopo Sansovino in 1536, is justly considered the most sump- 
tuous example of Renaissance architecture in the world. It is 
rich, ornate, yet hardly florid, distinguished by splendid effects 
of light and shade, obtained by a far bolder use of projections 
than had hitherto been found in the somewhat flat design of 
Venetian facades. 

The old Procuratie were built by Bartolomeo Buon about 1514, 
the new by Scamozzi in 1580, yet it is clear that each belongs 



VENICE 



59 



to an entirely different world of artistic ideas. The Procuratie 
Vecchie is perhaps the longest arcaded fagade in the world and 
certainly shows the least amount of wall space; the whole design 
is simple, the moulding and ornamentation severe. The Procuratie 
Nuove, which after all is merely ScamozzFs continuation of San- 
sovino's library, displays all the richness of that ornate building. 
It contains the museum of ancient sculpture, founded by Cardinal 
Domenico Grimani in 1523. 

Among the churches of this period those of San Giorgio Mag- 
giore and of the Redentore are both by Palladio. In 1631 Baldas- 
sare Longhena began the tine church of Santa Maria della Salute. 
With a large and handsome dome, a secondary cupola over the 
altar, and a striking portal and flight of steps, it occupies one of 
the most conspicuous sites in Venice on the point of land that 
separates the mouth of the Guidccca from the Grand Canal. In 
plan it is an octagon with chapels projecting one on each side. 
The fagades of San Moise and of Santa Maria del Giglio are good 
specimens of the baroque style. 

Among the palaces of the later Renaissance the more remark- 
able are Sansovino's Palazzo Corner della Ca' Grande, Long- 
hena's massive and imposing Palazzo Pesaro, the Palazzo Rez- 
zonico, from designs by Longhena with the third storey added by 
Massari, Sammicheli's Palazzo Corner Mocenigo at San Polo, and 
Massari's well-proportioned and dignified Palazzo Grassi at San 
Samuele, built in 1705-45. 

Modern Buildings. In recent times the general prosperity 
of the city has brought about a revival of domestic and civic 
architecture both in the Venetian Gothic and the Renaissance 
Lombardesque style. 

Among the most remarkable buildings in Venice are the scuole, 
or gild halls, of the various confraternities. The six scuole grandi, 
San Teodoro, S. Maria della Carita, S. Giovanni Evangelista, San 
Marco, della Misericordia and San Rocco, built themselves mag- 
nificent gild halls. The Scuola di San Marco is now a part of the 
town hospital, and besides its facade, it is remarkable for the 
handsome carved ceiling in the main hall (1463). Other beautiful 
ceilings are to be found in the great hall and the hall of the 
Albergo in the Scuola della Carita, now the Accademia containing 
the famous picture gallery, with a number of works returned by 
Austria in 1919 by Marco Cozzi of Vicenza. But the most mag- 
nificent of these gild halls is the Scuola di San Rocco, designed 
by Bartolomeo Buon in 1517 and carried out by Scarpagnino and 
Sante Lombardo. The facade on the Campo is large and pure in 
conception. The great staircase and the lower and upper halls 
contain an unrivalled series of paintings by Tintoretto. 

Campanili. Among the more striking features, of Venice we 
must reckon the campanili or bell-towers. (See CAMPANILE.) 
These were at one time more numerous, earthquakes and sub- 
sidence of foundations have brought many of them down, the 
latest to fall being the great tower of San Marco itself, which col- 
lapsed on July 14, 1902. Its reconstruction was at once under- 
taken, and completed in 1912, together with that of Sansovino's 
beautiful Loggetta, on its east side. In a few other cases, for 
example at San Giorgio Maggiore, the fallen campanili were 
restored; but for the most part they were not replaced. The 
Venetian campanile usually stands detached from the church. It 
is almost invariably square. The campanile is usually a plain 
brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces. It has 
small angle-windows to light the interior inclined plane or stair- 
case, and is hot broken into storeys with grouped windows as 
in the case of the Lombard bell-towers. Above the shaft comes 
the arcaded bell-chamber, frequently built of Istrian stone; and 
above that again the attic, either round or square or octagonal, 
carrying either a cone or a pyramid or a cupola. Among the exist- 
ing campanili the oldest are San Geremia, dating from the nth 
century, San Samuele from the i2th, San Barnaba and San Zac- 
caria from the i3th. 

Public Monuments. Venetian sculpture is for the most part 
ancillary to architecture; for example, Antonio Rizzo's "Adam" 
and "Eve" (1464), which face the giants'-staircase in the ducal 
palace, are parts of the decorative scheme; Sansovino's splendid 
monument to Tomaso Rangone is an essential feature of the 



facade of San Giuliano. The most successful Venetian sculpture 
is to be found in the many noble sepulchral private 'monuments. 
The jealousy of the Venetian republic forbade the erection of 
monuments to her great men. The sole exception is the superb 
equestrian statue in honour of the General Bartolomeo Colleoni, 
standing on the Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo. It is by the Flo- 
rentine Verrocchio, and was cast by Alessandro Leopardi, who 
was responsible for the graceful pedestal. Leopardi was also 
the creator (1505) of the three handsome bronze sockets in 
front of St. Mark's which held the flagstaffs of the banners of 
Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic ruled them. 

By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west 
facade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of 
Egyptian granite, brought as trophies to Venice by Doge Dome- 
nico Michieli in 1 126. In 1 180 they were set up with their present 
fine capitals and bases. The grey column is surmounted by a fine 
bronze lion of Byzantine style, cast in Venice for Doge Ziani 
about 1178 and in 1329 a marble statue of St. Theodore, standing 
upon a crocodile, was placed on the other column. 

PAINTING 

Painting developed relatively late in Venice, as is shown by 
the dates of the activity of Giacomo Bellini (1424-1470) and his 
sons Gentile (1429-1507) and Giovanni (1459-1516) of the 
Vivarini family of Murano (1440-1505) and of Vittore Car- 
paccio (1482-^. 1527). The greatest artists of the Venetian school 
are Titian (i477?-i576) and Tintoretto (1518-94): but Palma 
Vecchio (c. 1480-1528), Bonifacio, Paris Bordone, and Paolo 
Veronese are also important. Of later masters we may name 
Tiepolo, Canaletto and Guardi (qq.v.). 

Institutions. The arsenal was founded about the year 1104 
by the doge Ordelap Falier. In 1304, on the design of Andrea 
Pisano, new building sheds and the rope walk were erected. 
Pisano's building sheds, nine in a row, with peculiarly shaped 
roofs, were still standing intact until recently, but have been 
modified. In 1325 the second addition, the arsenale nuovo, was 
made, and a third, the arsenale nuovissimo, in 1473; a fourth, the 
Riparto ddle Galeazze, about 1539; and in 1564 the fifth enlarge- 
ment, the Canal delle Galeazze e Vasca, took place. The entire 
circuit of the arsenal, about two miles in extent, is protected by 
a lofty wall with turrets. The main door of the arsenal is the first 
example in Venice of the purely classical style. It is a noble portal, 
erected in 1460, from designs by Fra Giocondo, with the lion of 
St. Mark in the attic. The statuary, with S. Giustina on the sum- 
mit of the tympanum, was added in 1571 and 1578. The whole 
design was modified in 1688 so as to represent a triumphal arch 
in honour of Morosini Peloponnesiaco, who brought from Athens 
to Venice the four lions in Pentelic marble which now stand 
before the gate. (On the largest of these lions is cut a runic in- 
scription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the nth century by 
Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, 
afterwards 1047 king of Norway.) The arsenal suffered fre- 
quently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 
and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that her fleet crushed 
the Turks at Lepanto in 1571. 

The Lido, which lies about 2 m. S.E. of Venice and divides the 
lagoon from the sea, has become a fashionable bathing-place. The 
point of San Nicolo del Lido is strongly fortified to protect the 
new entrance to the port. Inside the fortress lies the old 
Protestant burying-ground. 

Libraries. The library of San Marco contains upwards of 
400,000 printed volumes and about 13,000 manuscripts. We may 
date the true foundation of the library to the donation of Cardinal 
Bessarion. The principal treasures of the collection, including 
splendid Byzantine book-covers, the priceless codices of Homer, 
the Grimani Breviary, an early Dante, etc., are exhibited under 
cases in the Sala Bessarione in the Zecca or mint where the 
library has been installed. Another library was left to the public 
by the munificence of Count Quirini-Stampalia, who bequeathed 
his collections and his house at Santa Maria Formosa to be held 
in trust for students. The state archives are housed in the Fran- 
ciscan monastery at the Frari. 



6o 



VENICE 



Harbour. Under the republic commercial shipping used to 
enter Venice by the port of San Nicolo del Lido and lie along the 
quay called the Riva degli Schiavoni, in the basin of San Marco, 
and up the broad Giudecca Canal. But the mouth of the Lido 
entrance gradually silted up and, when trade expanded, the Italian 
Government resolved to reopen it. Two moles were run out in 
a south-westerly direction; the westerly is about 2 m., the easterly 
about 3 m. in length. The natural scour thus created has given 
a depth of 26 ft. of water through the sand-bank. The mean rise 
and fall of the tide is about 2 ft., but under certain conditions of 
wind the variation amounts to 5 ft. and over. Docks were con- 
structed near the railway station, but in 1917 plans were made 
for a new port for Venice on the mainland, at Marghcra, south of 
the railway line to Padua; in 1922 the canal of approach was 
opened by King Victor Emmanuel, and named in his honour, and 
in 1924 the construction of the main works was begun. The port, 
when finished, will cover twice the area of Venice itself, and will 
consist of parallel moles 3,000 ft. long with docks of 600 to 800 ft. 
between. Two moles will be built at lirst, with isolated jetties on 
the canal for oil ships. With the existing docks in Venice this will 
give the port a capacity of 10,000,000 to 12,000,000 tons a year. 
It is hoped that the industrial area, which is being built behind 
the docks, will create a considerable volume of trade. Behind 
the industrial area again a garden suburb to house 30,000 is being 
brought into existence by the municipality. Special customs facili- 
ties have been granted for the encouragement of trade in the new 
port. In 1926 6,722 ships of a total tonnage of 5,785,424 entered 
and cleared the port, disembarking 1,676,750 tons of merchandise, 
and embarking 232,652, and dealing with 76,199 passengers. 

The ancient glass-bead industry (conterie), has regained its 
position through the union of the different factories. Venetian 
beads are now sent in large quantities to the various colonies in 
Africa, and to India, Sumatra and Borneo. Similarly, the glass 
industry has revived. New amalgams and methods of colouring 
have been discovered, and fresh forms have been diligently studied. 
Special progress has been made in the production of mirrors, 
electric lamps, candelabra and mosaics. New industries are those 
of tapestry, brocades, imitation of ancient stuffs, cloth of silver 
and gold, and Venetian laces for the manufacture of which there 
is a government school, with 500 girl pupils. (See LACE.) 

Population and Administration. In 1548 the population 
of Venice numbered 158,069; in 1607-29, 142,804; in 1706, 140,- 
256; in 1785, 139,095; in 1881, 132,826; in 1921 171,615. The 
city is extremely healthy, and the climate naturally mild. 

Under the republic, and until modern times, the water supply 
of Venice was furnished by the storage of rain-water supple- 
mented by water brought from the Brenta in boats. The 
famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the 
roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight 
stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was 
laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing 
material of clay and sand was then built. On the ground-level 
perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the 
rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; 
this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft 
of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets. The present 
water supply comes from S. Ambrogio near Padova, 20 m. away. 

Of the 19,000 houses in Venice only 6,000 have drains and 
sinks, all the others discharge sewage through pipes directly or 
indirectly. into the canals. With the rise and fall of the tide the 
discharge pipes are flushed at the bottom. An important investi- 
gation undertaken by the Bacterioscopicai Laboratory, with regard 
to the pollution of the Venetian canals by the city sewage, led 
to the discovery that the water of the lagoons possesses auto- 
purifying power, not only in the large canals but even in the 
smallest ramifications of the waterways. 

The church is ruled by the patriarch of Venice, who is usually 
raised to the purple. The patriarchate dates from 1451, when on 
the death of Domenico Michiel, patriarch of Grado, its seat of 
that honour was transferred to the cathedral church of Castello in 
Venice, and Michiel's successor, Lorenzo Giustinian, assumed the 
title of patriarch of Venice. On the fall of the republic St. Mark's 



became the cathedral church of the patriarch. There are thirty 
parishes in the city of Venice and fifteen in the lagoon islands and 
on the littoral. (X.) 

HISTORY 

It is usually affirmed that the State of Venice owes its origin 
to the barbarian invasions of north Italy; that it was founded by 
refugees from the mainland cities who sought refuge from the 
Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons. 
Venice, like Rome and other famous cities, was an asylum city. 
But it is nearly certain that long before Attila and his Huns 
swept down upon the Venetian plain in the middle of the fifth 
century, the little islands of the lagoon already had a population 
of poor but hardy fisherfolk living in quasi-independence, thanks 
to their poverty and their inaccessible site. This population was 
augmented from time to time by refugees from the mainland 
cities of Aquileia, Concordia, Opitergium, Altinum and Patavium. 
But these did not mingle readily with the indigenous population ; 
as each wave of barbarian invasion fell back, these refugees re- 
turned to their mainland homes, and it required the pressure of 
many successive incursions to induce them finally to abandon the 
mainland for the lagoon, a decision which was not reached till the 
Lombard invasion of 568. On each occasion, no doubt, some of the 
refugees remained behind in the islands, and gradually built and 
peopled the 12 lagoon townships, which formed the germ of the 
State of Venice and were subsequently concentrated at Rialto or in 
the city we now know as Venice. These 12 townships were Grado, 
Bibione, Caorle, Jesolo, Heraclea, Torcello, Murano, Rialto, Ma- 
lamocco, Poveglia, Chioggia and Sottomarina. The effect of the 
final Lombard invasion is shown by the resolve to quit the main- 
land and the rapid building of churches which is recorded by the 
Cronaca altinate. The people who finally abandoned the main- 
land and took their priests with them are the people who made 
the Venetian republic. But they were not as yet homogeneous. 

Independence. There is little doubt that the original lagoon 
population depended for its administration, as far as it had any, 
upon the larger cities of the mainland. There is a tradition that 
Venice was founded by "consuls from Padua"; and Padua claimed 
complete control of the course of the Brenta down to its mouth 
at Malamocco. The destruction of the mainland cities, and the 
flight of their leading inhabitants to the lagoons, encouraged the 
lagoon population to assert a growing independence, and led 
them to advance the doctrine that they were "born independent." 
Their development as a maritime people, engaged in small trading 
and intimately acquainted with their home waters, led Belisarius 
to seek their help in his task of recovering Italy from the Goths. 
He was successful; and the lagoons became, theoretically at least, 
a part of the Eastern empire. But the empire was vast and weak, 
and its capital lay far away; in practice, no doubt, the lagoon 
population enjoyed virtual independence. 
. It was from Byzantium that the Venetian people received the 
first recognition of their existence as a separate community. 
Their maritime importance compelled Narses, the imperial com- 
mander, to seek their aid in transporting his army from Grado; 
and when the Paduans appealed to the Eunuch to restore their 
rights over the Brenta, the Venetians replied by declaring that 
islands of the lagoon and the river mouths that fell into the 
estuary were the property of those who had rendered them habit- 
able and serviceable. Narses declined to intervene, Padua was 
powerless to enforce its claims and Venice established a virtual 
independence of the mainland. Nor was it long before Venice 
made a similar assertion to the imperial representative, Longinus, 
who invited the Venetians to give him an escort to Constantinople 
(which they did) and also to acknowledge themselves subjects 
of the empire. By dint of promising large concessions and trading 
privileges, he induced the Venetians to make an act of submission 
though not upon oath. The terms of this pact resulted in the 
first diploma conferred on Venice as a separate community (584). 
But it was inevitable that, when the barbarians, Lombard or 
Frank, were once established on the mainland of Italy, Venice 
should be brought first into trading and then into political rela- 
tions with its near neighbours, who as masters of Italy also put 
forward a claim to sovereignty in the lagoons. It is between the 



VENICE 



61 



two claims of east and west that Venice struggled for and 
achieved recognized independence. 

Internal Fusion and Consolidation. In 466, 14 years after 
the fall of Aquileia, the population of the 12 lagoon townships 
met at Grado for the election of one tribune from each island for 
the better government of the separate communities, and above 
all to put an end to rivalries which had already begun to play 
a disintegrating part. But when the lagoon population was largely 
augmented in 568 as the result of Alboin's invasion, these jealous- 
ies were accentuated, and in 584 it was found expedient to appoint 
12 other tribunes, known as the Tribuni Maiores, who formed a 
kind of central committee to deal with all matters affecting the 
general weal of the lagoon communities. But the Tribuni Maiores 
were equally powerless to allay the jealousies of the growing town- 
ships which formed the lagoon community. Rivalry in fishing and 
in trading, coupled with ancient antipathies inherited from the 
various mainland cities of origin, were no doubt the cause of these \ 
internecine feuds. A crisis was reached when Christopher, patri- i 
arch of Grado, convened the people of the lagoon at Heraclea, 
and urged them to suppress the 1 2 tribunes and to choose a single 
head of the State. To this they agreed, and in 697 Venice elected 
her first doge, Paulo Lucio Anafesto. 

The growing importance of the lagoon townships, owing to their 
maritime skill, their expanding trade, created by their position 
between east and west, their monopoly of salt and salted fish, 
which gave them a strong position in the mainland markets, ren- 
dered it inevitable that a clash must come over the question of 
independence, when either east or west should claim that Venice 
belonged to them; and inside the lagoons of growing prosperity, 
coupled with the external threat to their liberties, concentrated the 
population into two well-defined parties what may be called the 
aristocratic party, because it leaned towards imperial Byzantium 
and also displayed a tendency to make the dogeship hereditary, 
and the democratic party, connected with the original population 
of the lagoons, aspiring to free institutions, and consequently lean- 
ing more towards the Church and the Prankish kingdom which 
protected the Church. The aristocratic party was captained by 
the township of Heraclea, which had given the first doge, Anafesto, 
to the newly formed community. The democratic party was cham- 
pioned first by Jesolo and then by Malamocco. 

The Franks. The advent of the Franks determined the final 
solution. The Emperor Leo, the Isaurian, came to open rupture 
with Pope Gregory II. over the question of images. The pope 
appealed to Liutprand, the powerful king of the Lombards, to at- 
tack the imperial possessions in Ravenna. He did so, and expelled 
the exarch Paul, who took refuge in Venice and was restored to 
his post by the doge of the Heradean or Byzantine party, Orso, 
who in return for this assistance received the imperial title of 
hypatos, and trading rights in Ravenna. The pope, however, soon 
had cause for alarm at the spread of the Lombard power which he 
had encouraged. Liutprand proceeded to occupy territory in the 
Ducato Romano. The pope, looking about for a saviour, cast his 
eyes on Charles Martel, whose victory at Tours had riveted the 
attention of the world. Charles's son, Pippin, was crowned king 
of Italy, entered the peninsula at the head of the Franks, defeated 
the Lombards, took Ravenna and presented it to the pope, while 
retaining a feudal superiority. Desiderius, the last Lombard king, 
endeavoured to recover Ravenna. Charlemagne, Pippin's son, de- 
scended upon Italy, broke up the Lombard kingdom (774), con- 
firmed his father's donation to the pope, and in reprisals for Vene- 
tian assistance to the exarch, ordered the pope to expel the Vene- 
tians from the Pentapolis. Venice was now brought face to face 
with the Franks under their powerful sovereign, who soon showed 
that he intended to claim the lagoons as part of his new king- 
dom. In Venice the result of this menace was a decided reaction 
towards Byzantium, In opposition to the Frankish claim, Venice 
resolved to affirm her dependence on the Eastern empire. But 
the democratic party, the Frankish party in Venice, was powerful. 
Feeling ran high. A crisis was rapidly approaching. The Byzan- 
tine Doge Giovanni Galbaio attacked Grado, the see of the Fran- 
cophil Patriarch Giovanni, captured it, and flung the bishop from 
the tower of his palace. But the murdered patriarch was suc- 



ceeded by his no less Francophil nephew Fortunatus, a strong 
partisan, a restless and indomitable man, who along with Obelerio 
of Malamocco now assumed the lead of the democratic party 
He and his followers plotted the murder of the doge, were dis- 
covered, and sought safety at the court of Charlemagne, where 
Fortunatus strongly urged the Franks to attack the lagoons. 

Meantime the internal politics of Venice had been steadily 
preparing the way for the approaching fusion at Rialto. The 
period from the election of the first doge to the appearance 
of the Franks was characterized by fierce struggles between 
Heraclea and Jesolo. At length the whole population agreed 
to fix their capital at Malamocco, a compromise between the 
two incompatible parties, marking an important step towards 
final fusion at Rialto. 

That central event of early Venetian history was reached 
when Pippin resolved to make good his title as king of Italy. 
He turned his attention to the lagoon of Venice, which had 
been steadily growing in commercial and maritime importance, 
and had, on the whole, shown a sympathy for Byzantium rather 
than for the Franks. Pippin determined to subdue the lagoons. 
He gathered a fleet at Ravenna, captured Chioggia, and pushed 
on up the Lido towards the capital of the lagoons at Malamocco. 
But the Venetians, in face of the danger, once more moved their 
capital, this time to Rialto, that group of islands we now call 
Venice, lying in mid-lagoon between the lidi and the mainland. 
This step was fatal to Pippin's designs. The intricate water-ways 
and the stubborn Venetian defence baffled all his attempts to 
reach Rialto; the summer heats came on; the Lido was unhealthy. 
Pippin was forced to retire. A treaty between Charlemagne and 
Nicephorus (810) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the 
Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the 
mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand. 

The concentration at Rialto marks the beginning of the history 
of Venice as a full-grown State. The external menace to their 
independence had welded together the place and the people; 
the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting 
parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole. 
There was for the future one Venice and one Venetian people 
dwelling at Rialto, the city of compromise between the dangers 
from the mainland, exemplified by Attila and Alboin, and the 
perils from the sea, illustrated by Pippin's attack. The position 
of Venice was now assured. 

The first doge elected in Rialto was Angelo Particiaco, a 
Heradean noble, and his reign was signalized by the building of 
the first church of San Marco, and by the removal of the saint's 
body from Alexandria, as though to affirm and to symbolize the 
creation of united Venice. 

GROWTH OF THE REPUBLIC 

The history of Venice during the next 200 years is marked 
externally by the growth of the city, thanks to her increasing 
trade. In the mainland Venice gradually acquired trading rights, 
partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the 
supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta. 
Internally this period is characterized by the attempt of three 
powerful families, the Particiachi, the Candiani and the Orseoli, 
to create an hereditary dogeship, and the violent resistance offered 
by the people. We find seven of the Particiachi, five Candiani and 
three Orseoli reigning in almost unbroken succession, until, with 
the ostracism of the whole Orseolo family in 1032, the dynastic 
tendency was crushed for ever. 

The growing wealth of Venice soon attracted the cupidity 
of her piratical neighbours on the coast of Dalmatia. The swift 
Liburnian vessels began to raid the Lido, compelling the Venetians 
to arm their own vessels and thus to form the nucleus of their 
famous fleet, the importance of which was recognized by the 
Golden Bull of the Emperor Basil, which conferred on Venetian 
merchants privileges far more extensive than any they had hitherto 
enjoyed, on condition that the Venetian fleet was to be at 
the disposition of the emperor. But the Dalmatian raids con- 
tinued to harass Venetian trade, till, in 1000, the great doge 
Pietro Orseolo II. attacked and captured Curzola and stormed 



VENICE 



the piratical stronghold of Lagosta, crushing the freebooters in 
their citadel. The doge assumed the title of duke of Dalmatia, 
and a great step was taken towards the supremacy of Venice in 
the Adriatic, which was essential to the free development of her 
commerce and also enabled her to reap the pecuniary advantages 
to be derived from the Crusades. She now commanded the route 
to the Holy Land and could supply the necessary transport, and 
from the Crusades her growing aristocracy reaped large profits. 
Orseolo's victory was commemorated and its significance affirmed 
by the magnificent symbolical ceremony of the "wedding of the 
sea" (Sposalizio del Mar), celebrated henceforward every Ascen- 
sion day. The result of the first three crusades was that Venice 
acquired trading rights, a Venetian quarter, church, market, 
bakery, etc., in many of the Levant cities, e.g., in Sidon (1102) 
and in Tyre (1123). The fall of Tyre marks a great advance 
in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed 
beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards 
complete command of the Levant. 

Rise of the Aristocracy. This expansion of the trade of 
Venice resulted in the rapid development of the wealthier classes, 
with a growing tendency to draw together for the purpose of secur- 
ing to themselves the entire direction of Venetian politics in order 
to dominate Venetian commerce. To achieve their object, a double 
line of conduct was imposed upon them: they had to absorb the 
powers of the doge, and also to deprive the people of the voice 
they possessed in the management of State affairs by their pres- 
ence in the condone or general assembly of the whole community, 
which was still the fountain of all authority. The first step 
towards curtailing the power of the doge was taken in 1032, 
when the family of the Orseoli was finally expelled from Venice 
and the doge Domenico Flabianico was called to the throne. A 
law was then passed forbidding for the future the election of a 
doge-consort, a device by which the Particiachi, the Candiani 
and the Orseoli had each of them nearly succeeded in carrying 
out their dynastic ambitions. Further, two ducal councillors 
were appointed to assist the doge, and he was compelled, not 
merely permitted, to seek the advice of the more prominent citizens 
at moments of crisis. By this reform two important offices in 
the Venetian constitution the privy council (consiglieri ducali) 
and the senate (the pregadi or invited) came into being. Both 
were gradually developed on the lines desired by the aristocracy, 
till we reach the year 1171. 

The growth of Venetian trade and wealth in the Levant roused 
the jealousy of Genoa and hostility of the imperial court at Con- 
stantinople, where the Venetians are said to have numbered 
200,000 and to have held a large quarter of the city in terror by 
their brawls. The Emperor Manuel I., urged on by the Genoese 
and other rivals of Venice, seized the pretext. The Venetians were 
arrested and their goods confiscated. Popular feeling at Venice 
ran so high that the State was rashly swept into war with the 
empire. The doge Vitale Michicl II. led the expedition in person. 
It proved a disastrous failure, and on the return of the shattered 
remnants (1171) a great constitutional reform seemed necessary. 
The Venetians resolved to create a deliberative assembly, which 
should act with greater caution than the condone, which had 
just landed the state in a ruinous campaign, Forty members 
were elected in each of the six divisions of the city, giving a 
body of 480 members, who served for one year and on retiring 
named two deputies for each sesticre to nominate the council 
for the succeeding year. This was the germ of the great council, 
the Maggior Consiglio, which was rendered strictly oligarchic in 
1296. As the duties of this council were to appoint all officers 
of State, including the doge, it is clear that by its creation the 
aristocracy had considerably curtailed the powers of the people, 
who had hitherto elected the doge in general assembly; and at 
the creation of Michiel's successor, Sebastiano Ziani (1172), the 
new doge was presented to the people merely for confirmation. 

The assembly protested, but was appeased by the empty for- 
mula, "This is your doge an it please you." Moreover, still further 
to limit the power of the doge, the number of ducal councillors 
was raised from two to six. In 1198, on the election of Enrico 
Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, 



and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every 
doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon 
for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal author- 
ity. The promissione ducale was binding^ on the doge and his 
family, and could be, and frequently was, altered at each new 
election, a commission, Inquisitori sopra il doge defunto, being 
appointed to scrutinize the actions of the deceased doge and to 
add to the new oath whatever provisions they thought necessary 
to reduce the dogeship to the position of a mere figurehead. 

The 4th Crusade. In spite of the check to their trade re- 
ceived from the Emperor Manuel in 1171, Venetian commerce 
continued to flourish, the Venetian fleet to grow and the Venetians 
to amass wealth. When the fourth crusade was proclaimed at 
Soissons, it was to Venice that the leaders applied for transport, 
and she agreed to furnish transport for 4,500 horses, 9,000 knights, 
20,000 foot, and provisions for one year: the price was 85,000 
silver marks of Cologne and half of all conquests. But Zara and 
Dalmatia had revolted from Venice in 1166 and were as yet un- 
subdued. Venetian supremacy in the Adriatic had been tempo- 
rarily shaken. The 85,000 marks, the price of transport, were not 
forthcoming, and the Venetians declined to sail till they were 
paid. The doge Dandolo now saw an opportunity to benefit 
Venice. He offered to postpone the receipt of the money if the 
crusaders would reduce Zara and Dalmatia for the republic. 
These terms were accepted. Zara was recovered, and while still 
at Zara the leaders of the crusade, supported by Dandolo, resolved 
for their own private purposes to attack Constantinople, instead 
of making for the Holy Land. Constantinople fell (1204), thanks* 
chiefly to the ability of the Venetians under Dandolo. The city 
was sacked, and a Latin empire, with Baldwin of Flanders as 
emperor, was established at Constantinople. (See ROMAN EM- 
PIRE, LATER.) 

In the partition of the spoils Venice claimed and received, in 
her own phrase, "a half and a quarter of the Roman empire." 
To her fell the Cyclades, the Sporades, the islands and the east- 
ern shores of the Adriatic, the shores of the Propontis and the 
Euxine, and the littoral of Thcssaly, and she bought Crete from 
the marquis of Monferrat. The accession of territory was of the 
highest importance to Venetian commerce. She now commanded 
the Adriatic, the Ionian islands, the archipelago, the Sea of 
Marmora and the Black sea, the trade route between Constanti- 
nople and western Europe, and she had already established her- 
self in the seaports of Syria, and thus held the trade route be- 
tween Asia Minor and Europe. She was raised at once to the 
position of a European power. In order to hold these possessions, 
she borrowed from the Franks the feudal system, and granted 
fiefs in the Greek islands tcr her more powerful families, on con- 
dition that they held the trade route open for her. The expan- 
sion of commerce which resulted from the fourth crusade soon 
made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its 
architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial 
aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional re- 
form the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby 
Venice became a rigid oligarchy. Externally this rapid success 
awoke the implacable hatred of Genoa, and led to the long and 
exhausting Genoese wars which ended at Chioggia in 1380. 

The Venetian Constitution. The closing of the great coun- 
cil was, no doubt, mainly due to the slowly formed resolution on 
the part of the great commercial families to secure a monopoly 
in the Levant trade which the fourth crusade had placed definitely 
in their hands. The theory of the Government, a theory ex- 
pressed throughout the whole commercial career of the republic, 
the theory which made Venice a rigidly protective state, was that 
the Levant trade belonged solely to Venice and her citizens. No 
one but a Venetian citizen was permitted to share in the profits 
of that trade. But the population of Venice was growing rapidly, 
and citizenship was as yet undefined. To secure for themselves 
the command of trade the leading commercial families resolved 
to erect themselves into a close gild, which should have in its 
hands the sole direction of the business concern, the exploitation 
of the East. This policy took definite shape in 1297, when the 
Doge Pietro Gradenigo proposed and carried the following meas- 



VENICE 



ure: the supreme court, the Quarantia, was called upon to ballot, 
one by one, the names of all who for the last four years had held 
a seat in the great council created in 1171. Those who received 
twelve favourable votes became members of the great council. 
A commission of three was appointed to submit further names for 
ballot. The three commissioners at once laid down a rule that 
only those who could prove that a paternal ancestor had sat in 
the great council should be eligible for election. 

This measure divided the community into three great cate- 
gories: (i) those who had never sat in the council themselves 
and whose ancestors had never sat; these were of course the vast 
majority of the population, and they were excluded for ever from 
the great council; (2) those whose paternal ancestors had sat in 
the council; these were eligible and were gradually admitted to 
a seat, their sons becoming eligible on majority: (3) those who 
were of the council at the passing of this act or had sat during 
the four preceding years; their sons likewise became eligible on 
attaining majority. As all offices were filled by the great council, 
exclusion meant political disfranchisemcnt. A' close caste was 
created which very seldom and very reluctantly admitted new 
members to its body. The Heralds' college, the awogadori di 
comun, in order to ensure purity of blood, were ordered to open 
a register of all marriages and births among members of the 
newly created caste, and these registers formed the basis of the 
famous Libra d'oro. 

The closing of the great council and the creation of the patrician 
caste brought about a revolution among those who suffered 
disfranchisement. In the year 1300 the people, led by Marin 
Bocconio, attempted to force their way into the great council 
and to reclaim their rights. The doors were opened, the ring- 
leaders were admitted and immediately seized and hanged. Ten 
years later a more serious revolution, the only revolution that 
seriously shook the State, broke out and was also crushed. This 
conspiracy was championed by Bajamonte Tiepolo, and seems to 
have been an expression of patrician protest against the serrata, 
just as Bocconio's revolt had represented popular indignation. 
Tiepolo, followed by members of the Quirini family and many 
nobles with their followers, attempted to seize the Piazza on 
June 15, 1310. They were met by the Doge Pietro Gradenigo 
and crushed. Quirini was killed, and Tiepolo fled. 

The chief importance of the Tiepoline conspiracy lies in the 
fact that it resulted in the establishment of the Council of Ten. 
Erected first as a temporary committee of public safety to hunt 
down the remnant of the conspirators and to keep a vigilant 
watch on Tiepolo's movements, it was finally made permanent in 
1335. The secrecy of its deliberations and the rapidity with which 
it could act made it a useful adjunct to the constitution, and it 
gradually absorbed many important functions of the State. 

With the creation of the Council of Ten the main lines of 
the Venetian constitution were completed. At the basis of the 
pyramid we get the great council, the elective body composed 
of all who enjoyed the suffrage, i.e,, of the patrician caste. 
Above the great council came the senate, the deliberative and 
legislative body par excellence. To the senate belonged all ques- 
tions relating to foreign affairs, finance, commerce, peace and 
war. Parallel with the senate, but extraneous to the main lines 
of the constitution, came the Council of Ten. As a committee 
of public safety it dealt with all cases of conspiracy; for example, 
it tried the Doge Marino Falier and the General Carmagnola; on 
the same ground all cases affecting public morals came within its 
extensive criminal jurisdiction. In the region of foreign affairs 
it was in communication with envoys abroad, and its orders would 
override those of the senate. It also had its own departments of 
finance and war. Above the senate and the Ten came the Collegia 
or cabinet, the administrative branch of the constitution. All 
affairs of State passed through its hands. It was the initiatory 
body; and it lay with the Collegia to send matters for deliberation 
either before the senate or before the Ten. At the apex of the 
pyramid came the doge and his council. 

The Genoese Wars. To t urn now to the external events which 
followed on the fourth crusade. These events are chiefly concerned 
with the long struggle with Genoa over the possession of the 



Levant and Black sea trade. By the establishment of the Latin 
empire Venice had gained a preponderance. But it was impossible 
that the rival Venetian and Genoese merchants, dwelling at close 
quarters in the Levant cities, should not come to blows. They 
fell out at Acre in 1253. The first Genoese war began and ended 
in 1258 by the complete defeat of Genoa. But in 1261 the Greeks, 
supported by the Genoese, took advantage of the absence of the 
Venetian fleet from Constantinople to seize the city and to restore 
the Greek empire in the person of Michael VIII. Palaeologus. The 
balance turned against Venice again. The Genoese were established 
in the spacious quarter of Galata and threatened to absorb the 
trade of the Levant. To recover her position Venice went to war 
again, and in 1264 destroyed the Genoese fleet off Trepani, in 
Sicilian waters. This victory was decisive at Constantinople, where 
the emperor abandoned the defeated Genoese and restored Venice 
to her former position. The appearance of the Ottoman Turk and 
the final collapse of the Latin empire in Syria brought about the 
next campaign between the rival martime powers. Tripoli (1289) 
and Acre (1291) fell to the Mohammedan, and the Venetian title 
to her trading privileges. 

To the scandal of Christendom, Venice at once entered into 
treaty with the new masters of Syria and obtained a confirmation 
of her ancient trading rights. Genoa replied by attempting to close 
the Dardanelles. Venice made this action a casus belli. The 
Genoese won a victory in the gulf of Alexandretta (1294) ; but on 
the other hand the Venetians under Ruggiero Morosini forced the 
Dardanelles and sacked the Genoese quarter of Galata. The de- 
cisive engagement, however, of this campaign was fought at Cur- 
zola (1299) in the Adriatic, when Venice suffered a crushing de- 
feat. A peace, honourable to both parties, was brought about by 
Matteo Visconti, lord of Milan, in that same year. But the quarrel 
between the republics, both fighting for trade supremacy that is 
to say, for their lives could not come to an end till one or other 
was thoroughly crushed. The fur trade of the Black sea furnished 
the pretext for the. next war (1353-54), which ended in the crush- 
ing defeat of Venice at Sapienza, and the loss of her entire fleet. 
But though Venice herself seemed to lie open to the Genoese, they 
took no advantage of their victory; they were probably too 
exhausted. The lord of Milan again arranged a peace (1355). 

We have now reached the last phase of the struggle for mari- 
time supremacy. Under pressure from Venice the emperor John 
V. Palaeologus granted possession of the island of Tencdos to the 
republic. The island commanded the entrance to the Dardanelles. 
Genoa determined to oppose the concession, and war broke out. 
The Genoese Admiral Luciano Doria sailed into the Adriatic, 
attacked and defeated Vettor Pisani at Pola in Istria, and again 
Venice and the lagoons lay at the mercy of the enemy. Doria re- 
solved to blockade and starve Venice to surrender. The situation 
was extremely critical for Venice, but she rose to the occasion. 
Vettor Pisani was placed in command, and by a stroke of naval 
genius he grasped the weakness of Doria's position. Sailing to 
Chioggia he blocked the channel leading from the lagoons to the 
sea, and Doria was caught in a trap. Finally, in June 1380 the 
flower of the Genoese fleet surrendered at discretion. Genoa never 
recovered from the blow, and Venice remained undisputed mistress 
of the Mediterranean and the Levant trade. 

Expansion to the Mainland. But as the city became the 
recognized mart for exchange of goods between east and west, the 
freedom of the western outlet assumed the aspect of a paramount 
question. It was useless for Venice to accumulate 'eastern mer- 
chandise if she could not freely pass it on to the west. If the 
various states on the immediate mainland could levy taxes on 
Venetian goods in transit, the Venetian merchant would inevitably 
suffer in profits. The geographical position of Venice and her 
commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the 
command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up 
to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just 
as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet. She 
was compelled to turn her attention, though reluctantly, to the 
mainland of Italy. Another consideration drove her in the same 
direction. During the long wars with Genoa the Venetians real- 
ized that, as they owned no meat or corn-producing territory, a 



64 vumuu 

crushing defeat at sea and a blockade on the mainland exposed 
them to the prave danger of being starved into surrender. Both 
these pressing necessities, for a free outlet for merchandise and 
for a food-supplying area, drove Venice on to the mainland, and 
compelled her to initiate a policy which eventually landed her 
in the disastrous wars of Cambrai. The period with which we are 
now dealing is the epoch of the despots, the signori, and in pur- 
suit of expansion on the mainland Venice was brought into collision 
first with the Scaligcri of Verona, then with the Carraresi of 
Padua, and finally with the Visconti of Milan. Hitherto Venice 
had enjoyed the advantages of isolation; the lagoons were vir- 
tually impregnable; she had no land frontier to defend. But when 
she touched the mainland she at once became possessed of a 
frontier which could be attacked, and found herself compelled 
cither to expand or to lose the territory she had acquired. 

Venice had already established a tentative hold on the imme- 
diate mainland as early as 1339. She was forced into war by 
Mastino della Scala, lord of Padua, Vicenza, Treviso, Feltre and 
Belluno, as well as of Verona, who imposed a duty on the trans- 
port of Venetian goods. A league against the Scala domination was 
formed, and the result was the fall of the family, Venice took 
possession of Padua, but in the terms of the league she at once 
conferred the lordship on the Carraresi, retaining Treviso and 
Bassano for herself. But it is not till we come to the opening 
of the next century that Venice definitely acquired land possessions 
and found herself committed to all the difficulties and intricacies 
of Italian mainland politics. On the death of Gian Caleazzo Vis- 
conti in 1402, his large possessions broke up. His neighbours and 
his generals seized what was nearest to hand. Francesco II. Car- 
rara, lord of Padua t attempted to seize Vicenza and Verona. But 
Venice had been made to suffer at the hands of Carrara, who had 
levied heavy dues on transit, and moreover during the Chioggkin 
War had helped the Genoese and cut off the food supply from the 
mainland. She was therefore forced in self-defence to crush the 
family of Carrara and to make herself permanently mistress of the 
immediate mainland. Accordingly when Gian Galeazzo's widow 
applied to the republic for help against Carrara it was readily 
granted, and after some years of fighting, the possessions of the 
Carrarcsi, Padua, Treviso, Bassano, commanding the Val Sugana 
route, as well as Vicenza and Verona, passed definitely under Ven- 
etian rule. This expansion of mainland territory was followed in 
1420 by the acquisition of Friuli after a successful war with the 
Emperor Sigismund, thus bringing the possessions of the republic 
up to the Carnic and Julian Alps, their natural frontier. 

Isolation of Venice. Venice was soon made to feel the conse- 
quences of having become a mainland power, the difficulties en- 
tailed by holding possessions which others coveted, and the weak- 
ness of a land frontier. To the west the new duke of Milan, 
Filippo Maria Visconti, was steadily piecing together tlie frag- 
ments of his father's shattered duchy. He was determined to 
recover Verona and Vicenza from Venice, and intended, as his 
father had done, to make himself master of all north Italy. The 
conflict between Venice and Milan led to three wars in 1426, 1427 
and 1429. Venice was successful on the whole, She established her 
hold permanently on Verona and Vicenza , and acquired besides 
both Brescia and Bergamo; and later she occupied Crema. The 
war of Ferrara and the peace of Bagnolo (1484) gave her Rovigo 
and the Polesine. This, with the exception of a brief tenure of 
Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to 
the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast 
near Monfalconc, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and 
Raelian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it 
joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea. 
But long and exhausting wars were entailed upon her for the main- 
tenance of her hold. The rapid formation of this land empire, and 
the obvious intention to expand, called the attention not only of 
Italy but of Europe to this power which seemed destined to be- 
come supreme in north Italy, and eventually led to the league of 
Cambrai for the dismemberment of Venice. 

In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although 
Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and de- 
sired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible 



that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not 
eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of 
Mohammedan, Europe persistently refused to assist the republic 
to preserve a trade in which she had established a rigid monopoly, 
and Venice was left to fight the Turk single-handed. The first 
Turkish war lasted from 1464 to 1479, and ended in the loss of 
Negropont and several places in the Morea, and the payment by 
Venice of an annual tribute for trading rights. She was consoled, 
however, by the acquisition of Cyprus, which came into her pos- 
session (1488) on the extinction of the dynasty of Lusignan with 
the death of James II. and his son Jarnes III. , Caterina Cornaro, 
James II.'s widow, ceding the kingdom of Cyprus to Venice, since 
she could not hope to maintain it unaided against the Turks. The 
acquisition of Cyprus marks the extreme limit of Venetian ex- 
pansion in the Levant; from this date onward there is little to 
record save the gradual loss of her maritime possessions. 

DECLINE 

Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, 
her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived 
the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies 
cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the 
stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When 
Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian 
commercial supremacy. The discovery of the Cape route saved 
the breaking of bulk between India and Europe, and saved the 
dues exacted by the masters of Syria and Egypt. Trade passed 
into the hands of the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English, 
Venice lost her monopoly of oriental traffic. 

League of Cambrai. To complete her misfortunes, the Euro- 
pean Powers, the church and the small states of Italy, partly from 
jealous greed of her possessions, partly on the plea of her treason 
to Christendom in making terms with Islam, partly from fear of 
her expansion in north Italy, coalesced at Cambrai in 1508 for the 
partition of Venetian possessions. The war proved disastrous for 
Venice. The victory of Agnadello (1510) gave the allies the com- 
plete command of Venetian territory down to the shores of the 
lagoon. But the mutual jealousy of the allies saved her. The 
pope, having recovered the Romagna and secured the objects for 
which he had joined the league, was unwilling to see all north Italy 
in the hands of foreigners, and quitted the union. The Emperor 
Maximilian failed to make good his hold on Padua, and was 
jealous of the French. The league broke up, and the mainland 
cities of the Veneto returned of their own accord to their allegi- 
ance to St. Mark. But the republic never recovered from the blow, 
coming as it did on the top of the Turkish wars and the loss 
of her trade by the discovery of the Cape route. She ceased to 
be a great power, and was henceforth entirely concerned in the 
effort to preserve lier remaining possessions and her very inde- 
pendence. The settlement of the peninsula by Charles VVs 
coronation at Bologna in 1530 secured the preponderance to 
Spain, and the combination of Spain and the church dominated the 
politics of Italy. Dread of the Turks and dread of Spain were the 
two terrors which haunted Venice till the republic fell. 

Turkish Wars. But the decline was a slow process. Venice 
still possessed considerable wealth and extensive possessions. Be- 
tween 1499 and 1716 she went to war four times with the Turks, 
emerging from each campaign with some further loss of maritime 
territory. The fourth Turkish war (1570-73) was signalized by the 
glorious victory of Lepanto (1571), due chiefly to the prowess 
of the Venetians under their doge Sebastian Venier. But her 
allies failed to support her. They reaped no fruits from the vic- 
tory, and Cyprus was taken from her after the heroic defence of 
Famagusta by Bragadino, who was flayed alive, and his skin, 
stuffed with straw, borne in triumph to Constantinople. The fifth 
Turkish war (1645-68) entailed the loss of Crete; and though 
Morosini reconquered the Morea for a brief space in 1685, that 
province was finally lost to Venice in 1716, 

So far as European politics are concerned, the latter years of the 
republic are made memorable by one important event: the resis- 
tance which Venice, under the guidance of Fra Paolo Sarpi, offered 
to the growing claims of the Curia Romana, advanced by Pope 



VENICE 



Paul V. Venice was placed under interdict (1606), but she asserted 
the rights of temporal sovereigns with a courage which was suc- 
cessful and won for her the esteem and approval of most European 
sovereigns. 

But the chief glory of her declining years was undoubtedly her 
splendid art. Giorgione, Titian, Sansovino, Tintoretto, Paolo 
Veronese and Palladio all lived and worked after the disastrous 
wars of the league of Cambrai. During these years Venice be- 
came the great pleasure-city of Europe. 

United Italy. The end of the republic came when the French 
Revolution burst over Europe. Napoleon was determined to de- 
stroy the oligarchical Government, and seized the pretext that 
Venice was hostile to him and a menace to his line of retreat while 
engaged in his Austrian campaign of 1797. The peace of Leoben 
left Venice without an ally. The Government resolved to offer no 
resistance to the conqueror, and the doge Lodovico Manin abdi- 
cated on May 12, 1797. On Oct. 17, Napoleon handed Venice over 
to Austria by the peace of Campo Formio, and between 1 798 and 
1814 she passed from France to Austria and Austria to France 
till the coalition of that latter year assigned her definitely to Aus- 
tria. In 1848 a revolution broke out and a provisional republi- 
can Government under Daniele Manin (<7.i>.) maintained itself 
for a brief space. In 1866 the defeat of Austria by the Prussians 
led to the incorporation of Venice in United Italy. (H. F. BR.) 

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 

The New Port of Marghera. By the beginning of the igth 
century Venice had felt the need of a bigger port for her increas- 
ing trade and the necessity of some outlet for her growing popula- 
tion. It was everything not to shackle her progress and, at the 
same time, not to disfigure one of the most beautiful cities in the 
world. Many makeshift works which proved inadequate were 
carried out before the World War, such as the building of the 
auxiliary port of Bottenighi on the mainland. At last, in 1917, 
a great scheme for a big port, with modern conveniences and an 
adjacent industrial area, was laid before the Orlando Government, 
approved, and the work begun at once. But the disaster of 
Caporetto brought it to a standstill. It was only in 1923, under 
the Government of Mussolini, that the work could be resumed, 
and, within the space of six years, carried forward to a remark- 
able extent owing, in great part, to the invaluable collaboration 
of the chancellor of the exchequer (1926-28), Conte Volpi di 
Misurata, a Venetian, who had been one of the original pro- 
moters of the scheme. This new port of Marghera is on the main- 
land and, when finished, it is estimated that it will cover an 
urea three times as large as that of Genoa. Moreover, it is 
the first in Italy where railway trucks can be loaded and 
unloaded on the quays, which are in direct communication with 
Mestre station. It has a yearly potentiality in loading and unload- 
ing of at least 1,000 tons of merchandise to every 3 ft. of port 
frontage. The three industrial zones lying to the north, west and 
south of the commercial port have nearly all been secured by 
business firms, and some 40 factories are ready for use (1928), 
while as many again are being built. Each zone has exit to the sea 
by means of canals ; for example, the northern zone communicates 
with the sea by the Canale Industrials Nord. In the vicinity lies 
the Porticciolo del Petrolii, the first example in Italy of a port 
built exclusively for inflammable merchandise. 

A garden-city is being built on the Mestre-Padua road, to be 
linked up with the industrial area and will accommodate some 
50,000 inhabitants. In short, Venice is determined not to live 
only on the glory of her past ; and she still looks upon the Adriatic 
as mare nostrum. 

Population. The necessity of a well-planned outlet on the 
mainland for Venice can be gauged by the following statistics. 
Directly after the war the population of Venice stood at 147,000; 
by Jan, 1928 it had risen to 207,400. The average density of popu- 
lation in Italy is 126 inhabitants to a square kilometre; whereas 
that of Venice is 204 to the same area. Venetian families are 
patriarchal: nearly 11% are composed of ten or more members; 
32% of six to nine members. The birth-rate of Venice, calculated 
at 33 per 1,000, is double that of the rest of Italy. Her death-rate 



is 17-7 per 1,000, while the average rate in Italy is 19 per 1,000. 

Industries. The Venetians depend for their livelihood on boat 
traffic and home industries. Flat-bottomed boats, filled with vege- 
tables and fruit, coming across the lagoons from the mainland, 
are among the many picturesque sights of Venice, and have been 
graphically described by D'Annunzio in Fnoco. The gondoliers 
still ply their trade, and can never be entirely replaced by the 
small motor-launches, but they feel the rough edge of competi- 
tion in a mechanical age, even in the city of the lagoons. 

The glass industries, both of household goods and artistic pro- 
ductions, employ a number of artisans, who can earn up to 40 
lire a day for^the more skilled work. The various Murano fac- 
tories have joined in a syndicate, and their work has greatly 
improved since more care is taken in the use of good models. 
The manufacture of coloured glass beads and mosaic work is 
also characteristic of Venice. Even more important are the worked 
iron and copper industries, and much carved furniture is made. 
The Venetian filigree jewellery, and long, fine gold chains are also 
attractive and beautifully made. The lace industry is carried on 
in Venice to a certain extent, but more especially in the lagoon 
towns of Burano and Torcello. A great deal has been done since 
the World War to revive home industries and introduce once more 
the fine old patterns. 

Festivals. Venice is still famous for her festivals. The chief 
events in her history have always been celebrated either by civic 
or religious functions. The nth centenary of the "pious theft" 
of St. Mark's body from Alexandria was celebrated in the spring 
of 1 028 with a procession round the Piazzetta and the Piazza of 
S. Marco, in which 50 bishops of Venetia and mitred Canons of 
San Marco, as well as other dignitaries of the Church, took part, 
robed in gorgeous vestments and recalling the pictures of Bellini 
and Carpaccio. The most characteristic feasts are the following: 
on Holy Thursday the Venetians used to celebrate their victory 
over Urico, the patriarch of Aquileia. He was forced to pay 
tribute of a bull and 12 pigs which were meant to represent the 
primate and the canons of the Chapter. Art and literature have 
immortalized the celebration of Ascension Day when the doge 
used to be rowed out to the lagoon by the Lido in his gala gondola, 
il Butintoro, to perform the symbolic rite of throwing a ring 
into the waters, and espousing the Adriatic with these words: 
Ti sposiamo, a mare nostro, in segno di vcro e perpettuo dominio. 
The ceremony originated from Ascension Day of the year A.D. 
1000, when Pietro Orseolo II. set sail from Venice to conquer 
Istria and Dalmatia. 

Two eminently popular festivals of votive origin are still kept: 
the Feast of the Madonna della Salute and that of // Redentore 
(The Redeemer), to whose patronage the Venetians believed they 
owed their deliverance from the plague in 1576 and in 1630, and 
in whose honour they built the Churches of the Salute and the 
Redentore. On the Feast of the Salute (Nov. i) the Venetians 
take votive offerings to the church, and end the day with private 
banquets for which it is customary to procure Dalmatian mutton 
as the chief dish. The Feast of the Redentore is celebrated on 
the third Sunday of July with a characteristic vigil kept by the 
people singing as they row about in boats of every size and shape 
which are festooned with lights. At dawn they row out to the 
Lido in great numbers for the sunrise. 

Museums, Galleries and Libraries. Although Venice suf- 
fered from enemy aircraft during the World War, none of her 
works of art were damaged. The following is a list -of her mu- 
seums, galleries and public libraries: 

The Doge's Palace, adjoining the Basilica of San Marco, with 
frescoed walls and ceilings, as well as easel-pictures by Titian, 
Tintoretto, Paul Veronese, etc. The names of the various halls: 
Sala del Collegio, del Senato, del Consiglio dei Dieci, del Maggior- 
Consiglio, etc., recall the days of the proud Republic. 

// Museo Archeologico occupies that part of the doge's palace 
where the doge used to have his apartment. 

// Museo Civico Correr, in the royal apartments, Piazza S. 
Marco, has valuable collections of pictures, armour, coins, maps, 
costumes of state, etc, 

// Museo Storico Navale, in the arsenal, has models of ancient 



66 



VENIZELOS 



ships and of the Bucentauro. 

L'Accadcmia dcllc Belle Arti, on the Grand canal, contains a 
unique collection of masterpieces of the Venetian school. 

La Galleria di Artc Moderna, inaugurated in 1902, has an im- 
portant collection of international works of art which have been 
purchased in greater part from the Biennial International Exhi- 
bition of Modern Art. This was instituted in 1895 in honour of 
the silver wedding of King Humbert and Queen Margherita, and 
is held in the public gardens. Since the Fascist Government has 
made it a State institution, its importance has increased. 

La Pinacoteca Comunale, in Palazzo Querini, once the residence 
of the patriarch of Venice, has a notable collection of pictures 
and prints. 

The State Archives arc kept in the Franciscan monastery ad- 
joining the Frari. It contains the so-called Golden Book of the 
patricians and documents dating from the time of Charlemagne. 

La Bibliotcca Nazionalc Marciana, in the old quarters of St. 
Mark's library, was started on Sept. 4, 1362, with the collection 
of books given by Petrarch to the Republic. It now contains 
400,000 volumes, 13,000 rare manuscripts, 1,000 editions of the 
Aldine press, and over 3,000 in cuneiform character. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. V. Sandi, Storia civile della Republica di Venezia 
(Venice, 1755) ; G. Piliasi, Me^morie storiche dc' Veneti primi e secitndi 
(Venice, 1706) ; C. A. Marin, Storia civile e politic a del Commerzio de' 
Veneziani (Venice 1798); P. Daru, Storia della Republica di Venezia 
(1837); S. Romanin, Storia documentata di Venezia (Venice, 1853); 
G. L. Tafel and E. M. Thomas, Urkunden zur dlteren llandcls und 
Staats xeschichtc dc Republik Vcnedtg (Vienna, 1856) ; A. Gfiorer, 
Ge.schichtc Vcnedizs bis sum Jahr 1048 (Gratz, 1872) ; C. Hopf, 
Chroniques Greco- Romaines (Berlin, 1873) ; C. Yriorte, Venise (Paris, 
1875) ; W. Heycl, Geschichte des Levant fhandeh im Mittelalter (Stutt- 
gart, 1879) ; M. Samedo, Diarii (Venice, 1879-1903) ; H. F. Brown, 
Venice, an Historical Sketch of the Republic (1895) ; W. C. Hazlitt, 
The Venetian Republic (1900) ; F. G. Hodgson, The Early History of 
Venice (1901) ; H. Kretschner, Getchichte von Venrdig (Gotha, 1905) ; 
W. R. Thaycr, A Short History of Venice (1905) ; P. G. Molmenti, La 
Storia di Venezia nella vita privata (Bergamo, 1906), trans. H. P. 
Brown, Venice (6 vols., 1906-08) ; V. Mene^helli, // Qwiranotto a 
Venezia (Viccnza, 1908) ; V. Marchcsi, Storia documentata ddla rivo- 
luzione e della difesa di Venezia (Venice, 1917) ; G. M. Trevelyan, 
Afanin and the Venetian Revolution of 1848 (192.0 ; G. Maranini, La 
Costituzione di Venezia ddle origini alia scrrata del Maggior Consiglio 
(Venice, 1928). (L. WA.) 

VENIZELOS, ELEUTHERIOS (1864- ), Greek 
statesman, was born in Crete Aug. 23, 1864 of a family which 
had emigrated from Greece in 1770. Having been educated in the 
schools of Syra and Athens and having taken a degree in the 
University of Athens at the age of 23, he practised law in Crete, 
but soon became a politician, and in the insurrection of 1889 was 
compelled to rice from the island. After his return and the re- 
establishment of tranquillity, Venizelos was elected a member of 
the Cretan Assembly, and in 1897 came into prominence as one 
of the leaders of the Cretan uprising; it was he who received the 
British, French and Italian admirals when they came to negotiate 
a settlement between the insurgents and the Turks early in Feb. 
of that year. 

In Dec. 1898 Prince George of Greece landed in Crete as the 
High Commissioner of the Great Powers, and a few months 
later Venizelos became head of the Island Executive. But he 
soon found himself at variance with the Prince's autocracy, and 
in 1904 a complete rupture occurred. Subsequently the Veni- 
zelists were defeated at the polls, but the Cretan leader organized 
a revolt, which greatly increased the unpopularity of the High 
Commissioner who was accused of misruling the people. In Sept. 
1906 the Prince left the island, his place being taken by M. Alex 
Zaimis, who was appointed not by the Powers, but by the King 
of Greece. From that time until 1909 Venizelos was sometimes 
Chief of the Cretan Government and sometimes Leader of the 
Opposition. But whilst the Cretans often came into sharp conflict 
with the Protecting Powers, Venizelos' wisdom and moderation 
were responsible for the generally friendly relations which existed, 
and his far-sightedness, particularly after the departure of M. 
Zaimis in Oct. 1908, and during the crisis of 1909, facilitated the 
union of Crete with Greece, which ultimately took place as a 
result of the first Balkan War. 

In 1909 the military league headed a bloodless revolution against 



political corruption and court favouritism in Greece and invited 
Venizelos to come to Athens. He persuaded King George and the 
League that the best way out of a dangerous situation would be the 
revision of the Constitution by a National Assembly. Elections 
were held in Aug. 1910, and Venizelos, who had remained techni- 
cally a Greek citizen during his Cretan political life, took his seat 
at Athens for the first time. The Chamber having been opened in 
September, a month later Venizelos became Prime Minister. 

He was in a position to enforce practically any situation, in- 
cluding a republic, which he wished; but decided to work loyally 
with the King and his successors. The Constitution was success- 
fully revised in 1911, reforms in the public services were intro- 
duced, and the reorganization of the army and of the navy were 
respectively placed in the hands of French and British Missions. 
In the spring of 1912 Venizelos was returned to power as the 
leader of an overwhelming majority in an ordinary Chamber 
which then replaced the Revisionary Assembly. By that time, 
too, the Prime Minister was busily occupied with the formation 
of the Balkan League, and on May 29, 1912, the Greco-Bulgarian 
Treaty was signed. 

Whilst the Balkan Wars and Venizelos' diplomacy led to an un- 
expected Hellenic expansion, the assassination of King George at 
Salonika on March 18, 1913, removed a man who had always been 
in favour of moderation, and placed upon the throne his son 
Constantine, who had not forgiven, and who never really forgave, 
Venizelos for his attitude towards Prince George in Crete. When 
the World \Var broke out, therefore, the position of Greece was 
greatly complicated by the facts that she was bound to Serbia 
by a Treaty signed in the summer of 1913; that from the first 
Venizelos was an ardent supporter of the Allied cause; and that 
the King was in sympathy with the Central Powers. Before the 
entry of Turkey into the War, Venizelos openly favoured Hellenic 
assistance for the Entente in case of that entry, and early in 1915 
the Prime Minister advocated concessions to Bulgaria, Greek sup- 
port for Serbia, and Greek co-operation at the Dardanelles in ex- 
change for the promise of important future compensations in 
Western Asia Minor. But though he appears originally to have ap- 
proved of the idea, the King vetoed Venizelos' decision to accept 
this offer, and he was forced to resign, though he possessed a strong 
majority in the Chamber. In the election which followed in 
June the Venizelist party secured the return of 190 deputies out 
of a total of 316, of which the Chamber was then composed. 

In spite of this, and with the excuse of the King's illness, Veni- 
zelos was not recalled to power until after the meeting of the 
Chamber in Aug. and by that time the situation had become 
seriously modified. The mobilization of Bulgaria on Sept. 29, 
1915 brought into operation in equity if not in law, the Greco- 
Serbian Treaty of 1913 and bound Greece to help Serbia. A few 
days later, Venizelos extorted from the King reluctant consent to 
a Greek mobilization and to a Greek request that the Allies should 
furnish an army of 150,000 men to take the place of the contin- 
gent Serbia should have supplied under the Treaty. 

Immediately after the original Allied landing at Salonika on 
Oct. i Venizelos secured a vote of confidence during an historic 
and stormy meeting of the Chamber, when he declared that if in 
aiding Serbia Greece was brought into contact with Germany 
she would act as her honour demanded. In spite of a formal pro- 
test against the Allied passage through Hellenic territory, this 
speech led to the second dismissal of Venizelos and to the open and 
final rupture between that statesman and the King, who, it would 
seem, always intended to withdraw his consent to an Hellenic 
entry into the War. Zaimis, the new Prime Minister, maintained 
his position for a month as a result of the patriotism of Venizelos, 
his friend from Cretan times, but, with the accession of Skouloudis 
to power, on Nov. 6 the Chamber was dissolved and a new elec- 
tion ordered for Dec. 19. Venizelos' party abstained from the 
polls in protest, M. Gounaris securing an overwhelming majority 
for his policy of neutrality. 

Venizelos spent that winter and spring (1915-16) in endeavour- 
ing to compel the King to change his point of view. But the sur- 
render of Eastern Macedonia to the Bulgarians in the summer 
of 1916 and the delay in the success of the Allied Campaign at 



VENLO VENOSA 



67 



Salonika had strengthened the position of Constantine, and on 
Sept. 25, 1916, Venizelos, together with his principal supporters, 
sailed for Crete, whence he sent out proclamations calling- upon 
all true patriots to flock to the standard of the Entente. Pro- 
ceeding thence to Salonika, early in Oct. he founded a Provisional 
Government, which was recognized about two months later by 
Great Britain and France, though not by Italy. A call for volun- 
teers was answered generously by the inhabitants of those parts of 
Greece not in Constantinist hands, but the Royalist Government 
countered this and other developments by causing a solemn ana- 
thema to be pronounced against Venizelos by the Archbishop of 
Athens, 

After the dethronement and enforced departure of King Con- 
stantine, Venizelos returned to Athens on June 26, 1917, and took 
over the Government of the whole country. The June 15 Chamber 
was convoked, general mobilization was ordered, and Greece for- 
mally opened up hostilities upon the Allied side. But the removal 
of the King, the successes of the Central Powers, particularly in 
the Balkans, and an increased Greek desire for neutrality, backed 
up by German propaganda, were responsible for a great diminution 
of the Prime Minister's popularity, and the officers and function- 
aries retired on account of their political views formed a dangerous 
element in an opposition which became ever more active. 

Between the Armistice of Nov. 1918 and his fall two years later, 
Venizelos and his colleagues, who represented Greece at the Peace j 
Conference, were almost continuously absent in Paris and London i 
and, during this period, they seemed to be reaping for Greece har- 
vests beyond her dreams. About the end of April 1919 the Greeks 
were permitted, or encouraged, to land at Smyrna; a year later 
the Conference of San Remo promised large areas to Greece, and j 
the Treaty of Sevres (Aug. TO, 1920) coupled with the earlier | 
Treaty of Neuilly (Nov. 27, 1919) gave Greece extraordinary j 
advantages. During this period, too, the Hellenic representative 
won such admiration and played so brilliant a part that he became 
a leading figure in the counsels of the Allies. Nevertheless, at a 
moment when his triumph appeared to be complete, an attempt 
was made upon his life at a Paris station (Aug. 1920), and three 
months later (Nov. 14) he received a crushing defeat at the hands 
of the Greek electorate. 

Many factors were present in this : the unpopularity of the war 
in Asia Minor and the continued mobilization, the maintenance of 
martial law, the bad administration of Venizclos' subordinates 
and injustices practised by the Corps de la Surete. Further, 
there was Venizelos' own continued absence; recollection of the 
foreign support on which he had called so largely, and Con- 
stantine's own increasing popularity. After the unexpected death 
of the young king Alexander, immediately before the election, the 
dynastic question, open mention of which had previously been 
prohibited, was brought into the forefront of the political struggle 
and, in what then became the direct issue between Constantine 
and Venizelos, the King won an overwhelming victory. 

From the arrival of the King in Athens on Dec. 20, 1920, until 
his final abdication and second departure on Sept. 30, 1922, Veni- 
zelos took no official part in Greek affairs, though he continued 
to use his international influence to endeavour to mitigate the 
results of the Asiatic disaster, the seeds of which he had sown by 
his own policy. After the revolution (Sept. 1922), however, Veni- 
zelos for a time represented Greece in Western Europe, inter alia 
at the Conference of Lausanne which culminated in the peace 
signed with Turkey on July 24, 1923. In the following December, 
when the publication of that document and various other events 
had aggravated the existing internal dissension and when the elec- 
tion (Dec. 1 6) had again given his party a majority, Venizelos 
was persuaded to return to Athens, where he arrived on Jan. 4, 
1924. King George was already then on leave of absence, Venizelos 
was Prime Minister from Jan. n till Feb. 4, when he resigned on 
the advice of his physician. He left Athens on March 10, just 
before the country adopted his policy of a republic. He now 
spent several years of leisure, living mostly in France. In 1928, 
however, he began to prepare a return to politics. M. Kaptrandair 
resigned from the leadership of his section of the Liberals, and 
Venizelos took his place, declaring this to be the best guarantee 



against a dictatorship. He brought about the fall of the Govern- 
ment, formed a new government with himself as premier on July 
4, and secured a large majority in the election held on Aug. 19. 
During the autumn he visited Rome, Paris, London and Belgrade 
on diplomatic missions. In Rome he negotiated with Mussolini a 
treaty of friendship and arbitration which was signed in October. 
A treaty of commerce with Yugoslavia was signed in November 
and followed by a treaty of friendship in March, 1929. He also 
carried on negotiations for treaties with Bulgaria and Turkey. 
These activities greatly improved the diplomatic position of 
Greece and Venizclos turned his attention again toward internal 
problems. 

Venizelos was left a widower with two sons (Kyriakos b. 1893 
and Sophocles b. 1895) in 1895. On Sept. 15, 1921, he married 
Miss Helena Schilizzi, heiress of a. Greek Chiot family established 
in England. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. C. Kerorilas, Eleftherios Venizelos, his Life and 
Work (Enp. tr., 1915) ; S. B. Chester, Life of Venizelos (1921) ; H. A. 
Gibbons, Venizclos (1921); W. H. 0. Price, Venizelos and the War 
(1917) ; V. J. Sdiftman, The Victory of Venizelos (1920) ; W. Miller, 
A History of the Greek People, iSzi-ro^j (1922); Books by Veni- 
zclos or containing his speeches are Greece in her True Light (1916) ; 
L. Maccns, Ainsi parla Venizclos (1916) ; The. Vindication of Greek 
National Policy, speeches delivered in the Greek Chamber Autf 23-26, 
1917 (Eng. tr. London, 1918) ; "The Internal Situation in Greece and 
the Amnesty of Political Offenders" (speech in Greek Chamber April 
23-May 6, 1917) ; Greece before the Peace Congress of njiy: A Mem- 
orandum dealing with the rights of Greece (1919) ; Greek Bureau of 
Foreign Information, London (Kn^. tr., 1920). 

VENLO, a frontier town in the province of Limburg, Holland, 
on the right bank of the Maas, and a junction station 43 m. 
N.N.E. of Maastricht by rail. Pop. (1927), 22,422. Venlo, with 
narrow streets irregularly built, is not of the ordinary Dutch 
type in architectural style. The picturesque town hall (1595) con- 
tains some interesting paintings by Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583). 
The church dates from 1304. The leading industries are distilling, 
brewing, tanning, spinning, neccllemaking and tobacco manufac- 
ture. There, is also a considerable trade by river with Rotterdam. 
Venlo is joined by a bridge over the Maas with the opposite village 
of Blerik. 

VENN, HENRY (1725-1797), English evangelical divine, 
was born at Barnes, Surrey, and educated at Cambridge. He took 
orders in 1747, and was elected fellow of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1749. After holding a curacy at Barton, Cambridge- 
shire, he became curate of St. Matthew, Friday Street, London, 
and of West Horsley, Surrey, in 1750, and then of Clapham in 
1754. In the preceding year he was chosen lecturer of St. Swithin's, 
London Stone. He was vicar of Huddersfield from 1759 to 1771, 
when he exchanged to the living of Veiling, Huntingdonshire. 
Besides being a leader of the evangelical revival, he was well 
known as the author of The Compleat Duty of Man (London, 
1763), a work in which he intended to supplement the teaching 
embodied in the anonymous Whole Duty of Man. His son, John 
Venn (1759-1813), was one of the founders of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, and his grandson, Henry Venn (1796-1873), was 
honorary secretary of that society from 1841 to 1873. 

VENNOR, GEORGE HENRY (1840-1884), Canadian 
geologist and meteorologist, was born at Montreal on Dec. 30, 
1840. He graduated at McGill University in 1860 and, after a 
number of private scientific expeditions, was in 1866 placed on 
the staff of the Canadian geological survey. His studies and re- 
vised classification of the great Laurentian system ot rocks 
brought him a wide reputation and election to the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. He traced the Licvre, Rouge and Gatineau 
rivers to their sources and called attention to the phosphate 
deposits of Ottawa county. Over a period of many years he 
studied the characters and courses of storms deducing a number 
of general principles. From 1877 to his death he published Yen- 
nor's Almanac. He was the author of Our Birds of Prey; or the 
Eagles, Hawks and Owls oj Canada (1876), and contributed fre- 
quently to the Canadian Naturalist and the British American 
Magazine. 

VENOSA (anc. Venusia, q.v.), a town and bishop's see of the 
Basilicata in the province of Potenza, Italy, on the eastern side 



68 



VENTENAT VENTILATION 



of Mount Vulture, 52 m. by rail S.S.E. of Foggia, 1,345 ft. above 
sea-level. Pop. (1921) 8,993, The castle, built in 1470, contains 
four stables each for 50 horses. Many fragments of Roman work- 
manship are built into the isth century cathedral. The abbey 
church of SS. Trinita is historically interesting; it was consecrated 
in 1059 by Pope Nicholas 11. and passed into the hands of the 
Knights of St. John in 1297. In the central aisle is the tomb of 
Alberada, the first wife of Robert Guiscard and mother of 
Bohemund. An inscription on the wall commemorates the great 
Norman brothers William Iron Arm (d. 1046), Brogo (murdered 
at Venosa in 1051), Humfrey (d. 1057) and Robert Guiscard (d. 
at Corfu in 1085). The bones of these brothers rest together in a 
simple stone sarcophagus opposite the tomb of Alberada. The 
church also contains some 14th-century frescoes. Behind it is a 
larger church, which was begun for the Benedictines about 1150. 
See O. dc Lorenzo, Venosa e la Rcgione del Vulture (Bergamo, 1906). 

VENTENAT, ETIENNE-PIERRE (1757-1808), French 
botanist, was born in Limoges in 1757. He entered the congrega- 
tion of St. Genevieve and had charge of their library, but at the 
time of the Revolution abandoned his religious connections in 
order to follow his taste for botany. His writings caused him to 
be named professor in the Republican lyceum of Paris and made 
a member of the Institute. His principal works are Principes de 
botanique (1794); Tableau du regne vegetal (1794); Le botaniste 
voyageur anx environs dc Paris (1803) ; Le jardin de la malmaison 
(1803); Choix de pi antes (1803-1808). These were noted above 
all for the beauty of the plates executed under the author's direc- 
tion by Redoute, Sallier, Plee, etc. Among a number of memoirs 
dealing with the problems of his science the Dissertation sur les 
parties des mousses qui out ete regardtes comme jleurs males et 
comme fleurs femelles and Sur les meilleurs moyens de distinguer 
Ic calici de la corolle are notable. 

VENTIDIUS, BASSUS, Roman general, was born at Ascu- 
lum. He took part in the Social War and was made prisoner by 
Pompey the Elder. As a contractor for military transport he 
aided Caesar in raising an army for the conquest of Gaul and was 
later given a command under Caesar. In 46 A.D. he became a 
senator and tribune. After Caesar's death he supported Antony 
and rendered important aid in the war against D. Brutus by taking 
three legions, which he raised himself, in a spectacular march over 
the Apennines to join in the battle. He became Antony's chief 
lieutenant and for a brief period was consul of Rome. He was 
afterwards sent to the East where he carried on the wars against 
the Parthians with brilliant success. 

VENTILATION, the process and practice of keeping an 
enclosed place supplied with proper air for breathing; and so, by 
analogy, a term used for exposing any subject to the winds of pub- 
lic criticism; (Lat. vcntilare, from ventus, wind). The air which 
we breathe consists chiefly of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, with 
certain small proportions of other gases, such as carbon dioxide, 
ozone and argon. Oxygen, which is the active and important con- 
stituent, and on which life and combustion depend, forms about 
one-fifth of the whole, while nitrogen, which is inert and acts as 
a diluent, forms nearly four-fifths. Of this mixture each adult 
person breathes some 2,600 gallons of 425 cu.ft. in 24 hours. In 
air that has passed through the lungs the proportion of oxygen is 
reduced and that of carbon dioxide increased. Of the various im- 
purities that are found in the air of inhabited rooms, carbon 
dioxide forms the best practical index of the efficiency of the 
ventilation. The open air of London and other large inland towns 
contains about four parts by volume of the gas in 10,000 of air. 
In the country, and in towns near the sea, two to three and a half 
parts in 10,000 is a more usual proportion. Authorities on ventila- 
tion usually take four parts in 10,000 as the standard for pure air, 
and use the excess over that quantity in estimating the adequacy 
of the air supply. They differ however as to the excess quantity of 
carbon dioxide permissible under a good system of ventilation. It 
is generally admitted that the air in which people dwell and sleep 
should not in any circumstances be allowed to contain more than 
ten parts in 10.000. This has been accepted as the permissible pro- 
portion by Carnelley, Haldane and Anderson, after an extensive 

examination of the air of middle and lower-class dwellings. 



Air supplied per adult 
per hour 


Carbon dioxide 
(Parts by volume in 10,000) 


Cubic feet 


Excess due to 
respiration 


Total 
quantity 


1,000 

1,200 
2,OOO 

3,000 


6 
5 
4 
3 

2 


10 

9 
8 

7 
6 



Human Consumption of Air. The rate at which an adult 
expires carbon dioxide varies widely with his condition of repose, 
being least in sleep, greater in waking rest, and very much greater 
in violent exercise. As a basis on which to calculate the air neces- 
sary for proper ventilation, we may take the production of carbon 
dioxide by an adult as 0-6 cu.ft, per hour. Hence he will produce 
per hour, in 6,000 cu.ft. of air, a pollution amounting to one part 
of carbon dioxide in 10,000 of air. If the excess of carbon dioxide 
were to be kept down to this figure (i in 10,000), it would be 
necessary to supply 6,000 cu.ft. of fresh air per hour; if the per- 
missible excess be two parts in 10,000 half this supply of fresh air 
will suffice; and so on. We therefore have the following relation 
between (i) the quantity of air supplied per person per hour, 
(2) the excess of carbon dioxide which results, and (3) the total 
quantity of carbon dioxide present, on the assumption that the 
fresh air that is admitted contains four parts (by volume) in 
10,000: 



Some investigators have maintained that, in addition to an in- 
creased proportion of carbon dioxide, air which has passed through 
the lungs contains a special poison. This view, however, is not 
accepted by others; J. 8. Haldane and Lorrain Smith, for instance, 
conclude "that the immediate dangers from breathing air highly 
vitiated by respiration arise entirely from the excess of carbonic 
acid and deficiency of oxygen" (Journ. Path, and Bact. 1892). 
Carbon dioxide, however, is not the only agent that has to be 
reckoned with in badly ventilated rooms, for the unpleasant effects 
they produce may also be due to increase of moisture and tempera- 
ture and to the odours that arise from lack of cleanliness. Again, 
though there may be no unduly large proportion of carbon dioxide 
present, the air of an apartment may be exceedingly impure when 
the criterion is the number of micro-organisms it contains. This 
also may be greatly reduced by efficient ventilation. Comparisons 
carried out by Carnelley, Haldane and Anderson (Phil. Trans. 
1887, B) between schools known to be well ventilated (by mechan- 
ical means) and schools ventilated at haphazard or not ventilated 
at all showed that the average number of micro-organisms was 
17 per litre in the former, and in the others ,152. Results of great 
interest were obtained by the experiment of stopping the mechani- 
cal ventilators for a few hours or days. Tested by the proportion 
of carbon dioxide, the air of course became very bad; tested by 
the number of micro-organisms, it remained comparatively pure, 
the number being, in fact, scarcely greater than when ventilation 
was going on, and far less than the average in naturally ventilated 
schools. This proves the advantage of systematic ventilation. 

Ventilation of Buildings. Here four main points have to be 
considered: (i) the area of floor to be provided for each person; 

(2) the cubic capacity of the room required for each occupant; 

(3) the allowance to be made for the vitiation of the air by gas 
or oil burners; and (4) the quantity of fresh air which must be 
brought in and of vitiated air that must be extracted for each indi- 
vidual. The first will depend upon the objects to which the room 
is devoted, whether a ward of a hospital or a school or a place of 
public assembly. The purity of the air of a room depends to a 
^ Mi extent on the proportion of its cubic capacity to the number 
oi-'imates. The influence of capacity is, however, often overrated. 
Even when the allowance of space is very liberal, if no fresh air 
be supplied, the atmosphere of a room quickly falls below the 
standard of purity specified above; on the other hand, the space 
per inmate may be almost indefinitely reduced if sufficient means 
are provided for systematic ventilation. Large rooms are good, 
chiefly because of their action as reservoirs of air in those cases 



VENTILATION 



69 



(too common in practice) where no sufficient provision is made for 
continuous ventilation, and where the air is changed mainly by 
intermittent ventilation, such as occurs when doors or windows 
are opened. With regard to the third point, in buildings lighted by 
gas or oil the calculations for the supply of fresh and the extrac- 
tion of foul air must include an allowance for the vitiation of air 
by the products of combustion. The rate at which this takes place 
may be roughly estimated in the case of gas by treating each cubic 
foot of gas burned per hour as equal to one person. Thus an ordi- 
nary burner giving a light of about 20 candles and burning 4 cu.f t. 
of gas per hour vitiates the air as much as four persons, and an 
incandescent burner as much as one and a half persons. A small 
reading-lamp burning oil uses the air of four men; a large central 
table lamp uses as much air as seven men. As to the fourth point 
there is great diversity of opinion. To preserve the lowest standard 
of purity tolerated by sanitarians, ventilation must go on at the 
rate per person of 1,000 cu.ft. per hour, and 3,000 cu.ft. per hour 
are required to preserve the higher standard on which some au- 
thorities insist. E. A. Parkes advised a supply of 2,000 cu.ft. of 
air per hour for persons in health and 3,000 or 4,000 cu.ft. for sick 
persons. In the case of a public assembly hall no great harm will 
occur to an audience occupying the room for a comparatively short 
time if 30 cu.ft. of air per minute are provided for each person. 
The United States book on school architecture gives a practical 
application to its remarks on this subject as follows: 

The amount of fresh air which is allowed to hospital patients is 
about 2,500 cu.ft. each per hour. Criminals in French prisons have 
to content themselves with 1,500 cu.ft. per hour. Assuming that 
we care two-thirds as much for the health of our children as we 
do for that of our thieves and murderers, we will make them an 
allowance of 1,000 cu.ft. each per hour, or about 16 cu.ft. per 
minute. Forty-eight children will then need an hourly supply of 
48,000 cu.ft. Definite provision must therefore be made for with- 
drawing this quantity of foul air. No matter how many inlets there 
may be, the fresh air will only enter as fast as the foul escapes, 
and this can only find an outlet through ducts intended for that 
purpose, porous walls and crevices serving in cool weather only 
for inward flow. What, then, must be the size of the shaft to ex- 
haust 48,000 cu.ft. per hour? In a shaft 20 ft. high, vertical and 
smooth inside, with a difference in temperature of 20, the velocity 
will be about 2\ ft. per sec., or 9,000 ft. per hour; that is, it will 
carry off 9,000 cu.ft. of air per hour for every sq.ft. of its sectional 
area. To convey 48,000 cu.ft., it must have a sectional area of 5^ 
sq.ft. 

A general idea of the floor area, cubic space and fresh air supply 
per inmate allowed by law or by custom in certain cases is given 
in the table below : 










Cubic feet of 


Class of building 


Floor area 
in feet per 


Cubic 
capacity in 
feet per 


fresh air 

supplied and 
foul air 




person 


person* 


extracted per 








person 


Schools .... 


9 to io 


200 


i, 800 


Barracks ... 


7 


720 


j .Soo 


Prisons .... 


90 


800 


1, 800 


Concert halls and theatres 


9 


108 


2,000 | 


Billiards and smokerooms 






2,000 j 


Hospitals '. 


1 20 


1,440 


:,ooo to 3,000 


Public libraries . 


20 


2,400 


2,500 


Turkish baths . 


70 


800 


5,000 


Workshops 


1JO 


1,440 


5,000 


Cowsheds, per cow . 


90 


I,IOO 


10,000 


Stables, per horse . 


120 


1, 600 


12,000 



*In calculating the cubic capacity per person the height should not 
be measured beyond 1 2 ft. above the floor. 

The supply of fresh air indicated in the table should not be re- 
garded as entirely satisfactory, for the standard of purity suggested 
is low, and ought to be exceeded, but it might deter many from 
moving in the matter if a proper and higher standard were to be 
laid down at first. One of the most important points is the proper 
warming of the fresh air introduced into buildings, for unless that 



be done, when a cold day occurs all the ventilating arrangements 
will probably be closed. The fact should not be lost sight of that 
the air in a room may on the one hand be quite cold and yet very 
foul, and on the other, warm and yet perfectly fresh. To avoid 
draught the air should enter through a large number of small 
orifices, so that the currents may be thoroughly diffused. This is 
done by gratings. The friction of their bars, however, seriously 
diminishes their capacity for passing air, and careful experiments 
show conclusively that very ample grating area is required to de- 
liver large volumes. The same remark applies to extracting-flues. 
Owing to the small size and the roughness of the surface the 
velocity of the upward current is small, and the quantity of air 
that passes out is often much less than is requisite. 

Means of Ventilation. That the atmosphere of a room 
should be changed by means of air currents, thereby securing 
proper ventilation, three things are necessary ; ( i ) an inlet or in- 
lets for the fresh air, (2) an outlet or outlets for the vitiated air, 
and (3) a motive force to produce and maintain the current. In 
systems which are distinguished by the general name of mechani- 
cal or artificial ventilation special provision is made for driving 
the air by fans, or by furnaces, or by other contrivances described 
elsewhere under HEATING AND VENTILATING. In what is called 
natural ventilation no special appliance is used to give motive 
force, but the forces are made use of which are supplied by (i) 
the wind, (2) the elevated temperature of the room's atmosphere, 
and (3) the draught of fires used for heating. 

The chief agent in domestic ventilation in Great Britain is the 
chimney, the majority of houses being fitted with open grates; 
and when a bright fire is burning in an open grate, it rarely hap- 
pens that any other outlet for foul air from a room need be pro- 
vided. The column of hot air and burnt gases in the chimney is 
less heavy, because of its high temperature, than an equal column 
of air outside; the pressure at the base is therefore less than the 
pressure at the same level outside. This supplies a motive force 
compelling air to enter at the bottom through the grate and 
through the opening over the grate, and causing a current tc 
ascend. The motive force which the chimney supplies has not 
only to do work on the column of air within the chimney in set- 
ting it in motion and in overcoming frictional resistance to its 
flow; it has also to set the air entering the room in motion and 
to overcome frictional resistance at the inlets. From want oi 
proper inlets air has to be dragged in at a high velocity and against 
much resistance, under the doors, between the window sashes 
and through many other chinks and crevices. Under these con- 
ditions the air enters in small streams or narrow sheets, ill-dis- 
tributed and moving so fast as to form disagreeable draughts, the 
pressure in the room is kept so low that an opened door or window 
lets in a deluge of cold air, and the current up the chimney is mucfc 
reduced. If the attempt is made to stop draughts by applying 
sandbags and listing to the crevices at which air streams in 
matters only become worse in other respects; the true remedy ol 
course lies in providing proper inlets. The discharge of air by ar 
ordinary open fire and chimney varies widely, depending on the 
rate of combustion, the height and section and form of the chim 
ney, and the freedom with which air is entering the room. Aboul 
10,000 cu.ft. per hour is probably a fair average, about enough tc 
keep the air fresh for half a dozen persons. Even when no fire is 
burning the chimney plays an important part in ventilation; th( 
air within an inhabited room being generally warmer than the aii 
outside, it is only necessary that an up-current should be slartec 
in order that the chimney should maintain it, and it will usuall) 
be found that a current is passing up. When a room is occupiec 
for any considerable length of time by more than about half c 
dozen persons, the chimney outlet should be supplemented b) 
others, which usually take the form of gratings in the ceiling 01 
cornices in communication with flues leading to the open air. Thes< 
openings should be protected from down-draught by light flaj 
valves of oiled silk or sheet mica. 

With regard to inlets, a first care must be to avoid such cur 
rents of cold air as will give the disagreeable and dangerous sensa 
tion of draught. At ordinary temperatures a current of outer ai 
to which the body is exposed will be felt as a draught if it: 



7 



VENTIMIGLIA 






velocity exceeds 3 ft. or even 2 ft. per second. The current entering 
a room may, however, be allowed to move with a speed much 
greater than this without causing discomfort, provided its direc- 
tion keeps it from striking directly on the persons of the inmates. 
To secure this, it should enter, not horizontally nor through 
gratings on the iloor, but vertically through openings high enough 
to carry the entering stream into the upper atmosphere of the 
room, where it will mix as com- 
pletely as possible with warm air 
before its presence can be felt. 
A favourite form of inlet is the 
Shcringham (fig. i). When 
opened it forms a wedge-shaped 

projection into the room and F|Q , __ SHER1NGHAM AIR INLET 
admits air in an upward stream 

through the open top. It should be placed at a height of 5 ft. or 
6 ft. above the level of the tloor. Other inlets are made by using 
hollow perforated blocks of earthenware, called airbricks, built 
into the wall; these are often shaped on the inner side like an in- 
verted louvre-board or Venetian blind, with slots that slope so as 
to give an upward inclination to the entering stream. 

In another and most valuable form of ventilator, the Tobin 
tube, the fresh air enters vertically upwards. The usual arrange- 
ment of Tobin tube (shown in front elevation and section in fig. 
2) is a short vertical shaft of metal plate or wood which leads up 
the wall from the floor level to a height of 5 ft. or 6 ft.. Its lower 
end communicates with the outer air through an air-grating in the 
wall; from its upper end, which is freely open, the current of fresh 
air rises in a smooth stream. Various forms of section may be given 
to the tube: if placed in a corner it will be triangular or segmental; 
against a flat wall a shallow rectangular form is most usual, or it 
may be placed in a channel so as to be flush with the face of the 
wall; a lining of w f ood forming a dado may even be made to serve 
as a Tobin tube by setting it out a little way from the wall. The 
tube is often furnished with a regulating valve, and contrivances 
may be added for cleansing the entering air. A muslin or canvas 
bag hung in the tube, or a screen stretched diagonally across it, 
may be used to filter out dust; the same object is served in some 
degree by forcing the air, as it enters the tube at the bottom, to 
pass in close contact with the surface of water in a tray, by means 
of a deflecting plate. These complications have a double draw- 
back: they require frequent attention to keep them in order, 
and by putting resistance in the 
way of the stream they are apt to 
reduce the efficiency of the ven- 
tilation. The air entering by a 
Tobin tube may be warmed by a 
coil of hot pipes within the tube 
or by a small gas-stove (pro- 
vided, of course, with a flue to 
discharge outside the products of 
combustion), or the tube may 
draw its supply, not directly from 
the outer atmosphere, but from 
a hot-air flue. The opening should 
always be about the level of a 
man's head, but the tube need 
not extend down to the floor: all 
that is essential is that it should 
have sufficient length to let the 
air issue in a smooth vertical 

current without eddies (fig. 3). FIG. 2. THE TOBIN TUBE 
These inlets are at once so simple and effective that no hesitation 
need be felt in introducing them freely in the rooms of dwelling, 
houses. When no special provision is made for them in the walls, 
the advantage of a current entering vertically may still be in some 
degree secured by help of certain makeshift contrivances. One of 
.these, suggested by Dr. Hinkcs Bird, is to open one sash of the 
window a few inches and fill up the opening by a board; air then 
enters in a zig-zag course through the space between the meeting 
rails of the sashes. Still another plan is to have a light frame of 
wood or metal or glass made to fit in front of the lower sash when 



ft 





FIG. 3. THE 
TOBIN TUBE 



SHORT 



the window is opened, thus forming virtually a Tobin tube. 

As an example of the systematic ventilation of dwelling-rooms 
on a large scale, the following particulars may be quoted of ar- 
rangements that have been successfully used in English barracks. 
One or more outlet shafts of wood fitted with flap valves to 
prevent down-draught are carried from the highest part of the 
room discharging some feet above the roof under a louvre. The 
number and size of these shafts are such as to give about 12 sq.in. 
of sectional area per head, and the chimney 
gives about 6 sq.in. more per head. About 
half the air enters cold through air-bricks 
or Shcringham valves at a height of about 
9 ft. from the floor, and the other half is 
warmed by passing through flues behind 
the grate. The inlets taken together give 
an area of about n sq.in. per head. A 
fairly regular circulation of some 1,200 cu. 
ft. per head per hour is found to take 
place, and the proportion of carbon dioxide 
ranges from 7 to 10 parts in 10,000. In 
the natural ventilation of churches, halls 
and other large rooms we often find air 
admitted by gratings in the floor or near 
it; or the inlets may consist, like Tobin tubes, of upright flues 
rising to a height of about 6 ft. above the floor, from which 
the air proceeds in vertical streams. Tf the air is to be warmed 
before it enters, the supply may be drawn from a chamber warmed 
by hot-water or steam-pipes or by a stove, and the temperature 
of the room may be regulated by allowing part of the air to ?ome 
from a hot chamber and part from outside, the two currents mix- 
ing in the shaft from which the inlets to the room draw their sup- 
ply. Outlets usually consist of gratings or plain openings at or 
near the ceiling, preferably at a considerable distance from points 
vertically above the inlet tubes. 

One of the chief difficulties in natural ventilation is to guard 
against down-draught, through the action of the wind. Numberless 
forms of cowl have been devised with this object, with the further 
intention of turning the wind to useful account by making it assist, 
the up-current of foul air. Some of these exhaust cowls are of 
the revolving class, made to various designs and dimensions and 
put in rotation by the force of the wind. Revolving cowls are liable 
to fail by sticking, and generally speaking, fixed cowls are to 
be preferred. The two things that supply motive force in auto- 
matic or natural ventilation by means of exhaust cowls and similar 
appliances (the difference of temperature between inner and 
outer air, and the wind) are so variable that even the best arrange- 
ments of inlets and outlets give a somewhat uncertain result. As 
an example, it is evident, that on a hot day with little movement 
in the air this mode of ventilation would be practically ineffectual. 
Under other conditions these automatic air extractors not infre- 
quently become inlets, thus reversing the whole system and pour- 
ing cold air on the heads of the inmates of the apartment or hall. 
To secure a strictly uniform delivery of air, unaffected by changes 
of season or of weather, it is necessary that the influence of these 
irregular motive forces be as far as possible minimized, and re- 
course must consequently be had to some mechanical force as a 
means of driving the air and securing adequate ventilation of the 
building. For an account of artificial ventilation see the article 
HEATING AND VENTILATING, to which a bibliography is appended. 

VENTIMIGLIA (Fr. Vintimille, anc. Album Intimilinm or 
Albintimilitim), a frontier fortress, seaport and episcopal see of 
Liguria, Italy, in the province of Impcria, 94 m. W. by S. of 
Genoa by rail, and 4 m. from the Franco-Italian frontier, 45 ft. 
above sea-level. Pop. (1921) 14,125 (town), 15,805 (commune). 
The railway to Cuneo over the Col di Tenda (65 m.) has now 
been completed. The new town is important as a frontier 
station and for its flower market. The present Gothic cathedral 
is built on the ruins of an earlier Lombard church, and with the 
octagonal baptistery, the seminary, etc., forms a picturesque 
group of buildings. S. Michele is another interesting old church. 
Both lie in the old town, on a hill above the new. The ruins of 
the ancient town are situated in the plain of Nervia, 3 m. E. of the 



VENTNOR VENUS 



modern. It was a rnunicipium with an extensive territory, and of 
some importance under the Empire, but was plundered by the 
partisans of Otho in A.D. 69. Remains of a theatre are visible, 
and remains of many other buildings have been discovered, among 
them traces of the ancient city walls, a fine mosaic pavement and 
a number of tombs to the west of the theatre. The caves of the 
Balzi Rossi near the village of Grimaldi have proved rich in 
palaeolithic remains of the 'Quaternary period, while round Monte 
Bcgo above S. Dalmazzo di Tenda, north of Ventimiglia are 
numerous engravings (over 12,000) assignable to the Bronze 
Age. (See ITALY, Prehistoric Period.) 

See P. Barocelli in Monumenti dei Lincei xxix. (1923-25) for a 
register of all discoveries; cf. also Bollettino d'Ante, p. 471 (1924). 

VENTNOR, watering place, urban district, Isle of Wight, 
England, 12^ m. S. of Ryde. Pop. (1921) 6,059. It is finely 
situated in the Undercliff district, at the foot of St. Boniface 
down, which reaches a height of 787 ft. The town, built on a 
succession of terraces, is regarded as one of the best resorts in 
England for consumptives and contains several hospitals and con- 
valescent homes. In the early iQth century it was a small fishing 
hamlet, but now it extends along the shore for 2 m. It has 
assembly rooms, a literary and scientific institution, an esplanade, 
a pier and extensive recreation grounds. 

VENTRILOQUISM, the art of producing the voice in such 
a manner that it shall appear to proceed from some place alto- 
gether distant from the speaker (Lat. venter, belly, and loqtd, to 
speak). The art of ventriloquism was formerly supposed to re- 
sult from a peculiar use of the stomach (whence the name) during 
the process of inhalation. As a matter of fact, the words are 
formed in the normal manner, but the breath is allowed to escape 
very slowly, the tones being muffled by narrowing the glottis 
and the mouth opened as little as possible, while the tongue is 
retracted and only its tip moves. Gestures and facial expression 
are employed at the same time to assist in the deception by stim- 
ulating the imagination of the listeners and to distract their at- 
tention from the speaker. 

Ventriloquism, which is still a recognized form of conjuring en- 
tertainment, is of ancient origin. Traces of the art are found 
in Egyptian and Hebrew archaeology. Eurydes of Athens was 
the most celebrated of Greek ventriloquists, who were called after 
him Eurycleides, and also Engastrimanteis (belly-prophets). It 
is not impossible that the priests of ancient times were masters 
of this art, and that to it may be ascribed such miracles as the 
speaking statues of the Egyptians, the Greek oracles, and the 
stone in the river Pactolus, the sound of which put robbers to 
flight. Many uncivilized races of modern times are adepts in ven- 
triloquism, as the Zulus, the Maoris and the Eskimos. It is well 
known also in Hindustan and China. 

See De la Chapelle, Le Vcntriloque, ou Vengast rimy the (1772); E. 
Schultz, Die Kunst des Bauchrcdens (Erfurt, 1895) ; Russel, Ventrilo- 
quism (1898) ; A. Prince, The, Whole Art of Ventriloquism (1921). 

VENTSPILS, formerly Windau, a seaport and sea-bathing 
resort of Latvia, at the mouth of a river of the same name, on the 
Baltic Sea, in 57 24' N., 21 32" E. Its harbour is protected by 
two long breakwaters, and has ample quay space with a depth of 
23 to 30 ft. There is a 45 ton electric crane and the port is ice- 
free all the year round. The harbour is being deepened in order 
to make it accessible for large ocean steamers. There is a grow- 
ing transit trade with Soviet Russia. Its imports are coal and 
transit goods of various description and its exports timber, pit- 
props, butter, flax, hemp and grain. The castle dates from 1290, 
and the town itself from 1343. 

VENTURA, a city of southern California, U.S.A., on the 
Pacific ocean, 2 m. from the mouth of the Santa Clara river; the 
county seat of Ventura county. It is served by the Southern 
Pacific railway and by freight steamers to San Francisco and Los 
Angeles. Pop. (1920) 4,342; (1928 local estimate) 18,000. It is a 
trading centre and shipping point for a rich agricultural region and 
for the neighbouring oilfields, and is the seat of the State school 
for girls. The city, founded in 1782, was incorporated in 1866. 

VENUE, in criminal law, the proper area of jurisdiction for 
the trial of a crime by indictment (from the Lat. venire). Every 



criminal court has its jurisdiction limited to some part of Eng- 
land, and unless empowered by statute, cannot try any crimes 
other than those committed within its jurisdiction. For certain 
crimes, however, the venue may be laid in any part of England. 
The King's Bench Division has power to change the venue. In 
civil matters, that is to say, in actions commenced in the High 
Court, there is now no local venue for the trial of actions, but 
the place of trial is fixed (pursuant to Or. 36 r. i of the Rules 
of the Supreme Court) on a summons for direction, which is 
taken out shortly after the commencement of proceedings. As 
a general rule the court directs that the trial shall take place at 
the place which is most convenient, having regard to all the cir- 
cumstances, e.g., the residences of the parties and their witnesses, 
and the dates when assizes are held, and to the fact that jurors 
ought not to be asked to try cases which do not arise in their own 
district. (See further, CRIMINAL LAW; PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE; 
COUNTY COURTS.) (W. V. B.) 

In American law jurisdiction to try crimes and civil cases must 
be distinguished from venue or the place where the trial may be 
had. Jurisdiction as between the various States is governed by 
common law principles of the conflict of laws. The right to en- 
force the judgment of one State in another State depends upon 
whether the former had jurisdiction of the subject matter and 
the parties, a fact which is always open to question by the courts 
of the latter State. But there being jurisdiction, the determina- 
tion of the courts of the State in which the action is brought is 
conclusive upon' the question whether the venue was properly 
laid. Constitutional or statutory provisions commonly govern the 
venue of different causes of action as between particular counties 
and the Federal jurlicial districts. Actions such as trespass to land 
are ordinarily triable only in the State where the cause of action 
arose. Most actions may be tried in any State that has jurisdiction 
of the parties. 

VENUS (?) is the second of the planets in order of distance 
from the sun. It revolves in an orbit which has the smallest eccen- 
tricity (0-007) in the planetary system, and an inclination to the 
ecliptic of 3 24'. Its mean distance from the sun is 67,200,000 
miles; but, whereas at inferior conjunction it is less than 26,- 
000,000 miles from the earth, at superior conjunction it is 160,- 
000,000 miles. The time it takes Venus to complete a revolution 
in its orbit is 225 days, but its synodic period, or the period of its 
phases, is 584 days. At its maximum elongations it recedes about 
47 or 48 from the sun, so that in middle latitudes it can set or 
rise over 3 hours after or before the sun. When seen in the 
western sky in the evenings, t.t\, at its eastern elongations, it was 
called by the Ancients "E<77Tpos (Hesperus), and when visible in 
the mornings, i.e., at its western elongations ^cotfc^opos (Phos- 
phorus). In volume and mass Venus is slightly smaller than the 
earth, its diameter being about 7,700 miles and its mass (deduced 
from its action on the earth and Mercury) 0-8 1 that of the earth. 
At superior conjunction its angular diameter is about 10", but at 
inferior conjunction it exceeds 60". 

Like the earth Venus is enveloped in an atmosphere. This is 
shown by the fact that, near inferior conjunction, the extremely 
thin crescent of the visible portion of the illuminated hemisphere 
has often been observed to exceed iSo, while at the time of actual 
entry on the sun's disc during the transit of 1882, as soon as about 
i of the planet's body was in front of the sun, the remaining por- 
tion was completely outlined by a narrow border of light. This 
atmosphere of Venus is apparently heavily cloud-laden, -and, as the 
intensity of the solar radiation is almost exactly twice what it is at 
the earth's distance, the planet shines with a dazzling lustre, its 
stellar magnitude varying from -3.3 to -4-4. Its greatest bright- 
ness is attained at about 36 days on either side of inferior con- 
junction, its elongation from the sun then being 39, and its phase 
similar to that of a 5 days old moon. When suitably situated the 
planet is easily visible at noonday with the naked eye, and after 
dark it readily casts a shadow. 

As a telescopic object Venus is disappointing, since apart from 
the beauty of its phases it presents but few features of a definite 
nature. Its surface appears permanently screened from view 
by its cloud-laden atmosphere, and many observers have failed to 



7 2 



VENUS VENUS'S FLY-TRAP 



detect any markings at all upon it beyond the general fading of 
light near the terminator and a brightness at the cusps or other 
features which appear to be merely phase effects. Occasionally 
diffuse faint markings of a dusky character or bright areas are 
seen, but these are probably nothing more than inequalities in the 
cloudy stratum. On Feb. 13, 1913, a very definite indentation 
in the terminator, or line bounding the illuminated part of the 
disc, was observed simultaneously by McEwen of Glasgow, and 
Sargent at the Durham university observatory, and similar irregu- 
larities have been recorded by previous observers. 

The Planet's Rotation. In view of what has been said as 
to the elusive nature of the surface features, it is not surprising 
that the planet has been able to preserve the character of its 
rotation a secret to the present day. It was concluded by some of 
the earlier telescopic observers such as G. D. Cassini, Bianchini 
and Schroeter that its period is in the neighbourhood of 24 hours; 
but Schiaparelli (1890), after a careful study of the available 
material including his own observations, formed the conviction 
that the rotation is very slow and that it probably takes the same 
time as the planet's orbital revolution. This last conclusion was 
also arrived at by Lowell at Flagstaff. Flammarion in his review 
of the recorded observations considered that no reliable deduction 
could be drawn from them. A slow rotation would seem to be 
indicated by the absence of any observable elliptidty of the planet 
during its transits of the sun, as well as by the failure of certain 
spectroscopic observations to show any definite differential radial 
velocity at opposite sides of the visible disc. On the other hand 
the radiometric observations at the Mt. Wilson and Flagstaff ob- 
servatories in 1922, showing a considerable amount of heat to be 
emitted by the dark part of the planet's disc, favour a quick rota- 
tion, as also do photographs taken in ultra-violet light by Ross at 
the Mt. Wilson observatory on which dusky belts are shown 
perpendicular to the terminator and varying from night to night. 
It is, however, typical of the mystery enveloping this planet (hat 
on June 26, 1927, a dark marking was photographed at Mt. Wilson 
which apparently remained stationary for an hour. 

It may be that the harmonizing of many of the discordances 
referred to will ultimately be found in the theory of Professor 
W. H. Pickering. Observing in Jamaica in 1921, he reported 
observations of dusky markings indicating a rotation in approxi- 
mately 68 hours about an axis which is nearly in the plane of the 
orbit and in line with the radius vector in heliocentric longitude 
46 7'. This result has received general support from McEwen, 
and it has been pointed out that the failure of the Flagstaff spec- 
troscopic observations in 1903 to indicate rotation is explained by 
the fact that, on Pickering's hypothesis, the planet's pole was at 
that time directed towards the Earth, and that the rotation of the 
surface markings was accordingly almost in the plane of vision. 
It is to be noted that the earlier spectroscopic observations of 
Belopolsky at Pulkowa made under different conditions had given 
distinct evidence of rotation. 

Habitability. There is a point which is of considerable im- 
portance as regards the question whether Venus is fitted to be the 
abode of animate life. If oxygen and water vapour exist in any 
large quantity, we might expect their presence to be revealed by 
absorption lines in the spectrum of the sunlight reflected by the 
planet's surface. St. John, however, has found no evidence of 
such lines, and has concluded that the amount of oxygen above the 
visible surface is less than one thousandth part of the quantity 
in the atmosphere of the earth. It must, however, be remembered 
that the visible surface of Venus is apparently only that of the 
upper layer of a stratum of cloud, and that, although the quantities 
of oxygen and water vapour above this layer are apparently small, 
there may be considerable amounts below it. In the absence of any 
certain knowledge as to the planet's rotation and other important 
data it is not possible to form conclusions concerning its habit- 
ability, but the resemblance of Venus to the earth in size and 
mass, coupled with its possession of a dense atmosphere, would 
suggest the probability that it supports life of some kind. 

Supposed Satellite. It was at one time thought that Venus 
possessed a satellite, several observers in the i7th and i8th 
centuries reporting that they had seen it, though others searched 



the neighbourhood of the planet for it in vain. Observations with 
more perfect instruments, however, eventually demonstrated the 
non-existence of any such object, and it is evident that what was 
seen must have been the appearance of a "ghost," caused by some 
fault in the construction or adjustment of the instruments used. 
Transits of Venus- As is the case with Mercury, Venus, 
revolving round the sun inside the earth's orbit, sometimes transits 
the sun's face, and is seen projected on it as a small black disc. 
Were the planet's orbit plane coincident with that of the earth, 
these transits would, of course, occur at each inferior conjunction, 
but owing to its inclination a transit can only happen when the two 
planets pass near one of the nodes of Venus at about the same 
time, which is possible only at present in June and December. 
Actually a transit happens but four times in 243 years, and the 
intervals between transits are successively 8, 121^, 8, 105^, 8, 
i2ii years et seq, as illustrated in the following table of dates of 
these phenomena : 



1518, June 2, 
1526, June i, 
1631, Dec. 7, 
1639, Dec. 4, 
1761, June 6, 



1769, June 3, 
1874, Dec. 9, 
1882, Dec. 6, 
2004, June 8, 
2012, June 6. 



The first transit to be actually observed was that of 1639, the 
occurrence of the event having been calculated by Jeremiah 
Horrox, a young clergyman who was curate of Hoole near Preston 
in Lancashire. Dec. 4 in that year happened to be a Sunday, and 
Horrox missed seeing the beginning of the transit through having 
to take a service in church that afternoon, but on returning home 
he found to his great delight the black body of the planet ctearly 
projected on the sun's disc. 

Following on the suggestions of Edmund Halley a century later, 
transits of Venus were utilized for the determination of the solar 
parallax which gives the distance of the sun a quantity of funda- 
mental importance to the astronomer. Practical difficulties, how- 
ever, in the observations, arising from the effect of irradiation in 
introducing uncertainties as to the precise moments of the internal 
contacts between the limbs of the sun and planet, rendered the 
method unsatisfactory, and far more effective ways of attacking 
the problem are now available for the purpose. (T. E. R. P.) 

VENUS, Roman and Latin goddess, apparently representing 
beauty and growth in nature, and especially in gardens, where the 
Roman practical sense would most naturally see these. She had 
two temples in Rome, one in the grove of Libitina, with whom 
she was wrongly identified, and the other near the Circus Max- 
irnus, both of which had as their dedication day Aug. 19, the 
festival of the Vinalia rustica, a fact which also points in the di- 
rection of skilled cultivation as the human work of which she was 
protectress. But this old Latin deity was in historical times 
entirely absorbed by the Greek Aphrodite, and assumed the char- 
acteristics of a cult of human love, which in her original form, she 
had never possessed. See APHRODITE. 

VENUSIA (mod. Venosa, q.v.), an ancient city of Apulia, 
Italy, on the Via Appia, about 6 m. S. of the river Aufidus 
(Ofanto), and near the boundary of Lucania. It was taken by 
the Romans after the Samnite war of 291 B.C., and became a 
colony at once, no fewer than 20,000 men being sent there, owing 
to its military importance. The site is a specially strong one, 
being almost isolated by two deep ravines. Throughout the Han- 
nibalic wars it remained faithful to Rome, and had a further con- 
tingent of colonists sent in 200 B.C. to replace its losses in war. 
It took part in the Social War, and was recaptured by Quintus 
Metellus Pius; in 43 B.C. its territory was assigned to the veterans 
of the triumvirs. Horace was born here, the son of a freedman, 
in 65 B.C. It remained an important place under the Empire as a 
station on the Via Appia. Jewish catacombs with inscriptions in 
Hebrew, Greek and Latin show the importance of the Jewish 
population here in the 4th and sth centuries A.D. 

VENUS'S FLY-TRAP, a remarkable insectivorous plant 
(Dionaea itiuscipula) of the family Droseraceae, a native of North 
and South Carolina, first described in 1768 by the American 
botanist Ellis, in a letter to Linnaeus, in which he gave a sub- 
stantially correct account of the structure and functions of its 



VENUS'S LOOKING GLASS VERATRINE 



73 



leaves, and even suggested the probability of their insectivorous 
habit, Linnaeus declared it the most wonderful of plants (miracu- 
lum naturae), yet only admitted that it showed an extreme case of 
sensitiveness, supposing that the insects were only accidentally 
captured and subsequently allowed to escape. The insectivorous 
habit of the plant was subsequently fully investigated and de- 
scribed by Charles Darwin in his book on insectivorous plants. 

The plant is a small herb with a rosette of radical leaves with 
broad leaf-like footstalks. Each leaf has two lobes, standing at 
rather less than a right angle to each other, their edges being 
produced into spike-like processes. The upper surface of each 
lobe is covered with minute circular sessile glands. It bears also 
three fine-pointed sensitive bristles. These contain no fibro-vascu- 
lar bundles, but show a constriction near their bases, which enables 
them to bend parallel to the surface of the leaf when the lobes 
close. When the bristles are touched by an insect the lobes after 
a latent period of less than a second under suitable temperature 
conditions close upon the hinge-like midrib, the spikes interlock, 
and the insect is imprisoned. 

The leaf then forms itself into what may be called a temporary 
stomach, and the glands, hitherto dry, are stimulated by the 
presence of chemical substances passing out of the insect to pour 
out an acid secretion containing an enzyme (Q.V.), similar to that 
excreted by the leaves of the sundew, which rapidly dissolves the 
soft parts of the insect. This is produced in such abundance that, 
when Danvin made a small opening at the base of one lobe of a 
leaf which had closed over a large crushed fly, the secretion con- 
tinued to run down the footstalk during the whole time nine 
days during which the plant was kept under observation. The 
closing of the leaf is due to alterations in the cell-structure of the 
leaf and is later fixed by growth. The closing is accompanied by 
electrical changes which have been compared with those occurring 
in stimulated muscle. 

Though the bristles are exquisitely sensitive to the slightest 
contact with solid bodies, yet they are far less sensitive than those 
of the sundew (Drosera) to prolonged stimulation, a singular 
relation of the habits of the two plants. Like the leaves of Drosera, 
however, those of Dionaea are completely indifferent to wind and 
rain. The surface of the blade is very slightly sensitive; it may be 
roughly handled or scratched without causing movement, but 
closes when its surface or midrib is deeply pricked or cut. After 
the absorption of the products of digestion of the insect the leaf 
opens again by a process of growth and is ready for another meal. 
Dionaea and Mimosa show the two most striking cases of move- 
ment in the plant kingdom. 

For further details see C. Darwin, Insectivorous Plants (1875) ; 
M. Shene, Biology of Flowering Plants (1924). 

VENUS'S LOOKING GLASS, a popular garden name for 
Specularia Speculum (or Campanula Speculum), from the old 
Latin name for the plant, Speculum Veneris. It is a common 
cornfield plant in the south of Europe, and is grown in gardens 
on account of its brilliant purple flowers. In North America four 
native species occur, of which the American Venus's looking- 
glass or clasping bell-flower (5. perfoliata) and the small Venus 's 
looking glass (5. biflora) are found across the continent, the latter 
extending to South America. 

VERACRUZ (officially VERACRUZ LLAVE), a Gulf Coast 
State of Mexico, bounded north by Tamaulipas, west by San Luis 
Potosi, Hidalgo, Puebla and Oaxaca, and south-east by Chiapas 
and Tabasco. Pop. (1900) 981,030; (1910) 1,132,459. It is about 
$om. wide, extending along the coast north-west to south-east, for 
a distance of 435m., with an area of 29,201 square miles. It was 
the seat of an ancient Indian civilization antedating the Aztecs 
and is filled with remarkable and interesting ruins; it is now one 
of the richest States of the republic. It consists of a low, sandy 
coastal zone, much broken with tidewater streams and lagoons, 
behind which the land rises gradually to the base of the sierras 
and then in rich valleys and wooded slopes to their summits on 
the eastern margin of the great Mexican plateau, from which rise 
the majestic summits of Orizaba and Cofre de Perote. The climate 
is hot, humid and malarial, except on the higher elevations; the 
rainfall is heavy, and the tropical vegetation is so dense that it 



is practically impossible to clear it away. At Coatzacoalcos the 
annual precipitation ranges from 125 to i4oin., but it steadily de- 
creases towards the north. On the higher slopes of the sierras pre- 
historic terraces are found, evidently constructed to prevent the 
washing away of the soil by these heavy rains. More than 40 
rivers cross the State from the sierras to the coast. There are 
several ports on the coast Coatzacoalcos, Alvarado, Veracruz, 
Nautla, Tecolutla and Tuxpam. The products of the State are 
chiefly agricultural cotton, sugar, rum, tobacco, coffee, cacao, 
vanilla, maize, beans and fruit. Cattle-raising is followed in some 
districts, cattle and hides being among the exports. Among the 
forest products are rubber, cabinet woods, dye-woods, broom-root, 
chicle, jalap and orchids. Veracruz is one of the largest pro- 
ducers of sugar and rum in Mexico. There are a number of cotton 
factories (one of the largest in Mexico being at Orizaba), chiefly 
devoted to the making of coarse cloth for the lower classes. To- 
bacco factories are also numerous. Other manufactures include 
paper, chocolate, soap and matches. There are four lines of rail- 
way converging at Veracruz, two of which cross the State by dif- 
ferent routes to converge again at Mexico City. Another, the 
Tehuantepec National railway, crosses in the south, and is con- 
nected with Veracruz (city) by the Veracruz and Pacific line, 
which traverses the State in a south-easterly direction. The cap- 
ital is Jalapa, and the principal towns are Veracruz, Orizaba, Cor- 
dova and Coatzacoalcos. 

VERACRUZ, a city and seaport of Mexico, in the State of 
Veracruz, on a slight indentation of the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico, in 19 n' 50" N., 96 20' W., slightly sheltered by some 
small islands and reefs. Pop. (1910) 53,115. Veracruz is the 
most important port of the republic. It is 263 m. by rail E. of 
the city of Mexico, with which it is connected by two lines of 
railway. It is built on a flat, sandy, barren beach, only a few 
feet above sea-level. The harbour is confined to a compara- 
tively narrow channel inside a line of reefs and small islands, 
which is exposed to the full force of northern storms. New port 
works were completed towards the end of the i9th century, 
which, by means of breakwaters, afford complete protection. In 
1905 the four railway companies having terminal stations in 
Veracruz united in the organization of a joint terminal asso- 
ciation, with union station, tracks, warehouses, quays, cranes, 
etc. 

Veracruz dates from 1520, soon after the first landing there 
of Cortes. This settlement was called Villa Rica de Veracruz, 
but was soon after moved to the harbour of Bernal, in 1525 to 
a point now called Old Veracruz, and in 1599 to its present 
site. It was pillaged by privateers in 1653 and 1712, and this 
led to the erection of the celebrated fort of San Juan de Ulua, or 
Ulloa, on one of the reefs in front of the city. In 1838 it was 
captured by the French, on March 29, 1847 by an American 
army under Gen. Winneld Scott, who made Veracruz a base 
for his march upon the City of Mexico, and in 1861 by the 
French. Felix Diaz, nephew of President Diaz, captured Vera- 
cruz on Oct. 15, 1912, in a revolt against the Madero Govern- 
ment. Surprised by Federal troops, he was taken prisoner on 
Oct. 22, and interned in Ulua fort. 

Naval forces of the United States landed in Veracruz on 
April 21, 1914, seized the port and thereby brought about the 
resignation of President Huerta. They held the city until Nov. 

23, I9M. 

VERATRINE (Cevadine), the most important and the 
most toxic of a series of alkaloids (q.v.) obtained from sabadilla 
seeds (Merck, 1855). The name veratrine has been applied so 
variously that the synonym cevadine was introduced by Wright 
and Luff (1878) to distinguish the pure alkaloid (crystallized 
veratrine) which crystallizes from warm diluted alcohol in 
colourless rhombic prisms, melts at 205 C, and has a specific 
rotation [a]o4~ I2 '5 Cevadine, C M H tt> OoN, forms a series of 
well-crystallized salts and behaves as an ester, being hydrolyzed 
to tiglic acid and the basic alcohol cevine, CntLsOsN, which is 
much less toxic than the parent alkaloid. In physiological action 
veratrine has affinities with the even more poisonous alkaloid 
aconitine. 



74 



VERATRUM VERDI 



VERATRUM. The Greek physicians were acquainted with a 
poisonous herb which they called white hellebore, and which has 
been supposed to represent the Veratrum album of modern bot- 
anists. In modern times the name has been applied to a genus of 
herbaceous plants belonging to the family Liliaceae. Veratrum is a 
tall-growing herb, having a fibrous root-stock, an erect stem, with 
numerous broad, plicated leaves placed alternately, and terminal, 
much-branched clusters of greenish or purplish polygamous flow- 
ers. Each perfect flower consists of six regular petals, as many sta- 
mens, whose anthers open outwardly, and a three-celled superior 
ovary which ripens into a three-ceiled, many-seeded capsule. The 
genus comprises 10 species, natives of the temperate regions of 
the northern hemisphere, generally growing in pastures or woods. 
V. album and the North American species V. viride are commonly 
grown in gardens as ornamental perennials, but their poisonous 
qualities should be kept in mind, particularly as they bear a con- 
siderable resemblance in foliage to the harmless Gentiana lutea. 
Both contain the potent alkaloid veratrine. (See also HELLEBORE.) 

VERBENA. The genus Verbena (vervain) in botany gives 
its name to the family (Verbenaceae), of which it is a member. 
The species are herbaceous or somewhat shrubby, with opposite 
or whorled leaves, generally deeply cut. The sessile flowers are 
aggregated into close spikes. Each flower has a tubular, ribbed 
calyx, a more or less irregular tubular two-lipped corolla, with 
four (didynamous) stamens springing from the interior of the 
corolla-tube. The anthers are two-celled. The ovary is entire or 
four-lobed, and always four-celled, with a single ovule in each 
cell. The fruit consists of four hard nutlets within the persistent 
calyx. There are about 100 species, mostly natives of tropical 
and subtropical America, some 20 being native to the United 
States, a very few species occurring also in the Old World. The 
garden verbenas are mostly derivatives from a few South Ameri- 
can species, such as V. teucrioides, of southern Brazil, and V. 
chaniacdri folia from Argentina and southern Brazil. Various 
cultivated forms have been derived also from the North American 
V. canadensis. The range of colours extends from pure white to 
rose-coloured, carmine, violet and purple. Striped forms also 
are cultivated. The lemon-scented verbena of gardens, much 
valued for the fragrance of its leaves is now referred to the genus 
Lippia as L. citriodora; it differs from Verbena in having two, 
not. four, nutlets in the fruit. 

The garden verbenas are easily raised from seeds sown in 
heat in February or March, but choice varieties can only be kept 
true when raised from cuttings. These are best secured from old 
plants cut down in the autumn and started into growth in gentle 
heat and moisture the following spring. They root readily in a 
compost of sandy loam. (See VERBENACEAE; VERVAIN.) 

VERBENACEAE, a family of dicotyledonous plants, com- 
prising about 70 genera and some 750 species of herbs, shrubs 
and trees, nearly all tropical and subtropical. Vervain (q.v.) 
is British. Lippia and Cymbopogon yield verbena oil and several 
species, as teak (Tectona grandis), supply useful timber. Many 
are liancs. Some species bear thorns; others are xerophytic. 
Numerous species are cultivated for ornament, as the verbena 
(q.v.), chaste-tree (Vitex Agnus-castus), glory -bower (Cleroden- 
drwn), purple wreath (Petraea volubilis), golden dewdrop (Du- 
rantia re pens), bluebeard (Caryopteris incana) and French mul- 
berry (Callicarpa americana). 

" VERBOECKHOVEN, EUGENE JOSEPH (1798-1881), 
Belgian painter, was born at Warneton in West Flanders on June 
9, 1798, and received instruction in drawing and modelling from 
his father, the sculptor Barthelcmy Verboeckhoven. His paintings 
of sheep, of horses and of cattle in landscape, somewhat after the 
manner of Potter, brought him universal fame, and were eagerly 
sought for by collectors. Precise and careful finish is the chief 
quality of his art, which is entirely objective and lacking in inspira- 
tion. Verboeckhoven visited England in 1826, Germany in 1828, 
and France and Italy in 1841. He died in Brussels on Jan. 19, 
1 88 1. Examples of his art are to be found in nearly all the impor- 
tant galleries of Europe and the United States, notably in Brus- 
sels, Antwerp, Amsterdam, Hamburg, Berlin, Munich, New York, 
Boston and Washington. In addition to his painted work he exe- 



cuted some 50 etched plates of similar subjects. 

VERCELLI (anc. Vercellae), a provincial capital and archi- 
episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Novara, 13 m. 
S.W. of that town by rail. Pop. (1921): 29,009, town; 32,769, 
commune. It is situated 430 ft. above sea-level on the river 
Sesia, at its junction with the Canterana. Vercelli is a point at 
which railways diverge for Novara, Mortara, Casale Monferrato 
and Santhia (for Turin). The Piazza Cavour has a statue of 
Cavour. The cathedral library contains many ancient mss., 
especially the Codex Vercellensis (see VERCELLI BOOK). The 
church of S. Andrea is a Romanesque Gothic building of 1219-24, 
with lofty towers and an interior in the French Gothic style and 
a museum of Roman antiquities in the adjacent cloister. S. Paolo, 
S. Francesco and S. Cristoforo possess valuable examples of the 
work of Gaudenzio Ferrari (1471-1546) and of his follower 
Lanini. The castle of the Visconti is now a prison. Vercelli was 
the birth 'place of the painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, called 
Sodoma (1477-1549). Vercelli is one of the principal Italian 
centres of the exportation of cereals and especially of rice. 

Vercellae, originally the chief city of the Libici (a Ligurian 
tribe), was at the junction of Roman roads to Eporcdia, Novaria 
and Mediolanum, Laumellum (for Ticinum) and perhaps Hasta. 
Remains of the theatre and amphitheatre were seen in the i6th 
century, and ancient streets have been traced during drainage 
operations. In the neighbourhood (near Rot to on the Scsia) are 
the Raudii Campi where Hannibal won his first victory on Italian 
soil (218 B.C.), and where in 101 B.C. Marius and Catulus routed 
the Cimbri. From about 1228 till 1372 Vercelli was the seat of a 
university. (T. A.) 

VERCELLI BOOK (CODEX VERCELLENSIS), anO.E.ms. con- 
taining, besides homilies, Andreas, Fates of the Apostles, Address 
of the Soul to the Body, Falseness of Men, Dream of the Rood, 
Elene and a prose Life of Gut lilac f found in the cathedral library 
of Vercelli, by Blume in 1822, and described in his Her Italic-urn 
(Berlin and Stettin, 1824-36). The hand-writing dates from the 
beginning of the nth century. According to Wiilker the ms. 
probably belonged to the hospice for English pilgrims, founded 
by Cardinal Guala (d. 1227), a native of Vercelli and bishop of 
the city, in 1219, on his return from England, where he had been 
papal legate. The cardinal possessed a large library, which he 
left to the monastery; and the Vercelli codex may well have been 
included in it. 

Its contents were partially printed (by Thorpe from Blumc's trans- 
script) in Appendix B to Cooper's Report of Rymeri Foedera for 
1836; by Kemble, Poetry of the Codex Vercellensis (Aclfric Soc., 1843- 
56), 'and in a text based directly on the ms. by Wiilker in his edition 
of Grein's Bibliothck der AS. Poesie (Leipzig, 1894). Codex Vercellen- 
sis, by Wlilker (Leipzig, 1894), is a facsimile. 

For the description and history of the ms. see also R. Wulkcr, 
Grundriss der AS. Littcratnr (1885), pp. 237-42, and A. Napier in 
Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Altertum (1889, vol. 21, new series; old series, 
vol. 33, p. 66). See also CYNEWULF. 

VERCINGETORIX (ob. 45 B.C.), Gaulish chieftain, waged 
war with ability against Caesar in 52 B.C. For the history of the 
campaign see CAESAR. He fell into Caesar's hands at the capture 
of Alesia, was exhibited at Caesar's triumph in 45 and was then 
put to death. 

See Caesar, B.C. VII. 

VERDEN, a town in the Prussian province of Hanover, on 
the navigable Aller, 3 m. above its confluence with the Weser, 
22m. S.E. of Bremen by the railway to Hanover. Pop. (1925) 
10,048. Verden was the seat of a bishopric founded in the first 
quarter of the 9th century, or earlier, and secularized in 1648. 
The duchy of Verden was then ceded to Sweden, passed in 1719 
to Hanover and was, with Hanover, annexed by Prussia in 1866. 
The most noticeable edifice is the Gothic cathedral. Its 
industries embrace the manufacture of furniture, soap and ma- 
chinery, cigar-making, brewing and distilling. 

VERDI, GIUSEPPE FORTUNING FRANCESCO 

(1813-1901), Italian composer, was born on Oct. 10, 1813, at Le 
Roncole, near Busseto. His parents kept a little inn, combined 
with a kind of village shop. Verdi's musical education really 
began with his entrance into the house of business of Antonio 
Barezzi, a merchant of Busseto, who was a thorough musician. 



VERDIGRIS VERDUN 



75 



He studied under Provesi, maestro di cappella of the cathedral and 
conductor of the municipal orchestra, for which Verdi wrote many 
marches. and other instrumental pieces. His first symphony was 
written at the age of fifteen and performed in 1828. In 1832 
Verdi went to Milan to complete his studies. He was rejected 
by the authorities of the Conservatorio, but remained in Milan 
as a pupil of Vincenzo Lavigna, with whom he worked until 
the death of Provesi in 1833 recalled him to Busseto. A clerical 
intrigue prevented him from succeeding his old master as cathe- 
dral organist, but he was appointed conductor of the municipal 
orchestra, and organist of the church of San Bartolomeo. After 
Verdi's return to Milan, his first opera, Oberto, Conte di San 
Bonifacio, was produced in 1839. H* s next wor k, a comic opera, 
known variously as Un Giorno di Regno and // Finto Stanislao, 
and composed in peculiarly distressing circumstances (the young 
composer had just lost his wife and two children) was a complete 
failure, and Verdi, stung by disappointment, determined to 
write no more for the stage. But a year later Mcrelli, the im- 
presario of La Scala, persuaded him to write Nabucodonosor 
(1842), which placed him in the front rank of living Italian com- 
posers. / Lombardi (1843) and Ernani (1844) followed. With 
Ernani Verdi became the most popular composer in Europe, and 
the incessant demands made, upon him reacted upon his style. 

Macbeth (1847), Luisa Miller (1849) an ^ / Masnadieri, 
produced at Her Majesty's Theatre in 1847, did not enhance his 
reputation, but in Ri^olMo (1851), // Trovatore (1853) and 
La Traviata (1853) Verdi reached the culminating point of what 
may be called his second manner. Lcs Vepres Sicilicnnes (1855), 
written for the Paris Opera contains some fine music, but suffers 
from the composer's perhaps unconscious attempt to adopt the 
grandiose manner of French opera. Of the works written during 
the next ten years only Un Ballo in Maschera (Rome, Feb. 17, 
1859) has maintained a fitful hold upon public attention. La 
Forza del Destino (Nov. 10, 1862, St. Petersburg) and Don Carlos 
(March ir, 1867, Paris) are transitional works. 

At this point in his career Verdi was preparing to emancipate 
himself from his cnrly conventions, and was struggling towards 
a freer method of expression. In A'ida (Dec. 1871, Cairo) an 
opera upon an Egyptian subject, written in response to an invita- 
tion from Ismail Pasha, Verdi entered upon the third period of 
his career. In this work he broke definitely with the operatic 
tradition inherited from Donizetti, in favour of a method of 
utterance, which, though perhaps affected in some degree by the 
influence of Wagner, still retains the main characteristics of 
Italian music. In A'ida the treatment, of the orchestra shows a 
richness of resource which those who knew only Verdi's earlier 
works scarcely suspected him of possessing; while its wealth of 
melody, massive ensembles, picturesque local colour, and other 
attractive qualities have long since established the work among 
the most successful and popular operas ever written. In the 
Requiem, written in 1874 to commemorate the death of Man- 
zoni, Verdi applied his newly found system to sacred music. His 
Requiem was bitterly assailed by pedants and purists, partly on 
the ground of its defiance of obsolete rules of musical grammar 
and partly because of its theatrical treatment of sacred subjects, 
but by saner and more sympathetic critics, of whom Brahms was 
not the least enthusiastic, it has been accepted as a work of genius. 
In 1 88 1 a thoroughly revised version of Simon Boccanegra was 
successfully produced at Milan. 

In 1887 (Feb. 5) Otdlo was produced at Milan when Verdi 
was nearly seventy. The libretto, from Shakespeare's Othello, 
was the work of Boito. Otdlo recalls Aida in the general outlines 
of its structure, but voices and orchestra are treated with greater 
freedom than in the earlier work, and there arc no set arias. 
Otello is, musically and dramatically, an immense advance upon 
anything Verdi had previously written; and no less applies to 
Falstaff, which was produced at Milan on Feb. 9, 1893, when the 
composer was in his eightieth year, and which contains, besides 
the dramatic power and musical skill of Otello, a fund of delicate 
and fanciful humour which recalls the gayest mood of Mozart. 

Falstaff was Verdi's last work for the stage but in 1898 he pro- 
duced four beautiful sacred pieces, settings of the Ave Maria, 



Landi alia Virgine (words from Dante's Paradiso), the Stabat 
Mater and the Te Deum, the first two for voices alone, the last 
two for voices and orchestra. Of his other minor and non-dra- 
matic works, very few in number, may be mentioned a string 
quartet, composed in 1873, a hymn written for the opening of the 
International Exhibition of 1862, two sets of songs, a Paternoster 
for five-part chorus, and an Ave Maria for soprano solo, with 
string accompaniment. He died at Milan on Jan. 27, 1901. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.~C. Bellaiquc, Verdi: biografia critica (Milan) ; A. 
Bonaventura, G. Ve*di (Livorno) ; Brazaguolo e Betrazzi, La vita di G. 
Verdi (Milan) ; Roncaglia, G. Verdi (Naples) ; A. Weissmann, Verdi 
(Stuttgart, 1922). 

VERDIGRIS is a basic copper acetate of varying composi- 
tion. Dissolved in pine balsam, it formed one of the permanent 
greens of the Middle Ages. Owing to its behaviour as an oil 
colour (turning from dark green to black) and as a water colour 
(fading), it is replaced as a pigment by the more permanent 
chromium and cobalt greens and is now used mainly in anti- 
fouling compositions and wood preservatives. It is an irritant 
poison; the best antidote is white of egg and milk. See PAINTS, 
CHEMISTRY OF. 

VERDUN, a garrison town of north-eastern France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Meuse, on the main 
line of the Eastern railway between Paris and Mctz, 42 m. N.N.E. 
of Bar-le-Duc. Pop. (1926) 12,651. 

Verdun (Vcrodunum), an important town at the time of the 
Roman conquest, was made a part of Belgica Prima. The bishop- 
ric, held by St. Vanne (498-525), dates from the 3rd century. 
Verdun was destroyed during the period of the barbarian inva- 
sions, and recovered only at the end of the 5th century. Clovis 
seized the town in 502, and it afterwards belonged to the kingdom 
of Austrasia. In 843 the famous treaty was signed here by the 
sons of Louis the Pious. (See GERMANY: History.) In the icth 
century Verdun was conquered by Germany and put under the 
temporal authority of its bishops. Together with Toul and Metz, 
the town and its domain formed the territory of the Trois- 
vechcs. In the nth century the burghers began a struggle with 
their bishops, which ended in their obtaining certain rights in the 
1 2th century. In 1552 Henry II. of France took possession of the 
Trois-veches, which finally became French by the Treaty of 
Westphalia. In 1792, the citizens opened their gates to the Prus- 
sians. In 1870 the Prussians invested and bombarded it three 
times, till it capitulated in the beginning of November. (For the 
part played by Verdun in the World War of 1914-18 see WORLD 
WAR.) It was the greatest centre of resistance to the German in- 
vasion and advances of 1914-18, and was reduced to ruins as a 
result. (See VERDUN, BATTLES OF.) 

Verdun stands on the Meuse, here canalized, and was a great 
fortress. The chief quarter of the town lay on the slope of the 
left bank of the river and was dominated by the citadel which oc- 
cupied the site of the old abbey of St. Vanne founded in the loth 
century. The whole town was surrounded by a bastioned enceinte, 
pierced by four gates; that to the north-east, the Porte Chaussce, 
i5th-J7th century, with two crenelated towers, was little dam- 
aged in the war of 1914-18. The cathedral of Notre-Dame in 
process of restoration, stands on the site of two previous churches 
of the Romanesque period, the first of which was burnt down in 
1047. There are double transepts and, till the iSth century when 
the western apse was replaced by a facade, there was an apse at 
each extremity. To the south-west of the cathedral is -a fine i$th 
century cloister. The hotel-de-viUe (i7th century) has been 
restored. 

VERDUN, BATTLES OF. The invader of France coming 
from the cast is confronted by a series of ridges between the 
Moselle and Paris. The second of these ridges is formed by the 
historic escarpment 400 metres in height, above the Meuse and 
called the Heights of the Meuse. Here is placed the fortress of 
Verdun, one of the main barriers on the road to Paris. It was the 
primary objective of the German campaign of 1916, and the 
failure to secure it had a far-reaching influence on the course of 
the World War. . 

History of the Fortress After the war of 1870 Gen. Se>e de 



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BATTLE OF 

VERDUN 



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Riviere, who was entrusted with the task of organising the fron- 
tier defences, constructed a protective curtain stretching from 
Verdun on the north to Toul on the south. Fortresses guarded 
the routes between these two places. On this rampart of the 
Heights of the Meuse Verdun formed the northern muzzle, op- 
posite the fortified camp at Metz some 40 m. away. The fortress 
was planned so that the principal line of resistance faced north. 
Inside the two lines of forts was an old fortified enclosure of 
Vauban's time and a citadel dating back to Henry II. Galleries 
hewn out of the rocky foundation of the citadel, with workshops, 
bakeries, stores of food, water pumps and barracks formed a 
subterranean city safe against bombardment. 

Verdun in 1914. At the beginning of the War the fortress 
was an independent command. After the battle of the Frontiers 
the III. Army in retreat pivotted its right upon it as a break- 
water against the German tide of advance, which turned on Sept. 
13, 1914, by reason of the defeat of the German armies before 
Paris. (See MARNE, FIRST BATTLE OF.) The French lines were 
then established 10 km. north of Verdun and the sector was quiet 
for nearly 18 months. South-east of Verdun a stiff but indecisive 
fight took place in the spring of 1915 for the observatory of Les 
Eparges, and further south, in the area of St. Mihiel, by a sur- 
prise attack on Sept. 20, 1914 the Bavarians drove in a wedge 
and gained a foothold on the left bank of the Meuse. This wedge 
rcmafned in the French front, a potential menace, until the Ameri- 
can attack of Sept. 12, 1918. (See ST. MIHIEL, BATTLE OF.) West 
of Verdun the Crown Prince attempted to reach the Argonne 
in the direction of Varennes and forced the French lines back 
to the edge of Boureuilles and Vauquois. 

The autonomy of the great fortresses was cancelled on Aug. 
5, 1915 in order to make their garrisons and equipment available 
for the armies in the field. Dunkirk, Verdun and Belfort, the three 
great fortresses on the area of battle, became fortified regions 
linked up with the armies. The fortified region of Verdun 
(R.F.V.) was placed under Gen. Herr, who ranked as an army 
commander. The R.F.V. was on Feb. i, 1916 attached to the 
group of Armies of the Centre then commanded by Gen. 



Langlc de Gary. On Feb. 10, 1916 Gen. Herr had available seven 
divisions with one in reserve, and two territorial brigades. 

Germany Selects Verdun for Attack. About Christmas 
1915 Gen. von Falkenhayn submitted to the German Emperor a 
report setting forth the views of the German Staff as to the 
campaign of 1916. The report urged that France had reached 
the limits of exhaustion. Russia was powerless, Serbia destroyed, 
Italy deceived, though all were sustained by the will of Britain 
who was fighting against Germany as she had fought against 
Napoleon. Unfortunately it was not easy to reach Britain effec- 
tively either in her distant possessions by operations which could 
never be decisive, or on her own soil, or on the Continent. It 
was impossible to attack Britain directly. But she would be de- 
feated if the Allied armies on the Continent were broken. 

Where, then, was this to be done? Defeat of Italy would have 
little effect on England. Operations against Russia could not 
begin till April and then only towards the Ukraine where com- 
munications were lacking and a flank would be exposed to Ru- 
mania. The only possible line of attack was against France. 
It was not necessary to attack or break through in force. Behind, 
but close to, the French front were positions of such importance 
that they would have to be held to the last man. This reasoning 
led to the battle of Verdun. The German Command sought to 
force the French to accept battle under conditions of forced 
defence conditions which are fatal to the defender. 

The two objectives which realised Falkenhayn's conditions 
were Belfort and Verdun. The capture of Belfort involved the 
evacuation by the French of Upper Alsace. Verdun, however, 
was important for three reasons. From Verdun the French could 
launch an attack, similar to that contemplated by the Germans, 
upon the German communications. "Verdun," said Falkenhayn's 
report, "is the strongest starting point for any attempt by the 
enemy to, threaten the whole German front in France and Bel- 
gium with relatively small forces." The French lines were but 
12 m. from the German communications. Throughout the War 
German headquarters dreaded an Allied attack starting from 
Verdun. 



VERDtJN 



77 



An attack on Verdun had been foreseen by some on the French 
side. Col. Driant, Deputy for Nancy, who commanded a group 
of chasseurs in the fortified region of Verdun, wrote to the Min- 
ister for War that the decisive blow would be struck on the line 
Verdun-Nancy. The defensive organization of Verdun was in- 
complete. Gen. Herr, by the instructions of Aug. 9, 1915, had to 
link up the III. Army in Argonne with the I. Army in the Woevre. 
That involved the revision of the defensive system of the fortress 
from a circular scheme to one of a series of parallel and succes- 
sive lines. But the Commander-in-Chief, disturbed by the thrust 
of the Germans in the Argonne, also ordered Gen. Herr to prepare 
a defensive position on the left bank in case Verdun had to be 
abandoned. Gen. Herr could not manage this double programme 
with his resources and of four positions suggested on the right 
bank, only the first existed at the end of Jan. 1916. 

On Dec. 3 Col. Driant was, in Paris and communicated his 
views to his colleagues on the Commission of the Army. Gen. 
Pedoya, President of the Commission, passed the warning to 
Gen. Gallieni, the Minister for War, who wrote on Dec. 16 to 
Marshal Joffre inquiring whether all along the front a defensive 
system of at least two lines had been planned and carried out with 
such constructional features as were necessary in support. On the 
i8th Joffre replied somewhat confusedly and stated that the 
improvement of the double line system already existing along the 
whole front had been ordered on Oct. 22, that the organization of 
the fortified areas in the rear of the armies had also been ordered, 
and that this combination of defensive measures was in process 
of completion and at a number of points had been completed. 

Gallieni replied on the 2 2nd that the Government hoped that 
the works still to be completed would be carried out with all 
speed and care and that the Government had full confidence in 
the Commander-in-Chief. In order to conceal its plans about 
Verdun the German Supreme Command arranged to carry out 
preliminary measures at several points on the front. The French 
Staff was for long in doubt whether the attack would come in 
Artois or in Champagne. But from Jan. 1916 French airmen 
reported enemy preparations on the Verdun front. On Jan. 16 
Gen. Herr collected all this information in a formal report and 
asked for a division to reinforce him. This was sent to him. 

I. THE GERMAN OFFENSIVE 

On Feb. 8, 1916 it was discovered that the Germans had brought 
a mass of manoeuvre to the neighbourhood of Verdun. A deserter 
disclosed the presence of two corps. On the nth an intelligence 
officer reported a concentration of troops on the east bank of 
the Meuse. The French Command at once took precautions. On 
Feb. 13 three divisions of the VII. Corps (i4th, 37th and 48th) 
were moved to Souilly, a march south of Verdun, followed on the 
1 6th by two divisions of the XX. Corps. On the 2Oth the Com- 
mander-in-Chief , who had inspected this front on the igth, ordered 
the I. Army to place the i6th Div. at Gen. Herr's disposition, 
thus completing the XX. Corps. 

French Supply Problems. Transport questions arose. Ordi- 
narily two standard gauge railways serve Verdun. The southern 
line had been cut by the enemy. The western line would be, and 
was, cut as soon as operations started. A departmental railway, 
the Meusien line, and a road from Bar-le-Duc still remained. To 
maintain supplies for an engagement in which 15 or 20 divisions 
are engaged, the daily requirements are 2,000 tons of munitions, 
100 tons of supplies and material for each division, say 2,000 
tons, and from 15,000 to 20,000 men. The Meusien Railway at 
best carried 800 tons daily. On the I9th Capt. Doumenc, com- 
manding the M.T. service, undertook to carry 2,000 tons and 
12,000 men daily in lorries provided that the M.T. service had 
sole control over the roads. Motor traffic was organized on the 
aoth on railway lines. From the 29th, 3,000, later 3,500, lorries 
passed in an endless stream along this little road only seven yards 
wide; 6,000 vehicles passed a given point in 24 hours, an 
average frequency of one vehicle every 14 seconds. At times 
the traffic rose to one vehicle every five seconds. In the lan- 
guage of the War this road was known as the "Sacred Way." 

German Disposition*. Verdun was confronted by the Ger- 



man V. Army part of the command of the Crown Prince, who 
directed the offensive. The Germans had 26 divisions available 
on the Western Front. A third of these were kept as a general 
reserve; 17 to 18 divisions were therefore available for the Ver- 
dun attack. The German Command allotted nine divisions to the 
first attack, which started from the east bank. East of the Meuse 
was the VII. Res. Corps (one division in line, one in support) ; 
then the XVIII. Corps and the III. Corps in echelon of divisions. 
Farther east the XV. Corps was held in the plain of the Woevre, 
ready on the breach of the French front to hurl itself on the 
French flank. The U3th Div., completing the assault troops, was 
in support. This mass of manoeuvre had been embodied in the 
Crown Prince's Army command and to make way for it, room 
was made between the V. Res. Corps and the VI. Res. Corps. 
The duty of the latter, on the west bank of the Meuse, was to 
attack the French when broken on the east bank and to bar their 
retreat. Thus it was engaged only on March 6. 

On Feb. 21, 1916, at 7.15 A.M. the Germans commenced bom- 
bardment on a front of ,25 m. from the Bois d'Avocourt to fitain. 
It was of unheard of intensity. Heavy shell were used in vast 
quantities. The woods were full of guns which fired ceaselessly 
with measured regularity. Observers from the air ceased to mark 
batteries on the map. The woods to them were masses of clouds 
pierced by flashes of lightning. Soon the French squadrons were 
chased from the sky. 

The Attack Opens. About 4.15 P.M. the first infantry attack 
was launched. Commandant Vouvard remarks that "It is prob- 
able that there were strong reconnoitring parties to test the 
efficacy of the artillery preparations and to seize trenches which 
had been destroyed. Beyond doubt that first day the Germans 
sought to put their infantry in an advantageous position and to 
get into line for the battle of the next day, by making it pass 
even the unequal intervals separating the lines." As a fact, the 
Germans, to effect a surprise, had not dug parallels from which 
to issue and moved from their lines at distances from the French 
lines which varied from 600 to 1,100 metres. Gimlet describes 
their new tactics thus: "Each troop had a specific task, with an 
objective of limited breadth and depth. Before taking hold of 
it, a wave of scouts was sent forward to test the destruction by 
the artillery fire. If the destruction were not thorough the scouts 
retired and further artillery preparation was organised. The at- 
tack took place in waves about 80 metres apart. First came a 
line of pioneers and men with bombs. Then came the main body 
in single file. Then followed a reserve section carrying up ammu- 
nition, tools, sandbags, and filling up gaps in the first wave. A 
second line followed in the same order, passing through the first 
line, supporting it if checked and renewing the assault on their 
own initiative. The attack should now proceed by encircling move- 
ments, utilising cover and passing along ravines. Thus the centres 
of resistance would fall one by one. Shell fire would support the 
advance continually. On no account should troops attempt to 
overcome resistance which has not been broken by artillery fire. 
Units when held up must wait for fresh artillery action." 

Early German Successes. The French line rested on the 
village of Brabant, then on the Bois de Consenvoye, Bois d'Hau- 
mont, Bois de Caures, Bois de Ville and on Herbebois. A little 
in the rear the Bois de La Wavrille (southeast of the Bois de 
Ville) and the village of Beaumont had been strengthened with 
redoubts. On the extreme right the line rested on the village of 
Ornes. Before the German attack, what remained of the French 
trenches was filled with defenders. At Herbebois the Germans 
captured the first lines but were stopped in front of the support- 
ing trenches. The Bois de Caures was lost but its northern part 
was retaken during the night. The loss of the Bois d'Haumont 
was a serious matter. A French counter-attack on the 22nd at 
6 A.M. failed. The line had been pierced. 

The Germans made good use, on the 22nd, of the advantage 
gained at the Bois d'Haumont. The village of Haumont was de- 
stroyed by shell fire and at 5.00 P.M. was attacked by three col- 
umns. The main redoubt, built of concrete, collapsed and buried 
80 men. The remaining defenders were hunted from the cellars 
by bombs and liquid fire but rallied at Samogneux. Bois de Ville 



VERDUN 



was lost. Bois de Caures was then enveloped on the right and left 
and Col. Driant decided to withdraw his chasseurs to Beaumont. 
He was the last to leave the wood and was then killed. On the 
23rd the village of Samogneux was overwhelmed by shells and 
set on tire but the garrison held on till night fell. On the extreme 
left the village of Brabant outflanked by the German advance 
became untenable and was evacuated. On the right Wavrille and 
Herbebois were lost and the front passed along the northern 
edges of Bois des Fosses and La Chaume. 

In three days the Germans had captured the first of the French 
positions. Each side was reinforced on the 24th. A fresh regi- 
ment from the V. Res. Corps was sent to each of the German 
corps. The corps on the right which, having gained the greatest 
success, thereby became as it were a pivotal wing, also received 
a battalion of Jagers. On the French side the two divisions in 
line from the 2ist were relieved, on the left by a division of the 
VII. Corps, on the right by two brigades from the XX. Corps. 
These troops, thrown at night into doubtful positions in the open 
country, were immediately destroyed. The 24th was the most 
critical day of the whole battle. On their right, where the Ger- 
mans sought to move out from Samogneux, they were nailed 
down by the French artillery on the left bank. But they started 
a fresh attack immediately eastwards and captured all the line 
Beaumont, Bois des Fosses, Bois des Caurieres. Further they 
penetrated towards Douaumont along the ravine of the Vauchc. 

The second French position was lost in on day. In the eve- 
ning the situation was so grave that Gen, Langle de Cary, com- 
manding the Centre group of Armies, ordered the II. Corps, 
then closely engaged in the Woevre, to fall back on the Heights 
of the Meuse. This movement was carried out during the night. 
That same evening (24th) Gen. Joffre handed over the opera- 
tions before Verdun to a fresh army, the II., commanded by Gen. 
Petain, who after the Battle of Champagne had been resting at 
Noailles. The X. Army, on relief by the British Army, was 
placed in the general reserve. 

New French Dispositions. The initial task of the army 
under instructions of Feb. 25 at 9.00 A.M. was to concentrate 
the troops of the Verdun area on the west bank and to prevent 
the Germans from crossing the Meuse. But on the 24th at mid- 
night Gen. Castelnau set out for Verdun armed with full powers 
from the commander-in-chief. He halted at Avize, headquarters 
of Gen. Langle de Cary, whence at 5.45 A.M. on the 25th he 
telephoned to Gen. Herr to order him to hold at all costs the 
line on the east bank facing north between the Meuse and Douau- 
mont and, facing east, on the Heights of the Meuse. Gen. 
Petain went on the morning of the 25th to Chantilly and thence 
to take charge of the battle, from the 25th at midnight. 

During the 25th, on the French left, the Germans advanced 
1,500 metres south of Samogneux up to the mill of Cotelettes. 
Further ca$t they captured Beaonvaux. A party of Branden- 
burgers crept up to the fort of Douaumont, found it empty and 
took possession of it Gen. do Bonneval, commanding the 37th 
Div. on the French left on the Talon and the Poivre Hills was 
afraid of being surrounded and ordered retreat on the Belleville 
Hills. This order was only partially carried out The Zouaves 
held their position on the west of the Poivre. On the other hand 
while the 37th Div, retreated, the 39th Div. of the XX. Corps, 
going up into the line, passed it and covered the line Bras- 
Haudiomont. 

On the 26th Gen. Petain, at his headquarters at Souilly, re- 
organized the battle plan. He drew a sharp line Bras-Douau- 
raont which he entrusted to the XX. Corps. He divided the 
area into four sections: (i) under Duchesne in the Woevre, 
(2) under Balfourier from the Woevre to Douaumont, (3) under 
Guillaurnat astride the Meuse, and (4) under Bazelaire on the 
left bank. The artillery as it arrived was divided between these 
four commands. On Feb. ai it consisted of 388 field guns and 
244 heavy guns. In a few weeks there were 1,100 field guns, 225 
guns of calibres from So to 105 mm. and 500 heavy guns. The 
French regained the mastery of the air. The 59th Div. was set 
to build two defensive positions chosen on the 27th and redoubled 
on March 2 by two intermediate lines. Three thousand territorials 



repaired and widened the Sacred Way. 

Reinforcements arrived. The I. Corps was at Souilly on the 
25th and the XIII. Corps at Revigny. The XXI. Corps followed 
it two days later. The XIV. Corps detrained on the 2Oth and 
the III. Corps on the 29th. Between the 26th and the 29th the 
Germans hurled violent attacks against Douaumont. On the 
east they reached the position of Hardauraont and attacked Bois 
de la Caillette. They stopped, exhausted, on the 29th. 

The Second Phase. The Germans failed to gain an immediate 
decision at Verdun. They soon realised that the British Army 
was about to attack them on the Sornme. For four months they 
kept the battle of Verdun going with furious tenacity in order 
to disorganize the attack prepared by the Allies in Picardy. For 
the French Staff the problem was to hold on at Verdun without 
ceasing to prepare for the Somme. On March 6, as Gen. PStain 
had expected and feared from the beginning, the Germans ex- 
tended the action to the west bank. The attack was made by two 
corps, the VI, Res. and the X. Res., the latter taken from the 
General Reserve. On the 6th they captured the Hill de 1'Oie 
and on the loth Bois de Cumieres. They were thus enabled to 
attack one of the pillars of the main line of defence, the Mort 
Homme. On the i4th they captured the lower crest of that 
double hill. The higher crest, Peak '295, could be held by neither 
side and was No Man's Land. 

The second pillar of the French line, further to the west, and 
known as Hill 304, was attacked on March 20 by the nth Bava- 
rian Div. which took the Bois d'Avocourt but could not issue 
thence. 

The Germans brought up fresh troops and the bnttl* began 
again on March 28 on the west bank. It ended on April 8 by the 
French losing all that remained of their former front line. The 
new front passed thereafter by the redoubt at Avocourt, the first 
slopes of Hill 304, the southern reverse of the Mort Homme and 
the north of Cumieres. On the right bank on March 31 the 
Germans captured the village of Vaux, which had held out till 
then, and on April 2 took the lake behind the village. Then on 
April 9 the Crown Prince attacked on both banks on a scale not 
known since the first attacks in February. The results were in- 
significant. On the morrow Gen. Petain wrote in his orders of the 
day "the Qth April was a glorious day for our Armies . . . 
Courage. Nous les anrons." 

On April 20 the French counter-attacked on the east bank in 
order to clear the Mort Homme. But on May 3 the Germans 
renewed the offensive by an attack on Hill 304. On the 8th they 
captured Bois Camard, west of the Hill. On the I3th and i6th 
they attempted without success to advance from this position. 
They then organized a new attack on the i8th with a fresh corps, 
the XVIII. Res. Corps and two divisions of the XVIII. and added 
on the 22nd the 2 2nd. Res. Division. This violent battle ended 
on the 24th with the capture of Cumieres. As the Germans had no 
reserves available the tired units could not be relieved and on the 
26th they lost a portion of the trenches they had won. 

There had been changes in the command. On April 2 the east 
bank sector had been placed under the orders of Gen. Nivelle, 
the west bank under Gen. Berthelot. At the end of April Petain 
was called to command the Armies of the Centre and handed the 
II. Army over to Nivelle. The Germans, too, from March had 
divided the field of battle into two sections, Gen. von Mudra 
commanding on the right bank, Gen. von Gallwitz on the left 
bank. In April Mudra was replaced by Lochow. In July Francois 
relieved Gallwitz. The Allies* preparations on the Somme took 
definite shape. Before all things the Germans had to prevent the 
French from taking part in these operations. For this a new 
success in the Meuse was necessary. 

The main French line of defence on the east bank was the C6te 
de Froide Terre Fleury Fort de Souville. On the right this 
position was covered by the fort of Vaux, on the left by the crest 
of Thiaumont. It was first necessary to capture Vaux and Thiau* 
mont On June r these two positions were attacked. Vaux was 
taken on the 9tb. Thiaumont farm, taken by the Germans on the 
ist, was recaptured by the French on the and, who lost it again 
on the pth. German attacks on the Thiaumont outworks behind 



VERE VEREINIGTE GLANZSTOFF-FABRIKEN A.G. 



79 



the farm failed completely. They succeeded in establishing them- 
selves on the west and opposite side in the ravine of La-Dame. 
At the same time battle was resumed on the west bank. Between 
May 29 and 31 the Germans took Cumieres but tried vainly to 
move out of Bois Camard against Hill 304. 

Time pressed more and more. On June 4 Gen. Brusilov started 
a wide offensive in VoJhynia. In these conditions the Germans 
delivered a large scale attack on the line Froide Terre-Souville on 
June 21, On the west the Bavarian Corps took the fortified post 
of Thiaumont but was checked in front of the fort at Froide 
Terre. In the centre the Alpine Corps captured Fleury. On the 
west the io3rd Div. took the first line of trenches in front of 
Souville but failed before the second line. So serious was the 
situation for the French that on June 23 Petain warned Gen. 
Joffre and suggested moving to the west bank if the enemy 
reached the counterscarps. Joffre's answer on the 2 7th was a per- 
emptory order to hold on to the east bank. 

Meanwhile the preliminaries of the great Franco-British offen- 
sive on the Sommc started on June 24 and the actual battle began 
on July i. On July n the Germans made yet another attack on 
Verdun from Vaux to Souville. It crumpled up on the slopes 
of Souville, the principal objective. On Aug. 3 the French retook 
Thiaumont and Fleury on Aug. 4. The Germans regained Thiau- 
mont on the 8th. Throughout the whole month there was local 
fighting. The last German attack on Sept. 3 also failed. The battle 
of Verdun, properly called, had come to an end. From Feb. 21 to 
June 15 the Army at Verdun had seen 66 divisions on its front. 
Up to July i the Germans had used up 43^ divisions. It is true 
that they maintained them on the ground by depots situated a 
march behind the front and left them fighting till worn out. The 
French artillery fired 10,300,000 rounds with the field artillery, 
1,200,000 rounds of medium and 600,000 rounds of large calibre. 

II. THE FRENCH COUNTER-OFFENSIVE 

On Sept. 13 M. Poincare handed to Verdun the cross of the 
Legion of Honour and Allied decorations. The ceremony took 
place in the casemates of the citadel. From that moment began 
a new phase, that of the liberation of Verdun. To a large extent 
the glory of this feat belongs to Gen. Mangin. Called from the 
battlefield of Verdun on June 22 he was placed in command of 
Group D, which then stretched from the Meuse to Fleury and 
was progressively enlarged right up to the cliffs of the Meuse. 
On Sept. 1 7 in a report to Nivelle he set forth reasons for aban- 
doning operations in detail and for seeking to free Verdun by a 
plan on broad lines. 

The first scheme, approved by Nivelle on Sept. 21, dealt only 
with an advance up to 300 metres north of the farm of Thiau- 
mont. The scheme of the 24th went further and included the fort 
of Douaumont as far as possible. A third scheme, that of Oct. 9, 
Covered the capture of the fort of Douaumont and perhaps that 
of the fort of Vaux. A formidable artillery preparation with 650 
guns started on Oct. 21. The assault was delivered on Oct. 24 at 
11.40 A.M. by three divisions, the 38th on the left, I33rd in the 
centre, and 74th on the right. The first waves marched under a 
creeping barrage which progressed according to a set time-table, 
so that the infantry were as it seemed fastened to a wall of steel. 
By night Douaumont was taken with 6,000 prisoners. The divi- 
sion on the right had not reached the fort of Vaux which was 
evacuated by the Germans on Nov. 2, the day before the date 
fixed for attack by the 63rd Division. 

In order to develop this success to the full Gen. Mangin was 
obliged to restore his ammunition reserves by continued economy. 
He intended to attack again on Dec. 5 over a front of ro m. in 
order to retake at one blow the whole of the former second French 
line which had been lost on Feb. 24. Artillery preparation started 
on Nov. 29 with 750 guns. Bad weather intervened. The Ger- 
mans had been warned and the value of a surprise was lost. In 
order to upset the plans of the French the Germans made a vio- 
lent attack on Dec. 6 and captured Hill 304. Fine weather re 
turned on the gth and Nivelle recommenced the artillery 
preparation. On the i$th at ro A.M. the attack was made. The 
German barraee started two minutes too late. The attack had 



started, four divisions being in line. By night they had retaken 
the whole of Poivre HilL The line ran in front of Hill 378, stopped 
20 metres south of the farm at Chambrettes, then turned south 
across Bois d'Hardaumont and la Vauche up to the outwork at 
Bezonvaux. The French captured 115 guns and 9,000 prisoners. 
This, known as the battle of Louvemont, was completed on the 
1 8th by the recapture of Chambrettes. The spring passed in 
organising the area conquered and preparing for the final battle. 

The Final Battle. In the summer of 1917 Petain formulated 
plans for a series of limited offensives for the purposes of raising 
the spirit of the army and decided on an operation on the northern 
front of Verdun on both banks having as objectives Mort Homme 
on the left and Samogneux and Beaumont on the right. The 
attack planned by Petain was delivered on Aug. 20 after six days* 
heavy artillery preparation. The XIII. and XVI. Army Corps 
attacked on the left bank, the XV. and XXII. on the right bank, 
1 6 divisions in all being engaged. Mort Homme was captured on 
the 2oth, Hill 304 on the 24th. On the right bank Hill 344 was 
taken on the 20th, Samogneux on the 2ist. More than 10,000 
prisoners were taken. Beaumont alone remained in German hands. 
This was the final battle of Verdun. 

Dugard, La Vicioire de Verdun, Feb. i9i6~Nov. 1917, Paris 1918. 
Falkenhayn, General Headqwrters, 1914-1916,. London, 1919. Thorn- 
asson, Lea PrtUminoires de Verdun> Paris, 1921. Moser, Kurzer strate- 
tfscher Vberblick tiber den WeUkricK, Berlin, 1921. Corda, La Guerre 
Mondiale, Paris, 1922. Palat, La Rut* sur Verdun, Aug. iQij-June 
1916, Paris, 1925. Moser, Ernsthafte Ptaudereim \ibtr den Wcltkrieg, 
Stuttgart, 1925. Reichsarchiv, Die Tragvdic von Verdun rpiti, Olden- 
burp, 1926. Moser, Das milHarisch und potitisch Wichligste vom 
WeltkrieKe, Stuttgart, ioa6. Grasset, Verdun, Paris, 1927. See also 
WORLD WAR: Bibliography. 

VERE, SIR FRANCIS (1560-1609), English soldier, 
nephew of the i6th earl of Oxford, served under Leicester in the 
Low Countries from 1585, distinguishing himself at Sluys; he was 
given the chief command of the English troops there from 1589, 
and by a series of brilliant campaigns secured the independence 
of the country. He served in the Cadiz expedition of 1596, ne- 
gotiated a treaty between England and Holland, and was ap- 
pointed governor of Brill in 1598. On July 2, 1600, he and 
Prince Maurice completely defeated the Spaniards under the 
archduke Albert at Nieuwport, and defended Ostend successfully 
from July 1601 to March 1602. Vere retired from the Dutch 
service in 1604 and died in 1609. His Commentaries oj the 
Divers Pieces of Service wherein he had Command (1657), was 
reprinted in Arber's English Garner (1883). 

His younger brother, SIR HORACE VERE, BARON VERE OF TIL- 
BURY (1565-1635), served under his brother in Holland from 
1590 to 1594, took part in the Cadbs expedition and held a com- 
mand at Nieuwport and Ostend On his brother's retirement be 
assumed command of the English troops until 1607. From 1609 
to 1616 he was governor of Brill, and in 1610 was present at the 
siege of Julich. He commanded the futile expedition to the 
Rhine and the Main in aid of the elector palatine (1620); aiter 
the fall of Mannheim in 1622 he returned to England. After a 
brilliant attempt to relieve Breda (1624), which was foiled by 
Spinola, Vere was made Baron Vere of Tilbury. He retired from 
active service soon after serving at the sieges of Bois-le-duc and 
Maestricht, and died in 1635. 

&e Ckments C. Markham, The Fighting Veres 



VEREINIGTE GLANZSTOFF-FABRIKEN A.G., a 

German Company, was established at Elberfeld in the year 1899. 
The object of the Company is activity in the chemical and textile 
industry territory, and it deals chiefly with the manufacture of 
artificial silk. The Company used, at the beginning, for the 
manufacture of its artificial silk the copper-oxide-ammonia proc- 
ess. In later times, however, it has transferred the greater part 
of the work to the viscose process. The Company owns valuable 
patents concerning the manufacture of artificial silk, and its 
processes also find application in numerous similar undertakings 
which the Company has established in various countries, and in 
which it has obtained an influence by the purchase of blocks of 
shares. The Company's capital, which amounted at foundation to 
M.2.OOO.OOO. has now increased to M.76.<oo.ooo. of which 



8o 



VEREINIGTE INDUSTRIE A.G . VERGNIAUD 



M. 75,000,000 represent ordinary shares and M. 1,500,000, 6% 
preference shares. The Company's artificial silk production, 
which has developed in the last 30 years from small beginnings, 
amounts in the German works belonging to the Company, employ- 
ing 15,000 workers, to about 9,000,000 kilos yearly. (F. BL.) 

VEREINIGTE INDUSTRIE-UNTERNEHMUNGEN 
AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (United Industrial Corporation), 
or VIAG as it is commonly known, was formed in 1923 and is the 
holding company for various enterprises, controlled by the German 
Government. The business of this group includes the wholesale 
production of electric power, the manufacture of aluminium, 
nitrates, steel and miscellaneous products, the mining of lignite 
coal and banking. 

The hydro-electric plants of the Viag system have an aggregate 
installed capacity of over 100,000 kw. The steam power plants 
of the system have an aggregate installed capacity of nearly 800,- 
ooo kw. During 1928 the combined output of the power plants 
controlled by Viag was in excess of 3,000,000,000 kw. 

Through its subsidiaries engaged in the production of aluminium 
Viag is the dominant factor in the German aluminium industry. 
The aggregate production by these subsidiaries now exceeds 
25,000 tons per annum. One of the Viag subsidiaries ranks among 
the leading companies in the German nitrate industry with an 
aggregate annual production of approximately 40,000 tons. Other 
subsidiaries of the Viag, domiciled in various parts of Germany, 
are engaged in the production of smelting and foundry products, 
motor-cycles, agricultural machinery, typewriters, textile ma- 
chines, magnet armatures and precision-tools. 

The banking subsidiary, Reichs-Kredit-Gesellschaft A.G., is 
an important factor in the economic life of Germany. It has 
capital, reserves and surplus of over 3,000,000. 

In addition to the subsidiaries which it controls through the 
ownership of all or a majority of their capital stocks, Viag has 
large interests in other German enterprises. (G. KR.) 

VERESHCHAGIN, VASSILI VASSILIEVICH (1842- 
1904), Russian artist and traveller, was born at Tcherepovets, in 
the government of Novgorod, on Oct. 26, 1842. His father was a 
Russian landowner of noble birth, and from his mother he inher- 
ited Tatar blood. When he was eight years old he was sent to 
Tsarskoe Selo to enter the Alexander cadet corps, and three years 
later he entered the naval school at St. Petersburg, making his first 
voyage in 1858. He graduated first in the list from the naval 
school, but left the service immediately to begin the study of 
drawing in earnest. He studied at St. Petersburg and then at Paris 
under Geromc. In the Salon of 1866 he exhibited a drawing of 
"Doukhobors chanting their Psalms/' and in the next year he ac- 
companied General Kauffmann's expedition to Turkestan, his mili- 
tary service at the siege of Samarkand procuring for him the cross 
of St. George. He was an indefatigable traveller in Turkestan in 
1869, the Himalayas, India and Tibet in 1873, and again in India 
in 1884. After a period of hard work in Paris and Munich he ex- 
hibited some of his Turkestan pictures in St. Petersburg in 1874, 
among them two which were suppressed for the time on the repre- 
sentations of Russian soldiers % 'The Apotheosis of War," a pyra- 
mid of skulls dedicated "to all conquerors, past, present and to 
come," now in the Tretiakov Gallery, Moscow, and "Left Behind/' 
the picture of a dying soldier deserted by his fellows. Veresh- 
chagin was with the Russian army during the Turkish campaign of 
1877; he was present at the crossing of the Shipka Pass and at the 
siege, of Plevna, where his brother was killed; and he was dan- 
gerously wounded during the preparations for the crossing of the 
Danube near Rustchuk. At the conclusion of the war he acted 
as secretary to General Skobelev at San Stefano. 

After the war Vereshchagin settled at Munich, where he pro- 
duced his war pictures, which had a didactic aim, so rapidly that he 
was freely accused of employing assistants. He aroused much con- 
troversy by his series of three pictures of a Roman execution (the 
Crucifixion), of sepoys blown from the guns in India, and of the 
execution of Nihilists in St. Petersburg. A journey in Syria and 
Palestine in 1884 furnished him with an equally discussed set of 
subjects from the New Testament. The "1812" series on Na- 
poleon's Russian campaign, on which he also wrote a book, seem 



to have been inspired by Tolstoi's War and Peace, and were 
painted in 1893 at Moscow, where the artist eventually settled. 
Vereshchagin was in the Far East during the Chino-Japanese War, 
with the American troops in the Philippines, and with the Russian 
troops in Manchuria. He perished in the sinking of the flagship, 
"Petropavlovsk," on the i3th of April, 1904. 

VERGA, GIOVANNI (1840-1922), Italian novelist, was 
born at Catania, Sicily. In 1865 he published Storia di una pec- 
catrice and / Carbonari della montagna, but his literary reputation 
was established by his Eva and Storia di una capinera (1869). 
Other novels followed, Malavoglia (1881) and Maestro Don Gesu- 
aldo (1889 Eng. trans. 1923). His finest work, however, is seen 
in his short stories and sketches of Sicilian peasantry, Medda 
(1874) and Vita del campi (1880); and his Cavalleria Rusticana 
(Eng. trans, of this and other stories 1928) acquired new popu- 
larity from its dramatization and from Mascagni's opera on this 
subject. Verga and Fogazzaro between them may be said to have 
faithfully chronicled the inner and popular life of southern and 
northern Italy. I). H. Lawrence translated many of Verga's 
works into English. Verga died in Rome on Jan. 27, 1922. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Laura Gropallo, Autori italiani d'oggi Giovanni 
Verga, etc. (1903) ; L. Russo, Giovanni Verga (1920) ; C. A. Levi, 
Autori drammatici italiani, G. Verga, etc. (1922) ; N. Scalia, Giovanni 
Verga (1922). 

VERGENNES, CHARLES GRAVIER, COMTE DE 
(1717-1787), French statesman, was born at Dijon on Dec. 20, 
1717. He entered the diplomatic service under his uncle M. de 
Chavigny, at Lisbon. He became ambassador at Constantinople 
and then in Sweden, where he assisted Gustavus III. in the 
revolution of 1772. 

With the accession of Louis XVI. Vergennes became foreign 
minister. His general policy was one of friendly relations with 
Austria, combined wilh the limitation of Joseph II. \s ambitious 
designs; the protection of Turkey; and opposition at all points to 
England. His hatred of England led to his support of the Ameri- 
can States in the War of Independence. Vergennes sought to 
secure the armed neutrality of the Northern Powers eventually 
carried out by Catherine II.; he ceded to the demands of Beau- 
marchais that France should secretly provide the Americans with 
arms and volunteers. In 1777 he informed the American com- 
missioners that France was willing to form an offensive and de- 
fensive alliance with the new Republic. In 1781 he became chief 
of the council of finance. Vergennes died on Feb. 13, 1787. 

See P. Fauchcllc, La Diplomatic fran^aise et la Ligue des neulres 
de 1780 (1776-83) (1893); John Jay, The, Peace Negotiations of 
1782-83 as illustrated by the Confidential Papers of Shelburne and 
Vergennes (New York, 1888) ; L. Bonneville de Marsangy, Le 
Chevalier de Vergennes, son ambassade a Constantinople (1894) ; G. 
Grosjean, La politique rhenanc de Vergennes (1925). 

VERGNIAUD, PIERRE VICTURNIEN (1753-1793), 
French orator and revolutionist, was born on May 31, 1753 at 
Limoges. The son of a merchant of that town, he attracted 
the notice of Turgot, who was then intendant of Limousin. Turgot 
secured his admission to the college of Plessis in Paris, where he 
received a solid classical education. On leaving college he became 

secretary to Duputy, president of the parlement of Bordeaux. 
Vergniaud was thereafter called to the bar (1782). In 1789 
Vergniaud was elected a member of the general council of 
the department of the Gironde. He was chosen a representative 
of the Gironde to the National Legislative Assembly in August 
1791. 

The extremists used the passions which his oratory awakened 
for objects he did not foresee. This happened even with his first 
Assembly speech, on the tmigrfo. His proposal was mainly that 
a treble annual contribution should be levied on their property; 
but the Assembly confiscated their goods and decreed their deaths. 
Step by step he was led on to palliate violence and crime, to the 
excesses of which his eyes were only opened by the massacres of 
September, and which ultimately overwhelmed the party of 
Girondists which he led. It has always been held against him 
that on March 19, 1792, when the perpetrators of the massacre 
of Avignon had been introduced to the Assembly by Collot 
d'Herbois, Vergniaud spoke indulgently of their deeds and lent 



VERHAEREN VERLAINE 



81 



the authority of his voice to their amnesty. In language some- 
times turgid, but nearly always of pure and powerful eloquen.ce, 
he worked at the theme of the tmigres, as it developed into that 
of the counter-revolution; and the project of an address to the 
French people which he presented to the Assembly on Dec. 27, 
1791, shook the heart of France; and, especially by his call to 
arms on Jan. 18, he shaped the policy which culminated in the 
declaration of war against the king of Bohemia and Hungary on 
April 20. This policy in foreign affairs, which he pursued through 
the winter and spring of 1791-92, he combined with another 
that of fanning the suspicions of the people against the monarchy, 
which he identified with the counter-revolution, and of forcing 
on a change of ministry. On March 10, Vergniaud delivered a 
powerful oration in which he denounced the intrigues of the court 
and uttered his famous apostrophe to the Tuileries: "In ancient 
times fear and terror have of ten* issued from that famous palace; 
let them re-enter it to-day in the name of the law!" The speech 
overthrew De Lessart, whose accusation was decreed; and Roland, 
the nominee of the Girondists, entered the ministry. The Moun- 
tain used Vergniaud, whose lofty and serene ideas they applauded 
and travestied in action. Then came the riot of June 20, and the 
invasion of the Tuileries. He rushed among the crowd, but was 
powerless to quell the tumult. But his speeches breathe the very 
spirit of the storm, and they were perhaps the greatest single 
factor in the development of the events of the time. On Aug. 10, 
the Tuileries was stormed, and the royal family took refuge in 
the Assembly. Vergniaud presided. To the request of the king 
for protection he replied in dignified and respectful language. 

On Dec. 31, 1792, Vergniaud delivered one of his greatest ora- 
tions. He pictured the consequences of that temper of vengeance 
which animated the Parisian mob and was fatally controlling the 
policy of the Convention, and the prostration which would ensue to 
France after even a successful struggle with a European coalition, 
which would spring up after the murder of the king. On 
Jan. 1 6, 1793, the vote began to be taken in the Convention upon 
the punishment of the king. Vergniaud voted early, and voted 
for death. The action of the great Girondist was and will always 
remain inscrutable, but it was followed by a similar verdict from 
nearly the whole party which he led. On the i7th Vergniaud pre- 
sided at the Convention, and it fell to him to announce the fatal 
result of the voting. Then for many weeks he was silent. 

When the institution of a revolutionary tribunal was proposed, 
Vergniaud vehemently opposed the project, denouncing the 
tribunal as a more awful inquisition than that of Venice, and 
avowing that his party would all die rather than consent to it. 
On April 10 Robespierre himself laid his accusation before the 
Convention. Vergniaud made a brilliant extemporaneous reply, 
and this attack failed. The Girondists continued their re- 
sistance to the dominant faction, till on June 2, 1793 things came 
to a head. The Convention was surrounded with an armed mob, 
who clamoured for the "twenty-two." The decree of accusation 
was voted, and the Girondists were proscribed. 

Vergniaud was offered a safe retreat. He accepted it only for 
a day, and then returned to his own dwelling. He was kept under 
surveillance there for nearly a month, and in the early days of 
July was imprisoned in La Force. The Girondists appeared before 
the Revolutionary tribunal on Oct. 27. Early on the morning of 
Oct. 31, 1793 they went to the scaffold. Vergniaud was executed 
last. He died unconfessed, a philosopher and a patriot. 

See Gay de Vernon, Vergniaud (Limoges, 1858) ; and L. de Verdiere, 
Biographic de Vergniaud (Paris, 1866) ; E. Lentilhac, Vergniaud, Le 
drame des Girondins (1920). (Sn.; X.) 

VERHAEREN, &MILE (1855-1916), Belgian poet, 
born at St. Amand, near Antwerp, on May 21, 1855, studied 
at Ghent and at the university of Louvain, and was admitted to 
the bar at Brussels in 1851. But he soon devoted his whole 
energies to literature, and especially to the organs of "young 
Belgium," La Jeune Belgique and UArt moderne, making himself 
especially the champion of the impressionist painters. Verhaeren 
learnt his art of poetry from the great Flemish artists, and in his 
early works, Les Flamandes (1883), and Les Moines (1886) dis- 
plays similar qualities of strength, sometimes degenerating into 



violence and even into coarseness. A period of despair and dis- 
illusionment is reflected in his Les Soirs (1887), Les Debacles 
(1888), Les Flambeaux noirs (1889) and Les Apparus dans mes 
chemins (1891). Wandering over Europe from 1887 to 1892, 
Verhaeren found a new interest in social problems, and his 
Campagnes hallucintes (1893) and Les Villes tentaculaires (1895) 
both deal with the growth of industrialism and its evils. 

A genuine optimism based on an appreciation of the greatness 
of human life and progress appears in Les Visages de la vie 
(1899), Les Forces tumultueuses (1902) and La Multiple Splen- 
deur (1906), and a delight in natural beauty runs through his 
chief work Toute la Flandre, a collection of lyrics in 5 vols. 
(1904-11), the first volume dealing with the memories of his 
boyhood, Les tendresses premieres, being the best. The others 
describe: the Flemish coast, La Guirlande des duties; various epi- 
sodes of Flemish history, Les Mros; life in the small towns, Les 
villes a Pignons; and the Flemish countryside, Les plaincs and Les 
bits mouvants. In 1911 Verhaeren published Les heures du soir, 
a series of intimate poems dedicated to his wife, completing two 
previous series Les heures de Vapres-midi (1905) and Les heures 
claires (1896). During the World War, the poet wrote Les ailes 
rouges de la guerre (1916) which contains an ode to Rupert 
Brooke, and two short volumes of prose, La Belgique sanglante 
(1915, Eng. trs. 1915), and Parmi les cendres (1916). He died 
on Nov. 27, 1916, a victim of a railway accident in Rouen station. 

Among Verhaercn's subsidiary activities may be mentioned his 
critical studies, some of which have been published as Impressions 
(Paris, 1927), and his plays, Les Aubes (1898), Le Cloitre (1900, 
Eng. trs. 1915), Philippe II. (1901) and Hclene de Sparte (1912), 
translated in 1916. 

A selection of his poems has been translated by M. Strettell (2nd 
ed. 1915) and his Love Poems by F. S. Flint (1916). See also L. Bazal- 
gette, E. Verhaeren (1907) ; S. Zweig, . Verhaeren (Eng. trs. 1914) ; 
A. Mockel, Vn Poete de Vinergie, . Verhaeren (1917) ; J. de Smet, 
. Verhaeren, 2 vols. (1909-20); L. Charles-Baudouin, Li Symbole 
chez Verhaeren (4th cd. 1924), and P. Manscll Jones, . Verhaeren 
(Cardiff, 1926, bibliography). 

VERKHNE-UDINSK, a town of Asiatic Russia in the 
Buriat-Mongol A.S.S.R., of which it is the administrative centre. 
It is on the Uda river, at its confluence with the Selenga, and has 
steamer communication with Lake Baikal, and southwards with 
Mongolia. It is also on the Siberian railway, and has grown 
markedly since the railway was constructed in 1905. The climate 
is extreme, average July temperature 66-2, Jan. 17-3 F. The 
water supply to the railway in winter is a difficulty, since the 
ground is frozen and water pipes cannot be buried below frost 
level. Pop. (1926) 27,571. The town was on the i8th century 
military Siberian road and was formerly a great centre for the 
tea trade from Mongolia via Kiakhta. (See TROITSKOSAVSK.) 

VERLAINE, PAUL (1844-1896), French lyric poet, was 
born at Metz on March 30, 1844. He was the son of one of 
Napoleon's soldiers, who had become a captain of engineers. Paul 
Verlaine was educated in Paris, and became clerk in an insurance 
company. He was a member of the Parnassian circle, with Catulle 

Mendes, Sully Prudhomme, Francois Coppee and the rest. His 
first volume of poems, the Poemes saturniens (1866), was written 
under Parnassian influences, from which the Fetes galantes 
(1869), as -of a Watteau of poetry, began a delicate escape; and 
in La Bonne Chanson (1870) the defection was still more marked. 
He married in 1870 Mile. Mautet. During the Commune he was 
involved with the authorities for having sheltered his friends,' and 
was obliged to leave France. In 1871 the strange young poet 
Jean Arthur Rijnbaud came somewhat troublingly .into his life, 
into which drink had already brought a lasting disturbance. 

With Rimbaud Verlaine wandered over France, Belgium, Eng- 
land, until a pistol-shot, fortunately ill-aimed, against his com- 
panion brought upon him two years of imprisonment at Mons. 
Solitude, confinement and thought converted a pagan into a Catho- 
lic, without, however, rooting out what was most human in the 
pagan; and after many years' silence he published Sagesse (1881), 
a collection of religious poems, which, for humble and passionate 
conviction, as well as originality of poetic beauty, must be ranked 
with the finest religious poems ever written. Romances sans 



82 



VERMEER VERMILION 



paroles, composed during the intervals of wandering, appeared in 
1874, and shows us Verlaine at his most perfect moment of artistic 
self-possession, before he has quite found what is deepest in him- 
self. He returned to France in 1875. His wife had obtained a 
divorce from him, and Verlaine made another short stay in Eng- 
land, acting as a teacher of French. After about two years' ab- 
sence Verlaine was again in France. He acted as teacher in more 
than one school and even tried fanning. The death of his mother, 
to whom he was tenderly attached, dissolved the ties that bound 
him to "respectable" society. During the rest of his life he lived 
in poverty, often in hospital, but always with the heedless and un- 
conquerable cheerfulness of a child. After a long obscurity, 
famous only in the Latin Quarter, among the cafes where he spent 
so much of his days and nights, he enjoyed at last a European 
celebrity. In 1894 he paid another visit to England, this time as a 
distinguished poet. He died in Paris on Jan. 8, 1896. 

His 1 8 volumes of verse (among which may be further men- 
tioned Jadis et nagnere, 1884; Amour, 1888; Parallelemcnt, 1889; 
Bonheur, 1891) vary greatly in quality. (A. SY.) 

His Ocuvrcs computes were published in 1899 and in later editions, 
and his Oeuvres posthumcs in 1903. His Poetes m audits (1888) and 
Confessions (1895) throw light on his own life. A bibliography of 
Verlaine, with an account of the existing portraits of him, is included 
in the Poctes d'aujottrd'hiti (nth ed., 1905) of A. van Bever and 
P. L6autaud. See monographs by C. Morice (1888), M. Dullaert 
(Ghent, 1896), B. E. Delahaye (1919), and H. Nicolson (1921); E. 
Lepelleticr, Paul Verlaine, sa vie, son ocuvrc (1907, Eng. trans. 1909) I 
F. A. Cazals and G. Le Rouge, Les Dernier s Jours de P. Verlaine 

(1923) ; L. Eckhoff, P. Verlaine og Symbolismen (Oslo, 1923). 

VERMEER, JAN VAN DELFT or JAN VAN DER MEER 
(1632-1675), Dutch artist, was bom in Delft on Oct. 31, 1632, 
and was a pupil of Carel Fabritius, whose junior he was by only 
eight years. In 1653 he married Catherine Bolens, and entered the 
gild of St. Luke of Delft, becoming one of the heads of the gild 
in 1662 and again in 1670. He died at Delft on Dec. 15, 1675, 
leaving a widow and eight children. At his death he left 26 
pictures undisposed of, and his widow had to apply to the court 
of insolvency to be placed under a curator, who was Leeuwenhoek, 
the naturalist. For more than two centuries Vermeer was almost 
completely forgotten, and his pictures were sold under the names 
of the more popular De Hooch, Metsu, Ter Borch, and even of 
Rembrandt. Attention was recalled to this most original painter 
by Thor (pseudonym, W. Bu'rgcr), an exiled Frenchman, who 
described his works in Mus&es de la Hollande (1858-60). 

Vermeer's pictures are rarely dated, but one of the most im- 
portant, in the Dresden gallery, bears the date 1656, and thus 
gives us a key to his styles. With the exception of the "Christ 
with Martha and Mary" in the National Gallery of Scotland, 
Edinburgh, it is perhaps the only one, hitherto recognized, that 
has figures of life size. The Dresden picture of a "Woman 
and Soldier," with two other figures, is painted with remarkable 
power and boldness; for strength and colour it more than holds 
its own beside the neighbouring Rembrandts. To this early period 
of his career belong, from internal evidence, the "Reading Girl" 
of the same gallery, the luminous and masterly "View of Delft" 
in the museum of The Hague, the "Milk-Woman" and the small 
street view, both identified with the Six collection at Amsterdam, 
and now in the Rijksmuseum; the magnificent "The Letter" 
also at Amsterdam, "Diana and the Nymphs" at -The Hague 
gallery and others. In all these we find the same brilliant style 
and vigorous work, a solid impasto, and a crisp, sparkling touch. 
His' first manner seems to have been influenced by the pleiad of 
painters circling round Rembrandt, a school which lost favour 
in Holland in the last quarter of the century. J)uring the final 
ten or 12 years of his life Vermeer adopted a second manner. We 
now find his painting smooth and thin, and his colours paler and 
softer. Instead of masculine vigour we have refined delicacy 
and subtlety, but in both styles beauty of tone and perfect 
harmony are conspicuous. Through all his work may be traced his 
love of lemon-yellow and of blue of all shades. Of his second 
style typical examples are to be seen in "The Coquette" of 
the Brunswick gallery, in the "Woman Reading" in the Van der 
Hoop collection now at the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam, in the 
"Lady at a Casement" in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at 



New York, and in the "Music Master and Pupil" belonging to the 
King (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1876). 

Vermeer's authentic pictures in public and private collections 
amount to 37. There is but one in the Louvre, the "Lace Maker"; 
Berlin has three, all acquired in the Suermondt collection, and the 
Czernin gallery of Vienna possesses a fine picture, believed to 
represent the artist in his studio. In the Arenberg gallery at Mep- 
pen and in The Hague Museum there are two remarkable heads 
of girls, half life size. 

See Thore, a monograph in Gazette des Beaux Arts (1866) ; Harvard, 
Van der Meer (1888) ; Hofstede de Groot, Jm Vermeer von Delft 
(Leipzig, 1909) ; G. Vansype, Jan Vermeer de Delft (1921). 

VERMIGLI, PIETRO MARTIRE, generally known as 
PETER MARTYR (1500-1562), born at Florence on May 8, 1500, 
was son of Stefano Vermigli, a follower of Savonarola, by his 
first wife, Maria Fumantina. Educated in the Augustinian cloister 
at Fiesole, he was transferred in 1519 to the convent of St. John 
of Verdara near Padua, where he graduated D.D. about 1527 
and made the acquaintance of the future Cardinal Pole. In 1 530 
he was elected abbot of the Augustinian monastery at Spoleto, and 
in 1533 prior of the convent of St. Peter ad Aram at Naples. 
About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels 
and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and 
his Biblical studies began to affect his views. He was accused of 
erroneous doctrine, and the Spanish viceroy of Naples prohibited 
his preaching. The prohibition was removed on appeal to Rome, 
but in 1541 Vermigli was transferred to Lucca, where he again fell 
under suspicion. Summoned to appear before a chapter of his 
order at Genoa, he fled in 1542 to Pisa and thence to another 
Italian reformer, Bernardino Ochino, at Florence. Ochino escaped 
to Geneva, and Vermigli to Zurich, thence to Basel, and finally 
to Strasbourg, where, with Bucer's support, he was appointed 
professor of theology and married his first wife, Catherine 
Dammartin of Metz. 

Vermigli and Ochino were both invited to England by Cranmer 
in 1547, and given a pension of forty marks by the government. 
In 1548 Vermigli was appointed regius professor of divinity at 
Oxford. In 1549 he took part in a great disputation on the 
Eucharist. He had abandoned Luther's doctrine of consub- 
stantiation and adopted the doctrine of a Real Presence con- 
ditioned by the faith of the recipient. This was similar to the 
view now held by Cranmer and Ridley, but it is difficult to prove 
that Vermigli had any great influence in the modifications of the 
Book of Common Prayer made in 1552. He was consulted on the 
question, but his recommendations seem hardly distinguishable 
from those of Bucer, the effect of which is itself disputable. He 
was also appointed one of the commissioners for the reform of 
the canon law. On Mary's accession Vermigli returned to 

Strasbourg, where he was reappointed professor of theology, but 
his increased alienation from Lutheranism drove him to Switzer- 
land. He was professor of Hebrew at Zurich, where he died on 
Nov. 12, 1562. 

Josias Simler's Oratio, published in 1563 and translated into English 
in 1583, is the basis of subsequent accounts of Vermigli. The best 
lives are by F. C. Schlosser (1809) and C. Schmidt (1858). See also 
Parker Soc. Publ. (General Index), especially the Zurich Letters, 
Strype's Works; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Burnet's Hist., ed. 
Pocock (1865) ; Dixon's History (6 vols., 1878-1902) ; and Diet, of 
Nat. Biogr. Iviii. 253-256. 

VERMILION, a city of South Dakota, U.S.A., and the seat 
of the State university. Pop. (1925 State census) 3,410. A trading 
post was established here soon after the first steamboat came up 
the Missouri river in 1832, and numerous settlers came before the 
public land was thrown open in 1859. The city was incorporated 
in 1877. A monument marks the site of the first school building 

erected in the State. The university was established (and located 
in Vermilion) by the first Territorial Legislature of Dakota in 
1862, but was not opened until 1882. The enrolment in 1926-27 
was 1,375- 

VERMILION, a scarlet pigment, which occurs naturally as 
the crystalline mineral cinnabar. It is the red form of mercuric 
sulphide, HgS, and is prepared artificially to-day by subtim- 
ing an intimate mixture of mercury and sulphur, or by grinding 



VERMONT 



such a mixture for some hours, digesting it in a solution of caustic 
potash, and warming at or below 45 C to convert the black 
mercuric sulphide to the scarlet-red modification; Chinese ver- 
milion is said to be made by the latter process, Vermilion blackens 
in oil on exposure to sunlight and its cost has caused it to be 
largely superseded by the cheaper and more permanent aniline 
lakes. See PAINTS, CHEMISTRY OF. 

VERMONT, the Green Mountain State, so named from the 
evergreen forests of its mountains, is a North Atlantic State of 
the United States of America, and the most north-westerly of the 
so-called New England group. It is situated between 42 44' and 
45 o' 43" N. lat. and 71 28' and 73 26' W. longitude. It is 
bounded north by the Canadian province of Quebec, east by New 
Hampshire, from which it is separated by the Connecticut river, 
south by Massachusetts, and west by New York, from which it 
is separated for about two-thirc}s the distance by Lake Champlain. 
In length, north and south, the State measures 157-6 m.; its 
approximate width at the northern border is 90 m., at the southern 
border 40 miles. Its total area is 9,564 sq.m., and of this 440 
sq.m. is water surface. 

Physical Features. The mean elevation of the State above 
the sea is approximately 1,000 ft., extremes varying from 95 ft., 
the surface of Lake Champlain, to 4,393 ft. at the summit of 
Mt. Mansfield, 25 m. E. of that lake. The general surface is much 
broken by mountain ranges. The most prominent feature is the 
Green mountains, which extend nearly north and south through 
the State a little west of the middle. Farther north, the Green 
mountains are cut deep by the Winooski and Lamoille rivers which 
rise to the east and break through it to flow into Lake Champlain. 
The Missisquoi river also rises east of the range but flows just 
north of the Canadian boundary, and then back into Vermont and 
west to Lake Champlain. The crest line of the Green mountains 
is generally more than 2,000 ft. high, with the following summits: 
Mt. Mansfield, 4,393 ft.; Killington Peak, 4,241 ft.; Mt. Ellen, 
4,135 ft.; Camel's Hump, 4,083 ft.; and Mt. Abraham, 4,052 ft. 
Distributed along the eastern border of the state are conical 
shaped mountain masses. Mt. Ascutney rises abruptly from the 
floor of the Connecticut valley to a height of 3,320 feet. Other 
prominent peaks are Jay Peak, 
Burke and Belvidere mountains. 
In the southern half of Vermont 
and near the western border are 
the Taconic mountains, a range 
nearly parallel with the Green 
mountains and extending north- 
ward toward the centre of the 
State. To the northward of the 
Taconic ranges extends a series 
of broken uplifts known as the 
Red Sandrock mountains. These 
are near Lake Champlain, and, 
standing in a low country, are un- 
usually conspicuous. The least 
broken section of Vermont is on 
the somewhat gentle slope of the 
Green mountains in the north- 
west and on Grand isle, North 
Hero island and Isle La Motte in 
Lake Champlain. The forms of 
Vermont's mountains, even to the 
highest summits, were to a great 
extent rounded by glaciation, but 
as the rocks vary much in texture and are often steeply inclined, 
stream erosion has cut valleys deep and narrow, often mere 
gorges. The Green Mountain club, since 1910, has been building 
a well marked "Long Trail" reaching from Massachusetts to 
Canada which follows the Green mountain range. 

Lake Champlain lies in a beautiful valley between the Green 
and Adirondack mountains, and a little more than half its area is 
in Vermont. The lake is about 118 m. long, and in its northern 
portion are numerous islands which are attractive resorts during 
the summer season. These islands are large enough to constitute 




VERMONT 



MAP SHOWING THE MAIN ROADS IN 
VERMONT 



an entire county in themselves, and are connected with each 
other and with the mainland by bridges. On the north border of 
the State is Lake Memphremagog with islands, a rugged promi- 
nence known as Owl's Head on its west border, Jay Peak farther 
back, and a beautiful farming country to the eastward. The lake 
is 30 m. long and from i to 4 m. wide but two-thirds of its area 
lies in Canada. The Vermont tributaries to Memphrernagog are 
the Barton and -the Black rivers from the south and the Clyde 
river from the east. There are many other lakes and ponds in the 
State, the section in which they are most numerous being the 
north-eastern part. Here Willoughby lake is one of the largest 
and one of the most beautiful, lying as it does in a narrow valley 
between Mt. Pisgah and Mt. Hor. Lakes Morey and Fairlee, in 
the Connecticut river valley, are popular resorts. Lake Dunmore 
in Salisbury and Leicester, Lake Bomoseen in Castleton, and 
Hubbardton, Lake St. Catherine in Wells and Poultney and Lake 
Hortonia in Sudbury, west of the Green mountains, are noted for 
the charm of their scenery. 

Most important of the Vermont tributaries of the Connecticut 
river are the Nulhegan, Passumpsic, Wells, Waits, Ompompa- 
noosuc, White, Ottauquechee, Black, Williams, Saxtons, West 
and Deerfield, the last-named emptying into the Connecticut in 
Massachusetts. The south-western part of the State is drained 
to the Hudson river by the Battenkill and Hoosac rivers, while 
Otter creek flows north and slightly west to Lake Champlain. 
The streams are usually swift-flowing and in comparatively narrow 
and beautiful valleys. On the headwaters of the Deerfield are 
great power developments. In the valleys are soils of great fer- 
tility, while the low rolling hills and uplands make excellent 
pasture, On the lower slopes of the mountains are white pine 
and hemlock; on the higher slopes spruce and fir are common. 
Among deciduous trees the State is especially noted for its sugar 
maples. Birch and beech are to be expected on the hills and in 
the lower areas oak, elm, hickory, ash, poplar, basswood, willow 
and butternut are to be found. Among indigenous fruit-bearing 
trees, shrubs, vines and plants are the plum, cherry, grape, black- 
berry, raspberry, cranberry and strawberry. There were in 1928, 
18 State forests with an aggregate area of 33,725 acres. These were 
patrolled regularly by the State forest service which since its 
establishment in 1909 had planted about 13,000,000 trees. 

The temperature, the amount of moisture and the winds are 
favourable to the health of the people and to the productiveness 
of the soil. The mean annual temperature varies from 40 to 47* 
F, the eastern part of the State being generally colder than the 
western part, and the mountainous part of the centre coldest of 
all. The average annual precipitation over a long period of years is 
approximately 37-5 inches. Snow often appears in November in 
the higher altitudes but does not come to stay before December. 
It remains until the latter part of March. The average fall 
throughout the State is about 90 in. annually, but there is less 
snow near Lake Champlain and in the south-western part than in 
central and eastern Vermont, Also spring conies earliest in these 
sections and in the lower portion of the Connecticut valley. 

Population. The population of Vermont in 1900 was 343,- 
641; in 1910, 355,956; in 1920, 352,428. Its rank among the 48 
States in 1920 was 44th. It was one of only three in the United 
States, and the only one of the New England group, in which the 
population decreased between 1910 and 1920. The density in 
1920 was 38*6 per square mile. 

Of the 1920 population, 351,817, or 99-8% were whites, a per- 
centage not exceeded in any other State. Of the whites, 44,526 
or 12-7%, were foreign-born. Of the native-born 228,325 were 
of native parentage, 36,866 of mixed parentage, and 44,526 of 
foreign parentage. Chief among the foreign-born were the 24,868 
Canadians, 14,181 of them of French blood. 

In 1920 more than two-thirds the population (68-8%) were 
rural inhabitants. The percentage of urban population increased, 
however, from 22-1% in 1900 to 27-8% in 1910 and 31-2% in 
1920. The largest cities with their estimated population in 1925 
were: Burlington, 24,089; Rutland, 15,752; Barre, 10,008. The 
population of Montpelier, the capital, was 7,125 in 1920. 

Government^ The State is governed under a Constitution 



8 4 



VERMONT 



adopted in 1777, but since amended in important respects. An 
amendment in 1870 provided that every ten years the senate, by a 
two-thirds vote, is authorized to propose amendments, which pro- 
posals, if concurred in by the majority of the members of the 
house of representatives, are published in the principal news- 
papers of the State. If they are again approved by a majority 
of each house in the next succeeding general assembly, they are 
submitted to a direct popular vote, a majority of the votes cast 
being decisive. The amendment sessions are those in years ending 
with the figure one, such as 1921, 1931, etc. In the 1921 session 
21 proposals were submitted to the senate of which four ulti- 
mately became part of the Constitution. The right of suffrage 
is possessed by all citizens above 21 years of age who have lived 
in the State for one year, and who are "of a quiet and peaceable 
behaviour" and will take the freeman's oath. 

The legislative department consists of a senate of 30 mem- 
bers, apportioned among the counties according to population, 
but with the proviso that each county must have at least one 
senator, and a house of representatives of 248 members, one from 
each township. The members of both houses are elected bien- 
nially. Sessions are also held biennially beginning on the first 
Wednesday after the first Monday of January in odd-numbered 
years. The governor has power to call special sessions when he 
deems it necessary. 

The most important executive officers of the State are the 
governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of State, treasurer, audi- 
tor of accounts and attorney -general, all elected by the people for 
terms of two years. In 1923 there were created seven administra- 
tive departments: agriculture, education, finance, highways, pub- 
lic health, public service and public welfare, each presided over 
by a commissioner or seqretary. In 1927 the department of motor 
vehicles was created with a commissioner in charge. 

The supreme court consists of one chief justice and four 
associate justices. Annually five general terms are held at Mont- 
pelier and special sessions at St. Johnsbury, Rutland and Brattle- 
boro. The supreme court justices are elected biennially by the 
senate and house of representatives in joint session. At the same 
session, in like manner, six superior judges are elected for two 
year terms to preside over the county courts to which they are 
assigned. A superior judge has two assistant judges in each 
county who are elected by the freemen of that county, and 
these three compose the county court, two sessions of which are 
held annually in each county. 

Finance. The wealth of Vermont, as estimated by the bureau 
of the census, increased from $505,000,000 in 1912 to $842,000,- 
ooo in 1922. The per caput increase was from $1,407 to $2,389, 
the latter figure being still below the average per caput wealth 
of $2,918 for the entire United States in 1922. 

The gross receipts of the State treasury for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1928, amounted to $14,723,920.50. Disburse- 
ments for the same period were $11,199,998.90. The balance in 
the treasury at the end of the fiscal year was $5,228,438.70. Of 
the receipts $10,447,905.89 was provided from miscellaneous 
sources and $4,276,014.61 from taxes. The chief items of mis- 
cellaneous revenue were State flood bonds, $5,000,000; motor 
vehicle fees, $2,034,333.50; proceeds from temporary loans, 
$1,050,000; and aid for Federal highway projects, $944,060.84. 
Of the tax receipts, $2,290,929.56 was from corporation taxes, 
$362,511.24 from inheritance taxes, $223,069.76 from a direct 
State.tax, $142,496.63 from a State tax for highways, $971,983.40 
from a gasolene sales tax and $285,024.02 from a school tax. 

The State debt on June 30, 1928, was $6,621,531.90. Of the 
total debt $5,000,000 represented flood bonds issued to repair the 
flood losses of Nov. 1927, and $970,000, war bonds. The debt of 
the local governments within the State totalled $9,882,000 in 1922. 

There were on June 30, 1928, 105 banking institutions in the 
State, 46 of them national banks (statistics of national banks as 
of Oct. 10, 1927) with total resources and liabilities of $275,548,- 
ooo. Their capital, surplus and undivided profits totalled $29,- 
673,000 and deposits were $224,104,000. Of the deposits 
$166,393,000 were in savings accounts. Vermont ranked third 
among the States in per caput deposits in savings banks. 



Education. The public school system is directed by the 
board of education, and administered by the commissioner of 
education, assisted by superintendents in each district. Attend- 
ance is compulsory for all children between 8 and 16 years of 
age. In 1925 there were 75,772 children between 6 and 18 years 
of age and during the 1927-28 school term 64,529 were enrolled 
in the public schools. In addition there were approximately 7,500 
pupils in private and parochial schools. The number of public 
schools totalled 2,205, of which 95 were high schools. There were 
2,291 elementary school teachers and 557 high school teachers. 
High school enrolment was 11,018. There were also 18 private 
high schools and academies with 2,407 pupils. All expenditures 
for the public school system totalled $5,174,945.08 for the year 
1927-28, of which $953,332.77 was used for the maintenance oi 
the high schools. Public school property was valued at $10,- 
538,684. The average expenditure per school child was $80.20 
in 1927-28 as compared with an average of $65.51 for the entire 
United States. 

There are two-year normal school courses given at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont, and in normal schools at Castleton, Johnson 
and Lyndon. One-year teachers' training courses were given in 
six high schools in 1927-28. In 1922 high school graduation was 
made a requirement for entering either the one-year or two-year 
normal courses. 

The University of Vermont, chartered by the State in 1791, 
occupies a 75 ac. campus on a hill overlooking the city of 
Burlington and the Champlain valley. It is composed of an 
undergraduate college, college of engineering, college of medicine 
and college of agriculture. Its library, containing about 125,000 
volumes and 45,000 pamphlets in 1928, is the largest in the State. 
Middlebury college, at Middlebury, chartered in 1800, is a liberal 
arts college of high standing, doing excellent work. Norwich 
university at Northfield is the State military college at which 
engineering courses and military training are emphasized. St. 
Michael's Roman Catholic college is at Burlington. 

Charities and CorrectionsThe department of public wel- 
fare is charged with the scientific treatment and care of the 
State's unfortunates. It also has charge of the administration 
of the State charitable and penal institutions, which are as fol- 
lows: School for Feeble-minded Children, at Brandon; Indus- 
trial School for Delinquent Boys and Girls, at Vergennes; State 
Prison and House of Correction for Men at Windsor; State 
Prison and House of Correction for Women at Rutland; Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Waterbury; the Vermont Sanatorium for 
Incipient Tuberculosis at Plttsford. The State makes other pro- 
vision for insane by paying for them at the Brattleboro Retreat, a 
private hospital not operated for profit. The Washington County 
hospital at Barre for the treatment of tuberculosis and the Caverly 
preventorium at Pittsford for undernourished or tuberculous chil- 
dren are private institutions at which patients are cared for at 
State expense. The department maintains Kinstead Receiving 
home for dependent and neglected children at Montpelier. 

Agriculture and Lire Stock, Of the total land area of the 
State approximately 5,839,000 ac. 67-2% or 3,926,000 ac. was 
in farm land in 1925, and of this 1,692,000 ac. represented im- 
proved land. This was divided among 27,786 farms, as compared 
with 29,075 farms in 1920 and 32,709 farms in 1910. The average 
size per farm was 141-3 acres. Of the farm land 1,150,000 ac. was 
crop land, 2,176,000 ac. was in pasture, of which 1,031,000 ac. 
was wooded, and 518,000 ac. was in woodland not used for pas- 
ture. Farm population in 1925 was 114,188, or 32-4% of the 
total population. In 1920 it had been 125,263, in 1910, 142,372. 
The value of all farm property was estimated at $145,400,000 in 
1910, $222,737,000 in 1920 and $180,912,000 in 1925. Between 
1920 and 1925 land decreased $19,000,000, buildings decreased 
$3,000,000, implements and machinery decreased $3,000,000 and 
live stock decreased $17,000,000 in value. The average value per 
farm was: in 1920, $7,661, in 1925, $6,511 and the average value 
of farm land per acre was respectively $19.58 and $16.27. ^ n 
I9 2 5 9-3% of the farms were operated by tenants. The number 
of mortgaged farms was 10,850 and the mortgaged debt approxi- 
mated $25,000,000, 



VERMONT 



389.274 


350,000 
300,000 
2BO.OOO 


1 


192.428 


















01 




2OO.OOO 








fs 

M 












i 

o 




190.000 
100.000 
- 50.000 


FAIM POP- 

ULATIOM 
114.188 


POP- CATTLK 


ULATION ON 
FAMMf 



NUMBER OF CATTLE COMPARED 

WITH THE TOTAL POPULATION AND 
FARM POPULATION (1925) 



between 1925 and Jan. i, 1928, the value of cattle, horses, 
swine and sheep rapidly increased, totalling $13,829,000, most 
of which came in the year 1927. With an increase also in the 
value of dairy and other live stock products, live stock raising re- 
turned practically to the level of prosperity it enjoyed before the 
depression following the World War. There were in 1928, 404,000 
cattle of all kinds, valued at $32,158,400, as compared with 403,- 
ooo valued at $18,538,000 in 

1925. Of the number in 1928, 
284,000 were milch cows valued 
at $28,116,000. The great acre- 
age of excellent grass land to be 
found on the upland pastures of 
Vermont, together with the abun- 
dant hay crop, makes dairying 
the chief industry of Vermont 
farmers. The ratio of dairy cows 
per caput was the highest of any 
State. Butter made in 1926 to- 
talled 8,305,000 Ib. and cheese 
amounted to 1,114,000 pounds. 

The value of all crops totalled 
$42,200,000 in 1925 and $42,- 
500,000 in 1926. Chief of these 
was hay, which alone amounted 
in value in 1926 to $21,184,000, 
or slightly more than all other 
crops together. Another industry, carried on largely by the farm- 
ers, is the maple sugar industry for which Vermont particularly 
among the States is famous. In 1926 there were 5,544,000 trees 
tapped, far more than in any other State. Of the sap there were 
made 1,602,000 Ib. of maple sugar, and 980,000 gal. of maple 
syrup. The value amounts annually to about $1,500,000. 

Mines and Quarries. The mineral wealth except for talc 
mines comes entirely from quarries. The leading products in 

1926, in order of their value, were stone, slate, talc and lime. The 
total value was $14,176,617 in 1926. 

In 1926, 117,200 tons of granite valued at $3,908,917 
were quarried. Though several States quarried a far higher ton- 
nage, only in Massachusetts was the output as valuable. The 
reason is that 95% of the Vermont granite is used for monu- 
mental and ornamental purposes. The chief quarrying centre is at 
Barre. Of the 1,161,684 cu.ft. quarried in this district 232,336 
cu.ft. were shipped out rough and 929,348 cu.ft. were cut and pol- 
ished in the district. 

In 1925 and 1926 Vermont produced almost double the amount 
of marble quarried in any other State. The output was 147,720 
and 172,750 short tons, respectively, valued at $5,104,067 and 
$5,116,290. This was more than one-fourth the total output of 
the United States in quantity and more than one-third in value. 
The quarries lie in the eastern part of Rutland county. 

The main slate belt is also in Rutland county along the western 
border, the area running into New York State. In Vermont a 
large variety of colours is found, various greens, purples, varie- 
gated, mottled and freak colours, all of which command high 
prices. In 1926 the value of the slate output was $4,267,041, and 
in 1927, $4,108,911. Vermont produced 34-5% of the total 
slate output of the United States in 1926 and 36% in 1927. 

Vermont produces talc and soapstone, being second only to New 
York in 1926, but the output is not of as high grade as in some 
other States. The production in 1926 was 53,510 short tons, 
valued at $514,527. Both crude and ground talc was sold. 

Manufacturing. From 1900 to 1914 manufacturing increased 
but slowly, the value of products in the latter year being $76,- 
990,974. But during the years of the World War expansion was 
rapid, and in 1919 products amounted in value to $168,108,000, 
the industry employing 33,491 wage-earners. After the war there 
was a sudden period of depression and in 1921 but 25,767 wage- 
earners were retained and the value of their products had dropped 
to $113,904,000. In 1925 there were 951 manufacturing estab- 
lishments, 150 less than in 1921, employing 27,563 wage-earners, 
to whom $32,326,000 was pdid in wages, and producing goods 



valued at $138,326,000, of which $67,878,000 was added by the 
manufacturing processes. The leading industries in 1925 follow: 



Industry 


Estab- 
lishments 


Wage- 
earners 


Value of 
products 


Marble, slate and stone work . 


211 


4,65 1 


$18,396,000 


Woollen goods .... 


16 


2,933 


14,327,000 


Paper and wood pulp . 


17 


i,387 


9,744,000 


Flour, feed and other grain mill 








products 


45 


192 


8,368,000 


Butter, cheese, condensed and 








evaporated milk 


84 


306 


8,074,000 


Metal- working machinery . 
Lumber and timber products . 


6 
151 


i,i59 
2,214 


6,673,000 
6,140,000 


Knitted goods .... 


8 


i, 2 57 


5,638,000 



Burlington, Barre, Rutland, Bennington, Brattleboro, St. Johns- 
bury, Springfield, Proctor, Winooski, St. Albans and Bellows Falls 
are the chief manufacturing centres. 

Transportation. There has been no railway building since 
1910, in which year the mileage was r,ioo. In 1925 the mileage 
was 1,057. The chief railways are two main lines which run north 
and south along the western and eastern borders, and four lines 
which cross the State in a general east and west direction. To 
cross from west to east at other places is impossible by rail, and 
there is some difficulty in getting from the south-west cor- 
ner to points along the Connecticut river toward the north-east. 
The lack of railway facilities has been overcome to an agreeable 
extent since 1923 by the establishment of motor-bus lines on many 
of the main highways, and to villages not on the railway lines. 
There were 4,462 m. of road in the State highway system in 1927, 
of which 3,139 m. was surfaced. Expenditures on the State high- 
way in 1925, including Federal aid, amounted to $3,618,000. 

A canal connects the head of Lake Champlain with the Hudson 
river so that through Lake Champlain and its outlet, the Richelieu 
river, there is an uninterrupted waterway from the St. Lawrence 
river to New York city harbour, a waterway that is open for navi- 
gation at. least seven months each year. The Chambly canal 
around the Chambly rapids of the Richelieu river permits the 
passage of boats. On Lake Champlain there are both passenger 
and freight lines which regularly serve the chief towns of the lake. 

History. The first white man to visit the region now known 
as Vermont, so far as the records show, was Samuel Champlain, 
"Father of New France." Joining an Algonquin war party, on a 
foray into the Iroquois country, July 4, 1609, he entered the lake 
which he named Lake Champlain. For well nigh a century and a 
half the Champlain valley was French territory. The increase of 
the Iroquois compelled the French in Canada to erect a chain of 
forts to command the approach by way of Lake Champlain and 
its outlet, the Richelieu river, the great trunk line highway 
from the valley of the St. Lawrence river to southern New 
England and the Hudson valley. As the English settlements 
in Massachusetts and adjacent colonies grew stronger, the Indians 
gradually withdrew into Canada, and, sullen and revengeful, were 
ready to join the French in raids upon the English settlements. 

The first permanent English settlement was a blockhouse 
erected in 1724, in the town of Brattleboro, and known as Ft. 
Dummer. Later in the same year a group of Dutch squatters 
settled in the town of Pownal, in the south-western corner of 
Vermont. But not until the British captured Canada, in 1760, 
did the tide of emigration flow into the State. Benning Went- 
worth, royal governor of New Hampshire, assuming that 
the rather vague limits of his province, like those of Connecti- 
cut and Massachusetts, extended westward to a line 20 m. east of 
the Hudson river, proceeded to make grants of land between the 
Connecticut river and Lake Champlain. From 1749 to 1764 he 
granted 131 townships and the region was commonly known as the 
New Hampshire Grants. Lieutenant Governor Colden of New 
York challenged the right of the New Hampshire executive to 
grant these lands. For 14 years the ownership of the disputed 
region was debated and on July 20, 1764, an order of the king in 
council gave a decision in favour of New York. Thereupon the 
New York governors proceeded to grant lands in what is now the 



86 



VERMOREL VERNE 



State of Vermont, 

Following the close of the French and Indian War and prior to 
the outbreak of the American Revolution, several thousand per- 
sons, largely from Connecticut and Massachusetts, had purchased 
lands in the New Hampshire Grants, had cleared farms, built 
houses and planted crops. In 1770 a test case was brought in the 
New York courts, in an ejectment suit, concerning property in the 
town of Shaftsbury, and the court refused to consider the New 
Hampshire charter as evidence. Ethan Allen, in charge of the 
defence, returned to Bennington, where the town voted to protect 
Us rights by force if necessary. A military organization was 
formed, which came to be known as the Green Mountain Boys, 
Ethan Allen being its commander. In eastern Vermont New York 
authority was recognized, and no attempt was made to dispossess 
settlers, but in western Vermont New York authority was success- 
fully defied. New Hampshire titles were defended. 

With the Revolution the Green Mountain Boys, commanded 
by Ethan Allen, with some aid from Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, on May 10, 1775, captured the fortress of Ticon- 
deroga, on Lake Champlain. The capture was the first aggressive 
act on the part of the Americans in the Revolutionary War. Ver- 
monters participated in the invasion of Canada in the autumn 
of 1775, and Ethan Allen was captured by the British in an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to take Montreal. 

A rudimentary form of government was maintained through 
committees of safety. Conventions were held in 1776 looking 
toward statehood, Ira Allen being active in behalf of a separate 
government. On Jan. 16, 1777, a declaration of independence was 
adopted and the name New Connecticut was given the new State. 
This name was soon abandoned, as it had been used elsewhere, and 
the name Vermont was substituted, In July 1777, a State Consti- 
tution was drafted in a convention held at Windsor. This was the 
first Constitution adopted by an American State to forbid slavery 
and to establish manhood suffrage. The new State government was 
set up in March 1778, with Thomas Chittenden as governor. 

The British under Gen. Burgoyne captured the Lake Champlain 
forts in July 1777, and the rear guard of the American army, 
retreating from Ticonderoga, was defeated at Hubbardton, Vt., 
July 7, 1777. In an attempt to capture Amerir-n stores at Ben- 
nington, British detachments under Cols. Baum and Breymann 
were defeated by an American force, consisting of Vermont, New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts troops commanded by Gen. John 
Stark, on Aug. 16, 1777. This was the beginning of Burgoyne's 
reverses which ended in his surrender to Gen. Gates. 

The new State of Vermont continued to function, although 
opposed by foes at home and abroad. In 1790 New York, under 
the leadership of Alexander Hamilton, recognized the independence 
of Vermont conditioned upon the payment of $30,000, and on 
Mar. 4, 1791, the Green Mountain Commonwealth was the first 
State admitted to the Union after the original 13. 

Settlement was rapid during the latter years of the Revolution- 
ary War. A rough census showed about 7,000 people in the State in 
,1771. In 1791 the number rose to 85,525. After her declaration 
of independence the State granted her own lands. In 1779 the 
legislature planned that they were to be in townships 6 m. square 
with 70 rights or divisions in each. Five divisions in each were 
reserved, one for the support of a college, one for a county gram- 
mar school, one for an English school, one for the support of 
preaching and one for the first sottled minister. The legislature 

convened in several of the larger towns of the State until 1808, 
when the capital was permanently situated at Montpelier. 

Many little iron mines were opened, and small forges put in 
operation with charcoal as fuel. This was an industry which is no 
longer found. The iron and other businesses were stimulated by 
the War of 1812. In this war Vermont troops took part in the 
battles of Chippewa, Lundy's Lane, Lake Erie and Pittsburgh, but 
the only engagement In the State itself was the defence of Ft. 
Cassin at the mouth of Otter creek in 1813. 

Steady expansion followed. Farm produce and cattle were sold 
South to older markets. The lumber business began to be devel- 
oped in the Connecticut valley and along the shores of Lake Cham- 
plain where water transportation was available, the demand at 



first being principally for ship timber. During the winter the lines 
of sledges took the produce of the Cbamplain region to Montreal, 
just as that from the south-western part was taken to Albany, and 
that from the Connecticut valley to Portsmouth or Boston. The 
opening of the Champlain canal in 1823, connecting Lake Cham- 
plain and the Hudson river, largely increased commerce with New 
York and diverted trade from Canada. Stage lines began to carry 
the mail and passengers throughout the State. Many towns to 
which they went had a larger population in 1820 than in 1920. The 
decade between 1820 and 1830 was the last one in which there was 
a marked increase of population in the State. After that many 
Vermontcrs were seized with the desire to go west and so they 
helped to build many of the northern States of the Mississippi 
valley. Many also went south to the rising industrial centres of 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. Despite these great losses the 
population continued to increase, aided in later years by an influx 
of French Canadians from Canada. 

During the Civil War a small band of Confederates crossed the 
frontier from Canada and raided the town of St. Albans. In 1870 
St. Albans was the headquarters of an attempted Fenian invasion 
of Canada. Sheep raising was an important farm industry before 
and after the Civil War, but after 1880 declined rapidly because 
of competition from the Western States and Australia. The Ver- 
mont Central, between Windsor and Burlington, and the Rutland 
from Bellows Falls to Burlington, were completed in 1849. I n 
presidential campaigns the State was Federalist, 1792-1800; 
Democratic-Republican, 1804-20; Adams-Republican, 1824-28; 
Anti-Masonic, 1832; Whig, 1836-52; and Republican since 1856. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. M. D. Oilman, Bibliography of Vermont (1897) 
approaches completeness for the period before the date of its publica- 
tion. For physical description, geology and minerals the many papers 
in the annual Reports of the State Geologist are most valuable. For 
education see G. G. Bush, History of Education in Vermont (1900) 
and Vermont Educational Commission Report (1914). 

Of the older histories the more famous are: I. Allen, Natural and 
Political History of the State of Vermont (1798, reprinted in Vermont 
Historical Collections, 1870) ; S. Williams, Natural and Civil History 
of Vermont (2nd ed., 1809) ; Z. Thompson, History of Vermont, 
Natural, Civil and Statistical (1848) ; B. H. Hall, History of Eastern 
Vermont to the Close of the Eighteenth Century (2nd ed., 1865) ; 
H. Hall, History of Vermont from its Discovery to its Admission into 
the Union in 1701 (1868) ; A. M. Ilemenway (ed.), Vermont Histor- 
ical Gazetteer (5 vol., 1867-91). R. E. Robinson, Vermont (1892), in 
the "American Commonwealths" series is based largely on the above 
works but is more readable and more easily secured. History of 
Vermont in 5 volumes, by Walter H. Crockett was published 1921-23. 
An excellent high school text is E. D. Collins, History of Vermont 
(rev. ed., 1916). See. also W. Nutting, Vermont Beautiful (1922); 
Vermont Bureau of Publicity, Vermont the Land of Green Mountains 
(1913) ; H. Hall, Ethan Allen (1892) ; J. B. Wilbur, Ira Allen, Founder 
of Vermont (2 vol., 1928) ; F. Parkman, A Half Century of Conflict 
(1892) and Montcalm and Wolfe (1884) Champlain Society, Works 
of Samuel de Champlain (3 vol., 1922-25) ; Vermont Historical Society, 
Collections (1870-71) and Proceedings (various dates between 1860 
and 1925) ; The Vermonter (1897 seq.). (W. H. CR.) 

VERMOREL, AUGUSTS JEAN MARIE (1841-1871), 
French journalist, was born at Denied, France, on June 20, 1841. 
A radical and socialist, he was attached to the staff of the Presse 
(1864) and the Libertd (1866); in 1866 he became editor of the 
Courrier Franqais and in 1869 of La R6 forme, being twice im- 
prisoned. He took an active part in the Commune, and was 
dangerously wounded while fighting at the barricades. He died a 
prisoner at Versailles, on June 20, 1871. 

VERMOUTH. An alcoholic beverage, the basis of which 
consists of white wine. The wine is fortified with spirit up to a 
strength of about 15% of alcohol, and is then stored in casks 
exposed to the sun's rays for a year or two. Another portion of 
the wine is fortified up to a strength of about 50% of alcohol, and 
in this various aromatic and tonic materials are macerated in 
casks which are exposed to the sun in the same way as the bulk 
of the wine. The two liquids are then mixed in such proportions 
as to make the strength of the ultimate product about 17% of 
alcohol by volume. Italian vermouth is sweet in taste and darker 
than the dry French vermouth. 

VERN& JULES (1828-1905), French author, was born at 
Nantes on Feb. 8, 1828, After completing his studies at the 



VERNET VERNIS MARTIN 



Nantes lyce, he went to Paris to study law. About 1848, in con- 
junction with Michel Carr, he wrote librettos for two operettas, 
and in 1850 his verse comedy, Les Failles rompues, in which 
Alexandre Dumas fils had some share, was produced at the 
Gymnase. For some years his interests alternated between the 
theatre and the bourse, but some travellers' stories which he wrote 
for the Uusie des Families revealed to him the true direction of 
his talent the delineation, viz., of delightfully extravagant voy- 
ages and adventures, in which he foresaw, with marvellous vision, 
the achievements of scientific and mechanical invention of the 
generation of 1900. "For the last twenty years," said Marshal 
Lyautey, "the advance of the peoples is merely living the novels 
of Jules Verne." Verne was a real pioneer in the wide literary 
genre of voyages -imaginaires. His first success was obtained with 
Cinq semaines en ballon, which he wrote for Hetzel's Magazin 
d' Education in 1862, and thenceforward, for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, scarcely a year passed in which Hetzel did not publish one or 
more of his amazing stories. The most successful include : Voyage 
au centre de la terre (1864) ; DC la terre a la lune (1865) ; Vingt 
mille lieues sous les niers (1869); Les Anglais au pole nord 
(1870); and Voyage autour dn monde en quatre-vingts jours, 
which first appeared in Le Temps in 1872. The adaptation of this 
last (produced with immense success at the Porte St. Martin 
theatre on Nov. 8, 1874) and of another excellent tale, Michael 
Strogofi (at the Chatelet, 1880), both written in conjunction with 
Adolphe cTEnnery, proved the most acceptable of Verne's dramas. 

His novels delight by reason of their sparkling style, their pic- 
turesque verve inherited from Dumas their good-natured na- 
tional caricatures, and the ingenuity with which the love element 
is subordinated. He was a member of the Legion of Honour, 
and several of his romances were crowned by the French Academy, 
but he was never enrolled among its members. He died at Amiens 
on March 24, 1905. The novels of Jules Verne are dreams come 
true, dreams of submarines, aeroplanes, television; they look for- 
ward, not backward. Therefore they are still the books of youth. 

See C. Lemirc, Jules Verne., 1828-1025 (1908) ; M. Allotte de la 
Fuye, Jules Verne, sa vie et son oeuvre (1928). 

VERNET, the name of three eminent French painters. 

I. CLAUDE JOSEPH VERNET (1714-1789), who was born at 
Avignon on Aug. 14, 1714, when only fourteen years of age 
aided his father, a skilful decorative painter. The sight of 
the sea at Marseilles and his voyage thence to Civita Vecchia 
made a deep impression on him, and immediately after his arrival 
he entered the studio of a marine painter, Bernardino Fergioni. 
For twenty years Vernet lived on in Rome, producing views of 
seaports, storms, calms, moonlights, etc., when he was recalled 
(i753) to Paris, and executed, by royal command, the remarkable 
series of the seaports of France (Louvre) by which he is best | 
known. He died Dec. 3, 1789. I 

II. ANTOINE CHARLES HORACE VERNET (1758-1835), com- 
monly called CARLE, the youngest child of the above, was born 
at Bordeaux in 1758. His first important work, was his "Triumph 
of Paulus Aemilius"; in this picture he broke with reigning tra- 
ditions in classical subjects, and drew the horse with the forms 
he had learnt from nature in stables and riding-schools. The 
Revolution, and his sister's death on the scaffold, stopped his 
artistic career. When he again began to produce, it was as the 
man of another era: his drawings of the Italian campaign brought 
him fresh laurels; his vast canvas, the "Battle of Marengo," 
obtained great success; and for his "Morning of Austerlitz" 
Napoleon bestowed on him the Legion of Honour. His hunting- 
pieces, races, landscapes, and work as a lithographer (chiefly 
under the Restoration) had a great vogue. In 1827 he ac- 
companied his son Horace (see below) to Rome, and died in 
Paris on his return, on Nov. 17, 1835. 

III. HORACE VERNET (1789-1863), born in Paris on June 30, 
1789, was one of the most characteristic of the military painters 
of France. He was just twenty when he exhibited the "Taking 
of an Entrenched Camp'* a work which showed no depth of 
observation, but was distinguished by a good deal of character. 
His picture of his own studio (the rendezvous of. the Liberals 
under the Restoration), in which he represented himself paint- 



ing tranquilly, whilst boxing, fencing, drum- and horn-playing, 
etc., were going on, in the midst of a medley of visitors, horses, 
dogs and models, is one of his best works, and, together with 
his "Defence of the Barrier at Clichy" (Louvre), won for him 
an immense popularity. He was appointed director of the school 
of France at Rome, from 1828 to 1835, and thither he carried 
the atmosphere of racket in which he habitually lived. After his 
return the whole of the Constantine room at Versailles was 
decorated by him in the short space of three years. He died at 
Paris on Jan. 17, 1863. 

See Lagrange, Joseph Vernet et la peinture au XVlll* stick (1861) ; 
C. Blanc, Les Vernet (1845) ; A. Dayot, Les Vernet (1898). 

VERNEUIL, a town of north-western France. Pop. (1926) 
3,551- Verneuil stands on the left bank of the Avre. The church 
of La Madeleine (nth to 17th century) has the facade flanked 
by a square tower of the first half of the i6th century. The 
church contains old stained glass, an ironwork pulpit and other 
works of art. The church of Notre Dame (i2th and i6th cen- 
turies) possesses Romanesque stone carvings. The Tour Grise 
is a cylindrical keep built in 1120 by Henry I. 

VERNIER, PIERRE (c. 1580-1637), inventor of the instru- 
ment which bears his name, was born at Ornans (near Besangon) 
in Burgundy about 1580. He was for a considerable time com- 
mandant of the castle in his native town. In 1631 he published at 
Brussels a treatise entitled Construction, usage et proprtetes du 
Quadrant nouveau de mathematiques, in which the instrument 
associated with his name is described. He died at Ornans in 1637. 

VERNIER INSTRUMENT, a measuring device which 
enables either linear or angular magnitudes to be read with a degree 
of accuracy many times greater than is possible with a scale as 
ordinarily divided and subdivided. The principle of the vernier is 
readily understood from the following figure and illustration. 



14 13 11 11 1O 

ill I \ 



T ? 



1 1 t 



1 1 [ 




Let AB (see fig.) be the normal scale, i.e. a scale graduated accord- 
ing to a standard of length, CD, a scale (placed in contact with AB 
for convenience) graduated so that 10 divisions equal n divisions of 
the scale AB, and EF a scale placed similarly and graduated so that 
10 divisions equal 9 divisions of the scale AB. Consider the combina- 
tion AB and CD. Obviously each division of CD is , l ft th greater than 
the normal scale division. Let a represent a length to be measured, 
placed so that one end is at the zero of the normal scale, and the other 
end in contact with the end of the vernier CD marked 10. It is noted 
that graduation 4 of the vernier coincides with a division of the stan- 
dard, and the determination of the excess of a over 3 scale divisions 
reduces to the difference of 7 divisions of the normal scale and 6 di- 
visions of the vernier. This is -4, since each vernier division equals i-i 
scale divisions. Hence the scale reading of the vernier which coincides 
with a graduation of the normal scale gives the decimal to be added 
to the normal scale reading. Now consider the scales AB and EF, 
and let ft be the length to be measured; the scale EF being placed so 
that the zero end is in contact with an end of ft. Obviously each di- 
vision of EF is -iVh less than that of the normal scale. It is seen that 
division 6 of the vernier coincides with a normal scale division, and 
obviously the excess of ft over two normal scale divisions equals 
the difference between 6 normal scale divisions and 6 vernier divisions, 
i.e. 0-6. Thus a&ain in this case the vernier reading which coincides 
with a scale reading gives the decimal to be added to the normal kale. 
The second type of vernier is that more commonly adopted, and its 
application to special appliances is quite simple. 

VERNIS MARTIN, a generic name, derived from a distin- 
guished family of French artist-artificers of the i8th century, 
given to a brilliant translucent lacquer extensively used in the 
decoration of furniture, carriages, sedan chairs and a multitude of 
small articles such as snuff-boxes and fans. There were four 
brothers of the Martin family: Guillaume (d. 1749), Simon 
tienne, Julien and Robert (1706-1765), the two first named 
!>eing the, elder. They were the children of fetienne Martin, a 
tailor, and began life as coach-painters. They neither invented, 
nor claimed to have invented, the varnish which bears their 



VERNON VERONA 



name, but they enormously improved, and eventually brought 
to perfection, compositions and methods of applying them which 
were already more or less familiar. Oriental lacquer speedily 
acquired high favour in France, and many attempts were made 
to imitate it. Some of these attempts were passably successful, 
and we can hardly doubt that many of the examples in the pos- 
session of Louis XIV. at his death were of European manufac- 
ture. Chinese lacquer was, however, imported in large quantities, 
and sometimes panels were made in China from designs prepared 
in Paris, just as English coats of arms were placed upon Chinese 
porcelain in its place of origin. At the height of their fame the 
brothers directed at least three factories in Paris, and in 1748 
they were all classed together as a "Manufacture nationale." 
One of them was still in existence in 1785. The literature of their 
day had much to say of the frercs Martin. In Voltaire's comedy 
of Nadine, produced in 1749, mention is made of a berline "bonne 
et brillante, tous les panneaux par Martin sont vernis"; also in 
his Premier discours snr I'iiwgalite des conditions he speaks of 
"des lambris dore*s et vernis par Martin." The marquis de Mira- 
beau in L'Ami des homines refers to the enamelled snuff-boxes 
and varnished carriages which came from the Martins' factory. 
At its best Vernis Martin has a splendour of sheen, a perfection 
of polish, a beauty of translucence which compel the admiration 
due to a consummate specimen of handiwork. Every variety 
of the lacquer of the Far East was imitated and often improved 
upon by the Martins the black with raised gold ornaments, the 
red, and finally in the wonderful green ground, powdered with 
gold, they reached the high-water mark of their delightful art. 
Of the larger specimens from the Martins' factories a vast quan- 
tity has disappeared, or been cut up into decorative panels. It 
would appear that none of the work they placed in the famous 
hotels of old Paris is now in situ, and it is to museums that we 
must go for really fine examples to the Musee de Cluny for an 
exquisite children's sedan chair and the coach used by the French 
ambassador to Venice under Louis XV. ; to the Wallace collection 
for the tables with richly chased mounts that have been attributed 
to Dubois; to Fontainebleau for a famous commode. It has been 
generally accepted that of the four brothers Robert Martin ac- 
complished the most original and the most completely artistic 
work. He left a son, Jean Alexandre, who described himself in 
1767 as "Vernisseur du Roi de Prusse." He was employed at Sans 
Souci, but failed to continue the great traditions of his father 
and his uncles. The Revolution finally extinguished a taste which 
had lasted for a large part of the i8th century. Since then the 
production of lacquer has, on the whole, been an industry rather 
than an art. (J. P.-B.) 

VERNON, EDWARD (1684-1757), English admiral, was 
born in Westminster on Nov. 12, 1684, the second son of James 
Vernon, secretary of State in 1697-1700. Edward Vernon entered 
the navy in 1707, and saw much active service in various seas. 
During the long peace under Walpole he sat in the House of 
Commons (1722-34); he clamoured for war with Spain, and in 
1739 declared he would capture Portobello with a squadron of 
six ships. He got the command and the ships and captured 
Portobello on Nov. 22, with a loss of only seven men. In 1740, 
with a large squadron, he attacked Cartagena without success, 
and had to retire to Jamaica (this episode is described in Roderick 
Random, chap, xiii., etc.). Vernon suffered another reverse at 
Santiago de Cuba in 1741, and returned home in 1743. He had 
been Elected M.P. for Ipswich in 1741, and continued to sit for 
that borough. He was in command in the Downs in 1745, but in 
annoyance at intervention from Whitehall he published some of 
his instructions, and was struck off the flag list. He died on Oct. 
30, 1757, at Nacton, Suffolk. 

VERNON, a town of north-western France. Pop. (1926) 
7,887. Vernon in 1196 was ceded by its count to Philip Augustus, 
Richard I. resigning his suzerainty. The first Estates of Nor- 
mandy were held at Vernon in 1452. Vernon stands on the left 
bank of the Seine. The church of Notre-Dame is an interest- 
ing building dating from the i2th to the i5th centuries, and there 
is a cylindrical keep built by Henry I. of England. 

VERNON, a city of northern Texas, U.S.A., on the Pease 



river, the county seat of Wilbarger county. The population was 
5,142 in 1920 (95% native white) and was estimated at 15,000 in 
1928. It is the shipping point for a wide region (producing 
cotton, wheat, alfalfa and cattle), and for oil-wells with a daily 
production (1928) of 35,000 barrels. Vernon was settled about 
1880, incorporated in 1901, and chartered as a city in 1914. 

VEROLI, an episcopal see of the province of Rome, Italy, 
1,870 ft. above sea-level. Pop (1921) 4,676 (town) ; 15,096 (com- 
mune). The town is situated on the site of the Hernican town of 
Verulae. It retains remains of its ancient polygonal enceinte, espe- 
cially near the summit of the hill, later occupied by a mediaeval 
castle. The cathedral treasury contains the breviary of S. Louis of 
Toulouse. 

VERONA, a city and episcopal see of Venetia, Italy, the capi- 
tal of the province of Verona, situated 194 ft. above sea-level in 
a loop of the Adige (anc. Athesis). Pop. (1921) 87,342 (town), 
92,536 (commune). It is the point of departure to the Brenner. 

Churches. The Romanesque basilica of S. Zeno (the first 
bishop of Verona and its patron saint), outside the ancient city, 
was remodelled in 1117-38, including the richly sculptured west 
front and the open confessio or crypt, raising the choir high above 
the nave. The nave (nth century) has frescoes of the nth- 
i4th centuries. 

The cathedral, consecrated in 1187, stands at the northern end 
of the ancient city, by the bank of the Adige; it is smaller than 
S. Zeno, but has a fine west front, rich with Romanesque sculp- 
'ture (1135) ; the upper part was added during 1565-1606. It has a 
noble Romanesque cloister, with two storeys of arcading. The 
campanile by Sammicheli is unfinished. Its baptistery, rebuilt 
early in the i2th century, is a quite separate building, with nave 
and apse, forming a church dedicated to S. Giovanni in Fonte. 
Pope Lucius III. (d. 1185) is buried in the cathedral. The very 
fine Gothic Dominican church of S. Anastasia (1290-1481), con- 
sists of a nave in six bays, aisles, transepts, each with two eastern 
chapels, and an apse, all vaulted with simple quadripartite brick 
groining. It is specially remarkable for its very beautiful and com- 
plete scheme of coloured decoration. The vaults are gracefully 
painted with floreated bands along the ribs and central patterns in 
each "cell," in rich soft colours on a white plastered ground. 
There are many fine frescoes in the interior including Pisanello's 
beautiful painting of St. George. This church also contains fine 
sculptured tombs of the i4th and i5th centuries. S. Fermo Mag- 
giore was rebuilt in 1313 at a higher level than the earlier church 
(1065-1138). The roof is magnificent. Delicate patterns cover all 
the framework of the panelling and fill the panels themselves. 
Rows of half-figures of saints are painted on blue or gold grounds, 
forming a scheme of indescribably splendid decoration. A simpler 
roof of the same class exists at S. Zeno; it is trefoil-shaped in 
section, with a tie-beam joining the cusps. The church of S. Maria 
in Organo (1481), with a facade of 1592 from Sammichelfs de- 
signs, contains paintings by various Veronese masters, and some 
fine choir-stalls of 1499 by Fra Giocondo. Though not built till 
after his death, the church of S. Giorgio di Braida, on the other 
side of the river, was also designed by Sammicheli, and possesses 
many good pictures of the Veronese school. The Romanesque 
churches of S. Lorenzo and S. Stefano are fine. That dedicated 
to Thomas Becket was rebuilt in the i5th century. 

The strongly fortified castle (Castel Vecchio) built by, Can- 
grande II. della Scala (1354) stands on the line of the wall of 
Theodoric, close by the river. It contains the municipal museum 
and picture gallery. There are five bridges across the Adige: one. 
the graceful Ponte di Pietra, rests upon ancient foundations, while 
the two arches nearest to the left bank are Roman; but it has 
been frequently restored. Remains of another ancient bridge were 
found in the river itself behind S. Anastasia. The 16th-century 
lines of fortification enclose a very much larger area than the 
Roman city. On a steep elevation stands the castle of St. Peter, 
originally founded by Theodoric, on the site, perhaps, of the 
earliest citadel, mostly rebuilt by Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1393, 
and dismantle 1 by the French in 1801. The episcopal palace con- 
tains the ancient and valuable chapter library, of about 12,000 
volumes and over 500 mss. (See GAIUS.) The Piazza delle Erbe 



VERONA 



89 



(fruit and vegetable market) on the site of the ancient Forum and 
the Piazza dei Signori, adjoining one another in the oldest part of 
the city, are very picturesque and beautiful, being surrounded by 
many fine mediaeval buildings, notably the Palazzo del Comune, 
with a tower 273 ft. high, while in the north-east corner of the 
latter Piazza is the fine early Renaissance Loggia del Consiglio 
(1476-1493), most likely designed by Fra Giocondo. The Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele II. (also called Bra, from the Latin pratum, a 
meadow) to the south-west of the amphitheatre, is the tramway, 
centre and the site of the cattle market. On it fronts the Gran 
Guardia, a large palace of 1610, now the Bourse. 

Roman Remains. The Roman remains of Verona surpass 
those of any other city of northern Italy. The most conspicuous 
of them is the great amphitheatre, a building of the end of the 
ist century A.p., which closely resembled the Flavian amphitheatre 
(Colosseum) in Rome. Its axes measured 505 and 404 ft. Almost 
the whole of its external arcades, with three tiers of arches, have 
now disappeared; it was partly thrown down by an earthquake 
in 1183, and subsequently used to supply building materials. The 
interior, with seats for about 25,000 people, has been restored. 
There are also remains of a well-preserved Roman theatre, close 
to the left bank of the river adjacent to which is the archaeological 
museum. The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of 
Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, begun by Scipi- 
one Maffei in 1714. 

Veronese Art, Painting and Sculpture. Painting in Ve- 
rona may be divided into four periods, (i.) The first is char- 
acterized by wall paintings of purely native style, e.g., in SS. 
Nazaro e Celso (996). (ii.) The Byzantine period lasted during 
the 1 2th and i3th centuries. (See S. Zeno for examples.) (Hi.) 
The Giottesque period begins contemporaneously with Altichieri 
and Giacomo d'Avanzo (second half of the i4th century). These 
two painters, among the ablest of Giotto's followers, adorned 
Verona and Padua with very beautiful frescoes, rich in composi- 
tion, delicate in colour, and remarkable for their highly finished 
modelling and detail, (iv.) To the fourth period belong several 
important painters. Pisanello or Vittore Pisano, a charming 
painter and the greatest medallist of Italy, probably a pupil of 
Altichieri, has left a beautiful fresco in the church of S. Anas- 
tasia, representing St. George and the Princess after the con- 
quest of the Dragon. His only other existing fresco is an Annun- 
ciation in S. Fcrmo Maggiore. (See PAINTING.) His pupils in- 
clude Liberale da Verona, Domenico and Francesco Morone, 
Girolamo dai Libri (1474-1556), etc. Domenico del Riccio, 
usually nicknamed Brusasorci (1494-1567), was a prolific painter 
whose works are very numerous in Verona* Paolo Cagliari or 
Paul Veronese, and Bonifacio, though natives of Verona, belong 
rather to the Venetian school. 

Verona is specially rich in early examples of decorative sculp- 
ture, (i.) The first period is that of northern influence, exempli- 
fied in the reliefs which cover the western f agades of the church of 
S. Zeno and the cathedral, dating from the I2th century, and 
representing both sacred subjects and scenes of war and hunting, 
mixed with grotesque monsters. Part of the western doors of S. 
Zeno are early examples of caste bronze reliefs, (ii.) In the i3th 
century the sculpture lost its vigour, without acquiring grace or 
refinement, e.g., the font in the cathedral baptistery. (Hi.) The 
next period is that of Florentine influence, exemplified in the mag- 
nificently sculptured tombs of the Delia Scala lords, those of Can- 
grande I. (d. 1329), Mastino II. (d. 1351) and (the most elaborate 
of all) of the fratricide Can Signorio, adorned with statuettes of 
the virtues, executed during his lifetime (c. 1370), by the sculptor 
Bonino da Campione. (iv.) In the isth century Florence influ- 
enced Verona by way of Venice. 

Architecture. -The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, 
passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages. The 
early Renaissance developed into very exceptional beauty, 
mainly through the genius of Fra Giocondo (1435-1514), a na- 
tive of Verona, who was at first a friar in the monastery of 
S. Maria in Organo. He rose to great celebrity as an architect, 
and designed many graceful and richly sculptured buildings in 
Venke, Rome and even in France; ho used classical forms with 



great taste and skill, and with much of the freedom of the older 
mediaeval architects, and was specially remarkable for his rich 
and delicate sculptured decorations. Another of the leading archi- 
tects of the next stage of the Renaissance was the Veronese 
Michele Sammicheli (1484-1559), a great military engineer, and 
designer of an immense number of magnificent palaces in Verona, 
among which the most outstanding are the Bevilacqua, Canossa 
and Pompei palaces. 

History. The ancient Verona was a town of the Cenomani, 
a Gaulish tribe, whose chief town was Brixia. It became a Latin 
colony in 89 B.C. Inscriptions testify to its importance, indicating 
that it was the headquarters of the collectors of the 5% inheri- 
fance tax under the Empire in Italy beyond the Po. Its territory 
stretched as far as Hostilia on the Padus (Po), 30 m. .to the 
south. It lay on the road between Mediolanum and Aquileia, while 
here diverged to the north the roads over the Brenner. It was the 
birthplace of the poet Catullus. In A.D. 69 it became the head- 
quarters of the legions which were siding with Vespasian. It was 
defended by a river along two-thirds of its circumference. The 
existing remains of walls and gates date from the period between 
the 3rd of April and the 4th of December of the year 265. A very 
handsome triumphal arch, now called the Porta de' Borsari, was 
restored in this year by Gallienus and became one of the city gates. 
The same was the case with the Porta dei Leoni, on the east of the 
city, and with a third arch, the Arco dei Gavi, demolished in 1805. 
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from 
Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that 
Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von 
Bern i.e., Verona of German legends, who built a castle at 
Verona and frequently resided there. He enlarged the fortified 
area by constructing a wall and ditch (now called Adigetto), to 
the SAV. of the amphitheatre, and also built thermae and restored 
the aqueducts, which had long been out of use. 

In the middle ages Verona gradually grew in size and impor- 
tance. Alboin, the Lombard king, captured it in 568, and it was 
one of the chief residences of the Lombard, and later of the 
Frankish, monarchs; and though, like other cities of northern 
Italy, it suffered much during the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles, 
it rose to a foremost position both from the political and the 
artistic point of view under its various rulers of the Scaliger or 
Delia Scala family. The first prominent member of this family 
and founder of his dynasty was Mastino I. della Scala, who ruled 
over the city from 1260 till his death in 1277. Verona had pre- 
viously fallen under Ezzelino da Romano (1227-1259). Alberto 
della Scala (d. 1301) was succeeded by his eldest son Bartolo- 
meo, who was confirmed as ruler of Verona by the popular vote, 
and died in 1304. It was in his time that Romeo and Juliet are 
said to have lived. Alboino, the second son, succeeded his brother, 
and died in 1311, when the youngest son of Alberto, Can Grande, 
who since 1308 had been joint-lord of Verona with his brother, 
succeeded to the undivided power. Can Grande (Francesco della 
Scala, d. 1329) was the best and most illustrious of his line, and 
is specially famous as the hospitable patron of Dante (q.v.). 
Other princes of this dynasty, which lasted for rather more than 
a century, were Giovanni (d. 1350), Mastino II. (d. 1351), Can 
Grande II. (d. 1359) an d Can Signorio (d. 1375). In 1387 Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan, became by conquest lord of 
Verona. Soon after his death the city fell by treacherous means 
into the hands of Francesco II. di Carrara, lord of Padua. In 
1404-1405 Verona, together with Padua, was finally conquered by 
Venice, and remained subject to the Venetians till the overthrow 
of the republic by Napoleon in 1797, who in the same year, after 
the treaty of Campo Formio, ceded it to the Austrians with the 
rest of Venetia. They fortified it strongly in 1814, and with 
Peschiera, Mantua and Legnago it formed part of the famous 
quadrilateral which until 1866 was the chief support of their 
rule in Italy. The town was greatly damaged by a flood in 1882. 

See the various works by Sciplonc Maffei (Verona Ittustrata, 1728; 
Museum Verontnsc, 1749) ; A. Wiel, The Story of Verona (London, 
1902) ; R. Peyre, Padoue et Virone (1907) ; E. Giani, UAntko teatro 
di Verona (Verona, 1908) ; A. M. Allen, History of Verona (1910) ; 
E. R. Williams, Plain Towns (1912); M. Ludwig, Auf Verona* 
Dachern (1919). (J- H. ML; T. A.) 



VERONA VERRES 



VERONA, CONGRESS OP, the last of the series of inter- 
national conferences or congresses based on the principle enunci- 
ated in Art. 6 of the treaty of Paris of Nov. 20, 1815 (see 
EUROPE, History). It met at Verona on Oct. 20, 1822. The 
emperor Alexander I. of Russia was present in person. There 
were also present Count Nesselrode, the Russian minister of 
foreign affairs; Prince Metternich, representing Austria; Prince 
Hardenberg and Count Bernstorff, representing Prussia; MM. 
de Montmorency and Chateaubriand, representing France; and 
the duke of Wellington, representing Great Britain 

The immediate problems arising out of the Turkish Question 
had been settled between the emperor Alexander and Metternich, 
at the preliminary conferences held at Vienna in September, and 
at Verona the only question raised was that of the proposed 
French intervention in Spain. The discussion was opened by 
three questions formally propounded by Montmorency: (i) 
Would the Allies withdraw their ministers from Madrid in the 
event of France being compelled to do so? (2) In case of war, 
under what form and by what acts would the powers give France 
their moral support, so as to give to her action the force of the 
Alliance, and inspire a salutary fear in the revolutionaries of all 
countries? (3) What material aid would the powers give, if 
asked by France to intervene, under restrictions which she would 
declare and they would recognize? 

The reply of Alexander, who expressed his surprise at the desire 
of France to keep the question "wholly French," was to offer 

to march 150,000 Russians through Germany to Piedmont, where 
they could be held ready to act against the Jacobins whether in 
Spain or France. Wellington, who had been instructed to express 
the uncompromising opposition of Great Britain to the whole 
principle of intervention, refused to have anything to do with the 
suggestion, made by Metternich, that the powers should address 
a common note to the Spanish Government in support of the 
action of France. Finally, Metternich proposed that the Allies 
should "hold a common language, but in separate notes, though 
uniform in their principles, and objects/' This solution was 
adopted by the continental powers ; and Wellington, in accordance 
with his instructions, took no part in the conferences that fol- 
lowed. On Oct. 30 the powers handed in their formal replies to 
the French memorandum. Russia, Austria and Prussia would act 
as France should in respect of their ministers in Spain, and would 
give to France every countenance and assistance she might 
require, the details "being reserved to be specified in a treaty." 
Wellington, on the other hand, replied on behalf of Great Britain 
that "having no knowledge of the cause of dispute, and not being 
able to form a judgment upon a hypothetical case, he could give 
no answer to any of the questions." 

Thus was proclaimed the open breach of Great Britain with 
the principles and policy of the Great Alliance, which is what 
gives to the congress its main historical interest. (W. A. P.) 

VERONAL, a crystalline substance extensively used in 
medicine as a hypnotic. Chemically, veronal is diethylmalonyl 
urea or diethyl-barbituric acid (C 2 H R ) 8 C[CO NH] 8 CO. It is pre- 
pared by condensing diethylmalonic ester with urea in the 
presence of sodium ethylate, or by acting with ethyl iodide on 
the silver salt of malonyl urea; it forms a white crystalline 
powder, which is odourless, and has a slightly bitter taste. Its 
introduction followed the investigations of Emil Fischer and J. 
v. Merling on the pharmacological properties of certain open and 
closed ureides. Led thereto by the impression that hypnotic 
action appears to be largely dependent on the presence of ethyl 
groups, they prepared diethylacetyl urea, diethylmalonyl urea, 
and dipropylmalonyl urea. All three were found to be hypnotics: 
the first was about equal in power to sulphonal, whilst the third 
was four times as powerful, but its use was attended by prolonged 
after-effects. Veronal was found to be midway. It is best given 
in cachets (TO to 15 grains). As it does not affect the circulatory 
or respiratory systems, or temperature, it can be employed in 
many diseased conditions of the heart and lungs as well as in 
mental disturbances, acute alcoholism, morphinomania and kidney 
disease. If taken during a prolonged period it seems to lose its 
effect. A soluble salt of veronal has been introduced under the 



name of medinal. Although the toxicity of veronal is low, the 
unreasonable consumption by persons suffering from insomnia 
has led to many deaths. (See BARBITURIC ACID.) 

VERONICA, ST. According to legend, Veronica was a pious 
woman of Jerusalem, who gave Jesus her kerchief to wipe the 
drops of agony from His brow. After using the napkin He handed 
it back with the image of His face miraculously impressed upon 
it. Other legends identify her with the woman who had an issue 
of blood. Eusebius tells in his Historia Ecclesiastica (vii. 18) 
how outside this woman's house, at Caesarea Philippi, there stood 
two figures, one a supplicating woman, the other that of a man 
representing Christ. It was said that the group had been set up 
in recognition of the miraculous cure. In the West this woman 
was identified with Martha of Bethany; in the East she was called 
Berenike, or Beronike. Towards the 6th century the legend of 
the woman with the issue of blood became merged in the legend 
of Pilate, as is shown in the writings known in the middle ages as 
Cur a sanitatis Tiberii and V indict a Salvatoris. According to the 
former of these accounts Veronica caused a portrait of the Saviour 
to be painted. The emperor Tiberius, when sick, commanded the . 
woman to bring the portrait to him, worshipped Christ and was 
cured. The legend continued to gather accretions, and a miracu* 
lous origin came to be assigned to the image. According to the 
legends in France, Veronica was married to Zaccheus, who bad 
been converted by Christ, and went with him to Quiercy, where 
he became a hermit. She then joined Martial in his apostolic 

preaching. In the Bordeaux district Veronica is said to have 
brought relics of the Virgin to Sonlac, where she died and was 
buried. In the 1 2th century the image began to be identified with 
one at Rome, and in the popular speech the image, too, was called 
Veronica. It is interesting to note that the fanciful derivation of 
the same Veronica from the words Vera icon (tlK&v) "true image" 
dates back to the Otia Imperialia (iii. 25) of Gervase of Til- 
bury (fl. 121 1 ), who says: "Est ergo Veronica pictura Domini 
vera." 

See Acta Sanctorum, February, i. 449-457; L. F. C. Tischendorf, 
Evangclia apocrypha (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1877), p. 239; E. von Dob* 
schiitz, ChristusbUder (Leipzig, 1899) ; H. Thurston, The Stations of 
the Cross (London, 1906). 

VERRALL, ARTHUR WOOLLGAR (1851-1912), Brit- 
ish scholar, was born at Brighton on Feb. 5, 1851. Educated at 
Wellington college and Trinity college, Cambridge, he graduated in 
1873, becoming fellow and tutor of his college. He wrote im- 
portant studies on Horace, Martial, Statius, and a specially valu- 
able one on Propertius. He published editions of many classical 
Choephoroe (1893). In 1895 appeared Euripides the Rationalist, 
followed by Essays on Four Plays of Euripides (1905) and on 
plays, especially the Medea (1881), Agamemnon (1899) and an 
edition of the Bacchae (1910). He was an original critic, and a 
frequent contributor to The Classical Review and other journals. 
In Feb. 1911 he was appointed to fill the new King Edward VII. 
professorship of literature at Cambridge. He died at Cambridge 
on June 18, 1912. 

VERRES, GAIUS (c. 120-43 B.C.), Roman magistrate, 
notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily. It is not known to 
what gens he belonged. He at first supported Marius, but soon 
went over to Sulla who gave him land at Beneventum, and secured 
him against punishment for embezzlement. In 80, Verres was 
quaestor in Asia on the staff of Cn. Cornelius Dolabella, governor 
of Cilicia. The governor and his subordinate plundered in concert, 
till in 78 Dolabella had to stand his trial at Rome, and was con- 
victed, mainly on the evidence of Verres, who thus secured a 
pardon for himself. He was praetor in 74, and was then sent as 
governor to Sicily, the richest of the Roman provinces. The people 
were for the most part prosperous and contented, but under Verres 
the island experienced more misery and desolation than during the 
time of the first Punic or the recent servile wars. The corn-growers 
and the revenue collectors were ruined by taxation and the can- 
celling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of 
their works of art; and the rights of Roman citisens were dis- 
regarded. Verres returned to Rome hi 70, and in the same year, 
at the request of the Sicilians, Cicero prosecuted him. Verne 



VERRIO VERSAILLES 



9 1 



was defended by the mopt eminent of Roman advocates, Q. Hor- 
tensius. The court was composed exclusively of senators, some of 
whom might have been his personal friends. But the presiding 
judge, M'. Acilius Glabrio, was not corruptible. Verres tried to get 
the trial postponed till 69 when his friend Metellus would be the 
presiding judge, but in August Cicero opened the case. The effect 
of the first brief speech was so overwhelming that Hortensius 
refused to reply, and recommended his client to leave the country. 
He went to Massilia and lived there till 43, when he was proscribed 
by Antony, the reason alleged being his refusal to surrender some 
of his art treasures which Antony coveted. 

VERRIO, ANTONIO (1639-1707), Italian painter, was 
born at Lecce, in the Neapolitan province of Terra cli Otranto. 
In 1660 at Naples he executed a large fresco work "Christ Healing 
the Sick," for the Jesuit College. He subsequently went to France 
where at Toulouse he painted an altarpiece for the Carmelites. He 
was invited to England by Charles II. and employed in the deco- 
rating of Windsor Castle. Little of his work is now extant. He 
was a rapid painter, fertile in invention, and best at covering large 
surfaces in decorative frescoes. Charles II. named him "master 
gardener," gave him a lodge in Hyde Park and paid him lavishly. 
He was employed by James II. on Cardinal Wolsey's Tombhouse. 
He painted James and several of his courtiers in the hospital at 
Christ Church, London, and also executed a number of decorative 
frescoes at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. He was later employed by 
Lord Exeter at Burleigh and painted the large staircase at Hamp- 
ton Court for King William. He was very successful but his work 
was often severely criticized by his contemporaries for gaudy col- 
ours, bad drawing and senseless composition. He died at Hampton 
Court on June 17, 1707. 

VERRIUS FLACCUS, MARCUS (c. 10 B.C.), Roman 
grammarian and teacher, flourished under Augustus and Tiberius. 
He was a freedman, and his manumitter has been identified with 
Verrius Flaccus, an authority on pontifical law; but for chrono- 
logical reasons the name of Veranius Flaccus, a writer on augury, 
has been suggested (Teuffel-Sthwabe, Hist, of Roman Lit. 199, 4). 
He was summoned to court to bring up Gaius and Lucius, the 
grandsons of Augustus. He removed there with his whole school, 
and his salary was greatly increased on the condition that he 
took no fresh pupils. He died at an advanced age during the 
reign of Tiberius (Suetonius, De Grammaticis, 17), and a statue 
in his honour was erected at Praeneste, in a marble recess, with 
inscriptions from his Fasti. Flaccus was also a distinguished 
philologist and antiquarian investigator. For his most important 
work (De Verborum Significant) see FESTUS, SEXTUS. Of the 
calendar of Roman festivals (Fasti Praenestim) engraved on 
marble and set up in the forum at Praeneste, some fragments 
were discovered (1771) at some distance from the town itself in 
a Christian building of later date, and some consular fasti in the 
forum itself (1778). Two new fragments were subsequently added. 

Other lost works of Flaccus were: De Orthographia: De Obscuris 
Catonis, an elucidation of obscurities in the writings of the elder 
Cato; Saturnus, dealing with questions of Roman ritual; Rerum 
memoria dignarwn libri, an encyclopaedic work much used by Pliny 
the elder ; Res Etruscae, probably on augury. 

VERROCCHIO, ANDREA DEL (1435-1488), Italian 
goldsmith, sculptor and painter, was born at Florence. He was 
the son of Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, and took his name 
from his master, the goldsmith Giuliano Verrocchi. As a teacher 
he occupies an important position from the fact that Leonardo 
da Vinci and Lorenzo di Credi worked for many years in his 
bott6ga as pupils and assistants. Only one existing painting can 
be attributed by Vasari to Verrocchio, the celebrated "Baptism 
of Christ," originally painted for the monks of Vallombrosa, and 
now in the Uffizi Florence. The figures of Christ and the Baptist 

are executed with great vigour, but are rather hard and angular in 
style. The two angels are of a much more graceful cast; the 
face of one is of especial beauty, and Vasari asserts that this head 
was painted by the young Leonardo. Other pictures from Ver- 
rocchio's bottlga probably exist, as, for example, two in the Na- 
tional Gallery of London formerly attributed to Ant. Pollaiuolo 
"Tobias and the Angel" (No. 781) and the very lovely "Madonna 
and Angels" (No. 296), both very brilliant and jewel-like in 



colour. This exquisite painting may possibly have been painted 
from Verrocchio's design by Lorenzo di Credi while he was under 
the immediate influence of his wonderful fellow-pupil, Da Vinci. 

In examining Verrocchio's work as a sculptor we are on surer 
ground. One of Verrocchio's earliest sculptures is the bronze 
"David" in the Bargello, Florence (1469). In 1472 he completed 
the fine tomb of Giovanni and Piero de' Medici, in the first 
sacristy of San Lorenzo at Florence. This consists of a great 
porphyry sarcophagus enriched with magnificent acanthus foliage 
in bronze. Above it is a graceful open bronze grill, made like a 
network of cordage. The charming bronze putto with dolphin 
now in the court of the Palazzo Vecchio at Florence was intended 
for the villa Medici at Careggi. In 1474 Verrocchio began the 
monument to Cardinal Forteguerra in the cathedral of Pistoia. 
The kneeling figure of the cardinal was never completed, and now 
lies in a room of La Sapienza, but the whole design is shown in 
what is probably Verrocchio's original clay sketch now in the 
South Kensington. The actual execution of this work as designed 
by Verrocchio was entrusted to an assistant, the Florentine 
Lorenzetto. Somewhere between 1475 and 1480 is the terra- 
cotta relief of the Madonna and Child from S. Maria Nuova, 
now in the Bargello, a genuine standard work. In 1480 Verroc- 
chio completed one of the reliefs of the magnificent silver altar- 
frontal of the Florentine baptistery, that representing the "Be- 
heading of St. John." Verrocchio's other works in the precious 
metals are now lost, but Vasari records that he made many elab- 
orate pieces of plate and jewelry, such as morses for copes, as 
well as a series of silver statues of the Apostles for the pope's 
chapel in the Vatican. Between 1478 and 1480 he was occupied 
in making the bronze group of the "Unbelief of St. Thomas," 
which still stands in one of the external niches of Or San Michele 
(Florence). He received 800 florins for these two figures, which 
are more remarkable for the excellence of their technique than 
for their sculpturesque beauty. The attitudes are rather rigid and 
the faces hard in expression. Verrocchio's most imposing work 
was the colossal bronze equestrian statue of the Venetian general 
Bartolommeo Colleoni, which stands in the piazza of SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo at Venice. Verrocchio received the order for this statue in 
1485 but had only completed the model when he died in 1488. In 
spite of his request that the casting should be entrusted to his 
pupil Lorenzo di Credi, the work was given to AJessandro Leopard] 
who signed his name on the saddle girth. The statue was gilt and 
unveiled in I496 1 . This is one of the noblest equestrian statues 
in the world. The horse is designed with wonderful nobility and 
spirit, and the pose of the great general is a marvel of sculptur- 
esque ability. Most remarkable skill is shown by the way in which 
Verrocchio has exaggerated the strongly marked features of the 
general, so that nothing of its powerful effect is lost by the lofty 
position of the head. According to Vasari, Verrocchio was one of 
the first sculptors who made a practical use of casts from living 
and dead subjects. He is said also to have produced plastic works 
in terra-cotta, wood and in wax decorated with colour. As a 
sculptor his chief pupil was Francesco di Simone. Another pupil 
was Agnolo di Polo (Paolo), who worked chiefly in terra-cotta. 

Verrocchio died in Venice in 1488, and was buried in the 
church of St. Ambrogio in Florence. 

See also Hans Mackowsky, "Verrocchio" (1901), Kunsttr Mono- 
graphien, No. 52; M. Cruttwell, Verrocchio (1904); M. Reymond, 
Verrocchio (1906). 

VERSAILLES, a town of northern France, capital of the 
department of Seine-et-Oise, 12 m. by road W.S.W. of Paris, with 
which it is connected by rail and tram. Pop. (1926) 68,575. Ver- 
sailles owes its existence to the palace built by Louis XIV. It 
stands 460 ft. above the sea, and its fresh healthy air and nearness 
to the capital attract many residents. The three avenues of St. 
Cloud, Paris and Sceaux converge in the Place d'Armea. Between 
them stand the former stables of the palace, now occupied by the 
artillery and engineers. To the south lies the quarter of Satory, 
the oldest part of Versailles, with the cathedral of St. Louis, and 
to the north the new quarter, with the church of Not re-Dame. 

The Palace* To the west of the Place d'Armes a gilded iron 

l Sec Gaye, Cart. hied, i., p. 367. 



VERSAILLES 



gate and a stone balustrade mark off the great court of the palace. 
In this court stand statues of Richelieu, Conde*, Du Guesclin and 
other famous Frenchmen. At the highest point there is an eques- 
trian statue in bronze of Louis XIV. To the right and left of 
this stretch the long wings of the palace, while behind ex- 
tend the Cour Royale and beyond it the smaller Cour de 
Marbre, to the north, south and west of which rise the central 
buildings. To the north the Chapel Court and to the south the 
Princes Court, with vaulted passages leading to the gardens, 
separate the side from the central buildings. The palace chapel 
(1696-1710), the roof of which can be seen from afar rising above 
the rest of the building, was the last important work of J. Har- 
douin-Mansart. 

The north wing contains galleries and halls of historical pic- 
tures and sculptures, and other great apartments, the most famous 
of which historically is the theatre built under Louis XV. where 
was held the banquet to the Gardes du Corps, the toasts at 
which provoked riots that drove Louis XVI. from Versailles. 
Here the National Assembly met from the loth of March 1871 
till the proclamation of the constitution in 1875, and the Senate 
from the 8th of March 1876 till the return of the two chambers 
to Paris in 1879. The central buildings include the former 
dauphin's apartments and many others on the ground floor and 
fine state-rooms on the first floor with the great "Galerie des 
Glaces" (1678) overlooking the park. The hall of Hercules was 
till 1710 the upper half of the old chapel famed for its associations 
with Bossuet, Massillon and Bourdaloue. The queen's apart- 
ments and the rooms of Louis XIV. are on this floor. The Oeil 
de Boeuf, named from its oval window, was the anteroom where 
the courtiers waited till the king rose. It leads to the bedroom in 
which Louis XIV. died, after using it from 1701, and which Louis 
XV. occupied from 1722 to 1738. In the south wing of the palace, 
on the ground-floor, is the Gallery of the Republic and the First 
Empire. In the south wing is also the room where the Chamber 
of Deputies met from 1876 till 1879, and where the Congress has 
since sat to revise the constitution voted at Versailles in 1875 and 
to elect the president of the republic. The first floor is almost 
entirely occupied by the Battle Gallery. In the window openings 
are the names of soldiers killed while fighting for France, with 
the names of the battles in which they fell, and there are more 
than eighty busts of princes, admirals, constables, marshals and 
celebrated warriors who met a similar death. Another room is 
given up to exhibits connected with the events of 1830 and the 
accession of Louis Philippe. 

The Gardens. The gardens of Versailles were planned by 
Andre Le Notre. The ground falls away on every side from a 
terrace adorned with ornamental basins, statues and bronze groups. 
Westwards from the palace extends a broad avenue, planted with 
large trees, and having along its centre the grass of the "Tapis 
Vert"; it is continued by the Grand Canal, 200 ft. wide and i m. 
long. On the south of the terrace two splendid staircases lead past 
the Orangery to the Swiss Lake, beyond which is the wood of 
Satory. On the north an avenue, with twenty- two groups of three 
children, each group holding a marble basin from which a jet of 
water rises, slopes gently down to the Basin of Neptune, remark- 
able for its fine sculptures and abundant water. The Orangery 
(built in 1685 by Mansart) is the finest piece of architecture at 
Versailles; the central gallery is 508 ft. long and 42 wide, and 
each of the side galleries is 375 ft. long. There are 1,200 orange 
trees; one of which is said to date from 1421, and 300 other kinds 
of trees. 

The alleys of the parks are ornamented with statues, vases and 
regularly cut yews, and bordered by hedges surrounding the 
shrubberies. The Grand Canal under Louis XIV. was covered 
with Venetian gondolas and other boats. Around the Tapis Vert 
are numerous groves, the most remarkable being the Ballroom or 
Rockery, with a waterfall; the Queen's Shrubbery, the scene of 
the intrigue of the diamond necklace; that of the Colonnade, the 
King's Shrubbery, the Grove of Apollo, and the basin of Enceladus. 

Among the chief attractions of Versailles are the fountains and 
waterworks made by Louis XIV. in imitation of those he had 
seen at Fouquet's chateau of Vaux Owing to the scarcity of 



water at Versailles, the works at Marly r le-Roi were constructed 
in order to bring water from the Seine; but part of the supply 
thus obtained was diverted to the newly erected chateau of Marly. 
Vast sums of money were spent and many lives lost in an attempt 
to bring water from the Eure, but the work was stopped by the 
war of 1688. At last the waters of the plateau between Versailles 
and Rambouillet were collected and led by channels (total length 
98 m.) to the gardens, the soil of which covers innumerable 
pipes, vaults and aqueducts. 

The Trianons. Beyond the present park, but within that of 
Louis XIV., are the two Trianons, The Grand Trianon was origi- 
nally erected as a retreat for Louis XIV. in 1670, but in 1687 
Mansart built a new palace on its site. Louis XV., after estab- 
lishing a botanic garden, made Gabriel build in 1766 the small 
pavilion of the Petit Trianon. It was a favourite residence of 
Marie Antoinette, who had a garden laid out in the English style, 
with rustic villas in which the ladies of the court led a mimic 
peasant-life. The Grand Trianon contains a museum of state 
carriages, old harness, etc. 

The Town. The church of Not re-Dame, built by Mansart, and 
the cathedral of St. Louis, built by his grandson, arc uninteresting. 
The celebrated tennis-court (Jeu de Paume) is now used as a 
museum. The palace of the prefecture, built during the Second 
Empire, was a residence of the president of the republic from 1871 
to 1879. The military hospital formerly accommodated 2,000 
people in the service of the palace. A school of horticulture was 
founded in 1874, attached to an excellent garden, near the Swiss 
Lake. 

Versailles is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a court of 
assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a 
board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch 
of the Bank of France, and, among its educational establishments, 
lyce*es and training colleges for both sexes and a technical school. 
It is an important garrison town and has a school of military 
engineering and artillery. Distilling, boot and shoe making, and 
market-gardening are carried on. 

History. Louis XIII. often hunted in the woods of Versailles, 
and built a small pavilion at the corner of what is now the rue de 
la Pompe and the avenue of St. Cloud. In 1627 he entrusted 
Jacques Lemercier with the plan of a chateau. In 1661 Louis 
Levau made some additions which were further developed by 
him in 1668. In 1678 Mansart took over the work, the Galerie 
des Glaces, the chapel and the two wings being due to him. In 
1682 Louis XIV. took up his residence in the chateau. Till his 
time the town was represented by a few houses to the south of the 
present Place d'Armes; but land was given to the lords of the 
court and new houses sprang up, chiefly in the north quarter. 
Under Louis XV. the parish of St. Louis was formed to the south 
for the increasing population, and new streets were built to the 
north on the meadows of Clagny. Under Louis XVI. the town 
extended to the east and received a municipality ; in 1802 it gave 
its name to a bishopric. In 1783 the armistice preliminary to the 
treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States was 
signed at Versailles. The states-general met here on the 5th of 
May 1789, and on the 2oth of June took the solemn oath in the 
Tennis Court by which they bound themselves not to separate till 
they had given France a constitution. Napoleon neglected, and 
Louis XVIII. and Charles X. merely kept up, Versailles, but 
Louis Philippe made great alterations, some of which are being 
altered back to the original designs in a restoration recently under- 
taken, partly with the help of a large gift from the United States 
of America. In 1870 and 1871 the town was the headquarters of 
the German army besieging Paris, and in the Galerie des Glaces 
William I. of Prussia was crowned German emperor in 1871. 
After the peace Versailles was the seat of the French National 
Assembly while the commune was triumphant in Paris, and of the 
two chambers till 1879, being declared the official capital of 
France. After the World War the treaty between the Allied 
Powers and Germany was signed in the Galerie des Glaces. 

See A. P. Gille, Versailles ct les deux Trianons, with illustrations by 
M. Lambert (Tours, 1899, 1900) ; P. de Nolhac, La Creation de Ver- 
sailles (Versailles, 1901) ; J. E. Farmer, Versailles and the Court under 
Louis XIV. (New York, 1905). 



VERSAILLES, TREATY OF 



93 



VERSAILLES, TREATY OF* the treaty of peace that 
marked the close of the World War, signed by the representatives 
of the Allied Powers and of Germany on June 28, 1919, and 
brought into force by exchange of ratifications on Jan. 10, 1920. 
It was intended originally that it should be only one part of a gen- 
eral and inclusive treaty, comprising settlement with Austrians, 
Hungarians, Bulgars and Turks, as well as Germans. In such case 
it would have been strictly comparable to the Treaty of Vienna in 
1815, which was, in fact, an "omnibus treaty." But the delays in 
dealing with these peoples, particularly Hungarians and Turks, not 
only separated the German treaty from the others, but caused it 
to be the first to be signed and the first to come into force, just as 
it was the first in importance. 

I. NEGOTIATIONS BEFORE THE ARMISTICE 

It is important, therefore, at the outset to understand the im- 
plications of the correspondence conducted between the German 
Government and President Wilson during Oct. and Nov. 1918, 
when the former was asking for peace. The governing document 
of the series is the reply of President Wilson to the German Gov- 
ernment of Nov. 5, which embodied the result of the decisions of 
the principal Allied and Associated Governments as a whole (i.e., 
France, Great Britain, Italy and the United States). 

In that document they offered to make peace on the basis of 
President Wilson's speech on Jan. 8, 1918, which embodied the 
"Fourteen Points" (q.v.; excluding only point 2 relating to the 
freedom of the seas). In addition, they promised to make peace 
by "the principles of. settlement embodied in his subsequent 
addresses," i.e., speeches up to Nov. 5, 1918. 

So we may say that the Allies offered to make peace on the 
general basis of President Wilson's speeches in 1918, minus his 
point about "freedom of the seas," and plus a definition of loss and 
damage. The Germans sent no reply to this offer in writing, but 
in fact accepted it by communicating with Marshal Foch and 
asking for an armistice. The course of the negotiations is related 
in the article PARIS, CONFERENCE OF, and all that can be done 
here is to indicate the character of the treaty itself and its ap- 
parent meaning as deduced from its clauses. It is at once the 
largest and the most complicated of modern treaties, and the best 
way to analyse it would seem to be to take its 1 5 parts separately. 

II. ANALYSIS OF THE TREATY 

Part I. The Covenant. Part I. deals with the Covenant of 
the League of Nations (see COVENANT). It may be here remarked 
that the Covenant unites all its members in a league guaranteeing 
their territorial independence and integrity. The entrance of Ger- 
many into the League was deprecated at the time by some of the 
Allies and only became a certainty after the signature of the agree- 
ments of Locarno on Dec. i, 1925, and their ratification in 1926. 
The most important powers granted to the League are the super- 
vision of mandated territories (art. 22), whereby the future gov- 
ernment of the German colonies, after having been assigned to 
various mandatory Powers, is subject to supervision by the Per- 
manent Mandates' Commission. This is appointed by the League, 
and it inspects the annual reports of the mandatory Powers on the 
territory committed to their charge. 

Similarly, the racial and religious Minorities 7 Treaties have been 
placed under the guardianship of the League, but their supervision 
here, though real, is not so effective as over territories under the 
mandates. Ultimately the supervision of disarmament, as pro- 
vided in the German treaty, is to fall into the hands of the League, 
and this has finally been accomplished by the dissolution of the 
inter-Allied naval and military commissions and their supersession 
by the League at the end of 1925. The international control of 
health and disease is provided for in article 25 and has been actu- 
ally much extended since. Article 23 provides for international 
co-operation in labour questions (see below, Part XIII.). 

The most binding obligation of the League is found in articles 
1 2-1 6, by which members bind themselves not to go to war in 
disregard of its covenants until three months of arbitration or in- 
quiry by the council have elapsed. It is provided under article 8 
that the League shall formulate plans for reduction of national 



armaments, and it took the lead in the disarmament conference 
opened in 1926. 

The actual machinery, through which the League functions, 
consists at the outset of a council of nine, of whom five must be 
France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and the United States. As the 
latter declined to accede, five out of the original nine seats were 
left to be filled by smaller states, whose representatives are elected 
by the Assembly of the League. Germany has, since 1926, entered 
the League and occupied a permanent seat on the Council. The 
Assembly consists of representatives of all member states, and is 
an annual international Parliament. Two institutions connected 
with, but actually separated from the League are the Permanent 
Court of International Justice (provided for under art. 14 and 
actually functioning since 1921), and the International Labour 
Office and annual conference (art. 23-4). The League also, as will 
be described below, is the governor of two important pieces of ter- 
ritory, the Saar basin and the free city of Danzig. 

Parts II. and III. Territorial Dispositions. (a) Western 
Frontiers. Germany lost territory in the south, north and east as 
a result of the War, whilst other arrangements tended to weaken 
her influence beyond her own borders. Belgium, for example, 
ceased by article 31 to be a neutralised state, and has since entered 
into a military alliance with France. She has also acquired by 
cession from Germany the frontier districts of Moresnet, Eupen 
and Malmedy (art. 32-4); Luxembourg similarly ceases to be a 
neutralised state (art. 40-1), and has since entered into an eco- 
nomic union with Belgium. By articles 42-4 the whole left bank 
of the Rhine and the right bank to the west of a line drawn sokm. 
to the east of the Rhine, has been demilitarised forever. Fortifica- 
tions are to be dismantled there, and no permanent works for 
manoeuvre or mobilisation arc to be permitted. 

By articles 45-50 the Saar basin forms an area under the con- 
trol of an international commission and of the League, and its 
coal-mines are ceded to France. At the end of 15 years a plebi- 
scite will be taken, whereby the inhabitants will vote as to their 
preference (a) for the existing international regime, (b) for union 
with France, (c) for union with Germany. Finally, and most im- 
portant of all, by articles 51-79, Alsace and Lorraine are ceded 
by Germany to France. The latter thus gains nearly 2,000,000 
inhabitants, great strategic advantages and over three-fourths of 
the German-produced iron with other valuable minerals. 

(b) Northern Frontier. Toward the north Germany consented 
(art. 115) to demolish the fortifications of Heligoland and to de- 
militarise it, but she retains its territorial sovereignty. She has 
lost the northern part of Schleswig to Denmark. By articles 
109-14 it was provided that there should be a plebiscite in two 
zones. Of these, the northern voted for incorporation with Den- 
mark and the southern, or Flensburg, zone elected for Germany. 
Denmark thus received that plebiscite which Bismarck had prom- 
ised her but which he never gave (Art. III., Treaty of Nikolsburg, 
July 26, 1866). 

(c) Eastern Frontier. By articles 87-93 it was provided that 
there should be a plebiscite in Upper Silesia. This has resulted 
(1921) in a decision in which the southern half of the area 
including valuable mines passed to Poland, the upper half return- 
ing to Germany. Two other such plebiscites were provided for in 
East Prussia in the Allenstein and Marienwerder districts respec- 
tively, both of which went in favour of Germany. By the bound- 
aries as drawn, a large part of the Posen and Bromberg area 
goes to the New Polish Republic. In addition, a Polish corridor is 
run to the sea between East Prussia and Brandenburg ending in 
the free city of Danzig. The latter is administered by the League 
but its foreign relations are controlled by Poland. Finally, the 
city and hinterland of Memel, ceded to the Principal Allies in the 
treaty, was handed over to Lithuania in 1924. About 3,500,000 
former inhabitants of Germany are ceded to Poland or Lithuania 
in the east, of which rather less than one-third are German. Alto- 
gether, the total number of inhabitants ceded to the various 
Powers under the German Treaty falls not far short of 6,000,000. 
And this loss is probably a good deal less serious than the econom- 
ic injury suffered by Germany in the loss of most of her iron and 
other minerals. 



VERSAILLES, TREATY OF 



Part IV. German Rights and Interests Outside Germany. 

By articles 119-27, Germany ceded all her oversea colonies to 
the Principal Allied Powers. She thus lost in Africa the Cameroons 
(divided between France and the British empire as mandatories) ; 
Togoland (to Great Britain as mandatory) ; Southwest Africa (to 
the Union of South Africa as mandatory); East Africa (to Great 
Britain and to Belgium as mandatories). These territories in- 
cluded some 18,000 Germans and between 12,000,000 and 13,- 
000,000 natives. In the Pacific she lost the Marshall Isles (ceded 
to Japan as mandatory) ; Samoa (to New Zealand as manda- 
tory); New Guinea (to Australia as mandatory); Nauru Island 
(to the British empire as mandatory). She also renounced out- 
right to Japan (art. 156-8) the peninsula of Shantung, a province 
Japan returned to China in 1921. In addition to all these cessions 
of territory, Germany lost all her state property, movable and 
immovable, in her colonies. She was further obliged to cancel all 
her valuable treaty rights, capitulations and concessions with coun- 
tries like China, Liberia, Siam, Egypt and Morocco. An absolutely 
clean sweep was made of her transmarine possessions, properties, 
powers and rights. By article 438 even the property and stations 
of German missionaries are to be handed over to trustees, and the 
individual missionaries controlled or expelled from the mandated 
territories, at the will of the mandatory. The course of time will 
show how far the general disabilities inflicted on German oversea 
undertakings will cripple the transmarine state enterprise of Ger- 
many in future, and hamper her private traders and steamship 
lines, as well as her missionaries. 

Part V. Military, Naval and Air Clauses.- The aim of 
these clauses was similar in all cases, to destroy the existing Ger- 
man fortifications and the materiel of war, and to maintain Ger- 
many permanently in an absolutely weak and crippled condition, 
so far as armaments went. The maximum of the German army in 
future was to be 100,000 men, with stores of ammunition, guns, 
etc., in strict proportion. Beyond this figure all existing munitions, 
etc., were to be surrendered and destroyed and munition manu- 
facture henceforth restricted. Germany consented to abolish con- 
scription and to adopt a system of long-period voluntary enlist- 
ment of at least 12 years for the men, and of 25 for the officers. 
Military training outside the army was forbidden and the existence 
of a large general staff prohibited. 

The naval clauses were almost equally drastic, and the German 
fleet was henceforth restricted to six battleships of the "Deutsch- 
land" type, six light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats (art. 
181), in short, to a flotilla for coast defence, with the important 
proviso that submarines were absolutely forbidden. No new ships 
above 10,000 tons are to be built for replacement purposes. A 
voluntary long-period recruitment for the navy, on the lines of 
that of the army, was provided. A complete demolition of naval 
works and fortifications within 5okm. of the coast was insisted on. 
The air clauses (art. 198-202) were the most drastic of all, for 
they absolutely prohibited naval or military air forces, and 
arranged for the total destruction of all military or naval air 
matMel. Inter- Allied commissions of control were provided for 
all these arms of the service, and their work was finally concluded 
in 1925. But the German armaments are still subject to super- 
vision and inspection by the League. 

Part VI. Prisoners of War and Graves. This section is 
common to all the treaties and provides for the return of prisoners 
of war and for the upkeep and maintenance of graves. It calls 
for no special remark. 

Part VII. Penalties. This is the most disputable of all parts 
of the German treaty, as it is the only one that has remained 
wholly a dead letter. It provides (art. 227) for the trial of 
William II., "formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence 
against international morality and the sanctity of treaties." An 
international tribunal of five, with one member nominated by each 
of the Principal Allies, was to try this high-placed offender. The 
statement of the procedure to be adopted, and of the punishment 
to be inflicted, was judiciously vague. The project never came 
to anything because the Netherlands Government, in whose terri- 
tory the ex-Kaiser had taken refuge, refused to surrender him in 
accordance with the Allied request. 



Articles 228-30 provided for the punishment before military 
tribunals of the allies of Germans "accused of having committed 
acts in violation of the laws and customs of war." Eventually 
a list of over 100 such criminals was drawn up, and their extra- 
dition demanded from Germany. Finally, about a dozen of them 
were tried in Germany itself by Germans and, though only a few 
were convicted, the Allied Governments decided to drop the 
matter, for extradition was impossible without fighting. In 1925 
Field-Marshal Hindenburg, himself a "war criminal," was elected 
President of the Republic without any formal Allied protest. 

Part VIII. Reparation. This is among the most celebrated 
and important of the sections of the treaty, and it was affected 
more than any other by outside and popular influences. The pay- 
ments demanded were called "reparation" rather than indemnity. 
Article 232 defined (in connection with an annex) the categories 
of loss and damage under which. Germany was liable. Among 
these was included pensions to civilians. This seems clearly con- 
trary to the definition given in the memo, of Nov. 5, 1918, which 
has been quoted above. It would appear from the doubtful manner 
in which this question is handled in the covering letter and reply 
of June 1 6 that the Allies themselves were uneasy upon this point. 

The remainder of Part VIII. is concerned with the ways and 
means of paying reparation, and a body, known as the Reparation 
Commission, was set up with very extensive powers. It appears 
that D. Lloyd George intended these powers to be used for the pur- 
pose of greatly reducing the ultimate liabilities of Germany, but 
the absence of the United States from the commission and the 
French influence upon it, together with English popular opinion, 
defeated this idea. The later course of reparation cannot detain 
us here, but the original proposals were greatly modified in execu- 
tion. Mr. Keynes estimated at the time that about 2,000,000,000 
was all that could be got out of Germany, and it is pretty certain 
that 3,000,000,000, or at most 4,000,000,000, represented the 
utmost they could have paid. The institution of the Dawes 
Scheme in 1924 put an end to the original reparation clauses. 

The payments in kind provided for in article 236, and in various 
annexes, were based on sounder ground. They included, among 
other things, "the ton for ton, and class for class" replacement of 
Allied merchant shipping by German vessels. Great Britain ob- 
tained most under this head ; France most by deliveries of coal and 
coal derivatives ; Belgium by livestock. 

Part IX. The Financial Clauses. This section is largely 
technical, dealing with order of priority, with the meeting of spe- 
cial debts from special assets, currency questions, etc. It is closely 
connected with the "Reparation Chapter." 

Part X. Economic Clauses. The first section of this consists 
of articles 264-75, which deals with commercial relations, shipping 
and unfair competition, commercial treaties, etc. Much was at- 
tempted at the conference in the way of promoting international- 
isation of rivers and canals and transport. It was even proposed to 
make raw materials free of tariffs throughout the world. But in 
the end the only practical gain was that the Allied Powers secured 
a "most favoured nation treatment" from Germany for five years, 
and adjusted various commercial treaties for this purpose. 

Sections III.-VIII. (articles 296-311) provide for the regula- 
tion of enemy property, debts, contracts, etc. In the liquidation 
of German property in foreign countries the principle was adopted 
of giving the Allies power to confiscate the private property of 
German individuals in an allied country, and of crediting the sums 
obtained to the amount paid as reparation by the German National 
Government. In other words, the private property of German 
individuals held anywhere abroad was as liable to confiscation for 
reparation purposes, as if it had been German state property con- 
fiscated in a ceded colony. The German Observations to the Allies 
seem to admit that German private property held abroad could 
not be expected to escape altogether. 

The Allies, in their Reply of June 16, pointed out that they had 
had, as a result of the War, to take over foreign investments from 
their nationals, thus infringing on their private rights. They 
added: "the time has arrived when Germany must do what she 
has forced her opponents to do." It is quite true that, though 
private property was invariably respected in former wars, the ad- 



VERSAILLES, TREATY OF 



95 



vance of socialistic ideas and the conditions of modern warfare 
cause difficulty in applying strictly the doctrines of total immunity 
of private property. 

Part XI. Aerial Navigation. This merely arranges for full 
liberty of passage and facilities for Allied airships flying over 
Germany up till Jan. i, 1923. 

Part XII. Ports, Waterways and Railways. This is an im- 
portant section, though a highly technical one. The aim was to 
secure international control over rivers which flowed through more 
than one country. This was a very extraordinary development 
from the doctrine laid down as to international rivers at Vienna 
in 1815. It was, however, affected by the desire to provide access 
to the sea for countries like Switzerland and Czechoslovakia. 
These were land-locked, though they are the source of rivers which 
end in the sea. International commissions were set up to control 
the Rhine, Oder, Elbe, Niemeu and Danube. The result is that 
Germany is in a minority in the control of three rivers regarded 
as typically German, the Rhine, Oder and Elbe. The Kiel canal is 
in effect internationalised to give freedom of access to all vessels 
of whatever country in peace and in war but, subject to this condi- 
tion, is under German administration. Access to the sea is secured 
by providing free zones for Czechoslovakia in the harbours of 
Hamburg and Stettin. As regards international transport by rail, 
the clauses were mostly of a temporary nature; and were subse- 
quently more defined by an international transport conference 
held at Barcelona in 1921 under the auspices of the League. 

Part XIII. Labour, This section marks the beginning of an 
attempt to build up an elaborate fabric of international Labour 
machinery, to provide for periodic international discussion, and to 
arrange for the representation both of employers and of working 
men. Three Labour representatives took part in its construction, 
Samuel Gompcrs of the United States, George N. Barnes of Great 
Britain, and Albert Thomas of France, the last-named becoming 
the permanent head of the International Labour Office. This is 
established at Geneva side by side, but not identical, with the 
League Secretariat. It is, in fact, the instrument set up to carry 
out article 230, of the Covenant by which the members undertook 
"to endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions 
for men, women and children, both in their own countries and in 
all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations 
extend." Though an integral part of the League, its character and 
organs are autonomous, which is not the case with the machinery 
set up to deal with health and transit questions. In the allocation 
of its finance the League has control, but not over the organs, of 
international Labour. The Labour Office is controlled by the 
governing body of 24 persons, of whom 12 represent Govern- 
ments; six are elected by employers' delegates to the conference 
and six by workers' delegates to the conference. 

The general conference, or Lalx>ur parliament, which has to 
meet once every year, consists of over 200 members, and is con- 
stituted as follows: Every member of the League is entitled to 
four representatives, of whom the state government nominates 
two, while a third is elected by the employers and a fourth by the 
workers of the state concerned. The conference has met annually, 
but has met with grave difficulties in the application of universal 
rules and standards. (See INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZA- 
TION.) 

Part XIV. Guarantees. Provision was made in the military 
clauses (sec above) for the demilitarisation of the left bank of 
the Rhine. But a military occupation of Allied troops is also pro- 
vided for. By article 428 the whole of this area, together with 
bridgeheads across the Rhine, is to be occupied for 15 years from 
the coming into force of the treaty (Jan. 10, 1920). But it is pro- 
vided in article 429 that there shall be a successive Allied evacua- 
tion of the three zones and bridgeheads into which the area is di- 
vided. That of Cologne was to be evacuated in five years, that of 
Coblenz in 10 and of Mainz in 15. Those evacuations are not, how- 
ever, to take place unless Germany faithfully carries out the pro- 
visions of the treaty as a whole. The Cologne evacuation was 
delayed from Jan. to Dec. 1925 on this account. 

But the meanings of articles 429 and 430 appears to be that 
the Allies are only permitted to continue occupation if German 



conduct proves unsatisfactory. There does not seem any justi- 
fication under the treaty for the action taken by the Allies as a 
whole, including Great Britain, in 1921, when areas in Germany 
beyond the bridgeheads were occupied. Still less would there ap- 
pear to be any justification for the occupation of the German dis- 
trict of the Ruhr by the French and Belgians in Jan. 1923. This 
was not approved of at the time by the British Government, and 
was subsequently declared by them to be in their opinion illegal 
in a note to the French Government (Aug. 1923). As a guarantee 
for the settlement of the eastern frontier of Germany, as fixed at 
the peace, article 433 abrogates the Brest-Litovsk treaties (q.v.) 
between Germany and Soviet Russia and binds all German troops 
to evacuate territory beyond their new frontier. 

Part XV. Miscellaneous Provisions. This consists of a num- 
ber of miscellaneous and technical matters which were accidentally 
omitted elsewhere. In so far as they are of any importance they 
are mentioned in connection with their appropriate subject above. 

HI. SUMMARY 

The German treaty appears, when its various items are assem- 
bled together, to have been crushing and severe to a high degree. 
This result was partly due to the fact that the separate parts of 
the treaty were worked out by the different committees, and its 
cumulative effect not recognized when they were assembled to- 
gether. It is due, however, more particularly to the fact that 
popular pressure was very great both on President Wilson, Lloyd 
George and Clemenceau not to make a lenient peace. 

At the beginning of June Lloyd George again showed a tendency 
to moderation, but now Wilson had made up his mind and all 
efforts were useless. Clemenceau was considered by some French 
organs not to have sufficiently supported the interests of France, 
and he could hardly have been more moderate, even had he so 
desired. The representatives of the British dominions were gen- 
erally in favour of severity, with the conspicuous exceptions of 
Generals Botha and Smuts, who strongly urged moderation. The 
chief defects of the peace, the procedure against the Kaiser and 
the War criminals and the inclusion of pensions to civilians in 
reparation, must be considered concessions to popular feeling 
rather than due to the deliberate judgment of the peace negoti- 
ators. The first two have been abandoned and the last greatly 
modified. The territorial concessions were carefully considered 
and may, with some effort, be brought within the bounds of "the 
Fourteen Points" and of the Wilsonian principles. As regards 
permanent maintenance of the new frontiers, the British Govern- 
ment has guaranteed these in the west by the Locarno Treaty, 
but they are evidently not prepared to give any special guaran- 
tees for the existing eastern frontiers of Germany, though France 
has promised to support Poland and Czechoslovakia against 
Germany, if need arise. 

The "guarantees" section of the Peace treaty was carried out 
by the evacuation of the Cologne area and by the tacit abandon- 
ment of policies like the invasion and occupation of the Ruhr. 
The Property section of the treaty has been, in great part, modi- 
fied or abandoned. No great diplomatic instrument has ever been 
so speedily modified, revised or altered, whether by tacit consent 
or by deliberate design. Two parts of the treaty alone have ex- 
panded and developed, the institutions set up by the international 
Labour organization and by the League. (H. W. V. T.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. J. M. Keynes, Economic Consequences of the 
Peace (1919) '. H. W. V. Temperley, ed. History of Peace Conference, 
6 vol. (1920-24); A. Tardieu, The Truth about the Treaty (1920); 
B. M. Baruch, The Making of the Reparation and Economic Sections 
of the Treaty, New York (1920) ; R. Lansing, The Peace Negotiations 
(1921) ; Col. E. M. House and C. Seymour, What Really Happened 
at Paris, New York (1921) ; R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World 
Settlement (1923) ; E. J. Von Dillon, The Peace Conference (1919) ; 
F. Schlegelberger, Die Ausfiihrungsgesetze zitm Friedensvertrag vom 
31 August, loio (1919) ; H. Jsay, Die prhaten Rechte und Interessen 
im Friedensvertrag (1921); F. Coppola, La Pace democratic* (Bo- 
logna, 1921) ; C. Hauschild, Versailles (Vienna, 1924) ; C. A. Willc, 
Der VersaiUer Vertrag und die Sanktionen (1925) ; A. Ebray, La Pa& 
Turbia VersaUes (1926) ; C. F. Nowak, Versailles (Eng. trans., 1928) ; 
H. Stegemann, The Mirage of Versailles (1928). 

Texts. The Treaty of Peace, ed. with notes by H. W. V. Temperley, 
with Introduction by Lord R. Cecil (1920). 



VERSE 



VERSE, the name given to an assemblage of words so placed 
together as to produce a metrical effect. The art of making, and 
the science of analysing, such verses is known as versification. 
According to Max Muller, there is an analogy between verstis and 
the Sanskrit term, vritta, which is the name given by the ancient 
grammarians of India to the rule determining the value of the 
quantity in Vedic poetry. A verse is a series of rhythmical 
syllables, divided by pauses, and destined to occupy a single 
line. 

Greek Metre. The chief principle in ancient verse was 
quantity, i.e., the amount of time involved in expressing a syllable. 
Accordingly, the two basal types which lie at the foundation of 
classical metre are "longs" and "shorts." The convention was 
that a long syllable was equal to two short ones: accordingly 
there was a real truth in calling the succession of such "feet" 
metre, for the length, or weight, of the syllables forming them 
could be, and was, measured. In Greek verse, there might be an 
ictus (stress), which fell upon the long syllabic, but it could only 
be a regulating element, and accent was always a secondary ele- 
ment in the construction of Greek metre. There are naturally 
only two movements, the quick and the slow. Thus we have the 
anapest (**-) and the dactyl (-**), which are equal, and 
differ only as regards the position of their parts. After these follow 
two feet which must be considered as in their essence non- 
metrical as it is only in combination with others that they can be- 
come metrical. These are the spondee ( ) and the pyrrhic (^). 
Of more essential character are the iambic (v_~) and the trochee 
(- ^) . Besides these definite types, the ingenuity of formalists 
has invented an almost infinite number of other "feet." It is, 
perhaps, necessary to mention some of the principal of these, 
although they are, in the majority of cases, purely arbitrary. 
In the rapid measures we find the tribrach (~^), the molossus 

( ) ? the amphibrach (^-^), the amphimacer (-^~), the 

bacchius ( w ~ -) and the antibacchius (-~^). There is a foot of 
four syllables, the choriamb (- ^ ^ -) and one of five, the 
dochmiac (w^-w-). 

Of the metres of the ancients, by far the most often employed, 
and no doubt the oldest, was the dactylic hexameter, a com- 
bination of six feet, five successive dactyls interchangeable except 
in the fifth foot with spondees and a spondee or trochee: 



This was known to the ancients as "epic" verse, in contrast to 
the various lyrical measures. The poetry of Homer is the typical 
example of the use of the epic hexameter, and the character of the 
Homeric saga led to the fashion by which the dactylic hexameter, 
whatever its subject, was styled "heroic metre." The earliest 
epics, doubtless, were chanted to the accompaniment of a stringed 
instrument, marking the pulsation of the verse 'kirrj. 

We pass, by a natural transition, to the pentameter, which 
was used with the hexameter, to produce the effect which was 
early called elegiac, and its form shows the appropriateness of 
this custom: 

"Cynthia | prima fu- | it, || Cynthia 1 finis c- | rit." 

A hexameter, full of energy and exaltation, followed by a descend- 
ing and melancholy pentameter, had an immediate tendency to 
take a complete form, and this is the origin of the stanza. 
Such a distich was called an elegy, Ae7etoj>, as specially suit- 
able to an ^Xc-yos or lamentation. It is difficult to say with cer- 
tainty whether the distich so composed was essential as an 
accompaniment to flute-music in the earliest times, or how soon 
there came to be written purely literary elegies towards which 
the melody stood in a secondary or ornamental relation. 

Iambic metre was, next to the dactylic hexameter, the form 
of verse most frequently employed by the poets of Greek 
antiquity. It was not far removed from prose; it gave a writer 
opportunity for expressing popular thoughts in a manner which 
simple men could appreciate, being close to their own' unsophisti- 
cated speech. In particular, it presented itself as a heaven-made 
instrument for the talent of Euripides. 

It was not, however, until the invention of the lyric proper, 



whether individual to the poet, or choral, that the full richness 
of possible rhythms became obvious to the Greeks. The lyric 
inspiration came originally from the island of Lesbos, and it 
passed down through the Asiatic archipelago before it reached 
the mainland of Greece. The Lesbians cultivated an ode-poetry, 
the enchanting beauty of which can still be realized in measure 
from what remains to us of the writings of Sappho and Alcaeus. 
There is a stanza known as the Sapphic and another known as 
the Alcaic. 

The name of Stesichorus of I-Jimera points to the belief of 
antiquity that he was the earliest poet who gave form to the 
choral song; he must have been called the "choir-setter" because 
he arranged and wrote for choirs semi-epic verse of a new kind, 
"made up of halves of the epic hexameter, interspersed with 
short variations epitrites, anapaests or mere syncopae just 
enough to break the dactylic swkig, to make the verse lyrical" 
(Gilbert Murray). But it appears to be to Arion that the artistic 
form of the dithyramb is due. Pindar gathered the various in- 
ventions together, and exercised his genius upon them all. 

After the happy event of the Persian War, Athens became the 
centre of literary activity in Greece, and here the great school 
of drama developed itself, using for its vehicle, in dialogue, 
monologue and chorus, nearly all the metres which earlier ages 
and distant provinces had invented. The verse-form which the 
dramatists preferred to use was almost exclusively the iambic tri- 
meter, a form which adapted itself equally well to tragedy and 
to comedy. Aeschylus employed for his choruses a great number 
of lyric measures, which Sophocles and Euripides reduced and 
regulated. With the age of the dramatists the creative power of 
the Greeks in versification came to an end, and the revival of 
poetic enthusiasm in the Alexandrian age brought with it no 
talent for fresh metrical inventions. 

Latin Metre. Very little is known about the verse-forms 
of the original inhabitants of Italy, before the introduction of 
Greek influences. The earliest use of poetry as a national art in 
Italy is to be judged by inscriptions in what is called the 
'Saturnian metre. The introduction of Greek dramatic metre 
marks the start of regular poetry among the Latins, which was 
due, not to men of Roman birth, but to poets of Greek extraction 
or inhabiting the Greek-speaking provinces of Italy. These writers, 
bearing the stamp of a widely recognized cultivation, threw the 
old national verse back into oblivion. Latin verse, then, began 
in a free but loyal modification of the principles of Greek verse. 
Plautus was particularly ambitious and skilful in this work, and, 
aided by a native genius for metre, 'he laid down the basis of 
Latin dramatic versification. Terence was a feebler and at the 
same time a more timid metrist. In satire, the iambic and trochaic 
measures were carefully adapted by Ennius and Lucilius. The 
dactylic hexameter followed, and Ennius, in all matters of verse 
a daring innovator, directly imitated in his Annales the epic 
measure of the Greeks. To him also is attributed the introduction 
of the elegiac distich. The dactylic hexameter was forthwith 
adopted as the leading metre of the Roman poets, and the basis 
upon which all future versification was to be erected was firmly 
laid down before the death of Ennius in 169 B.C. Lucilius fol- 
lowed, but perhaps with some tendency to retrogression, for the 
Latin critics seem to have looked upon his metre as wanting both 
in melody and elasticity. Lucretius, on the other hand, made a 
further advance on the labours of Ennius, in his study of the 
hexameter. Lest, however, this great form of verse should take 
too exclusive a place in the imagination of the Romans, a younger 
generation began to imitate the lyrical measures of the Greeks 
with remarkable success. These poets left the rigid school of 
Ennius, and sought to emulate the Alexandrians of their own age : 
we see the result in the lyric measures used so gracefully and with 
such brilliant ease by Catullus. The versification of the Romans 
reached its highest point of polish in the Augustan age, in the 
writings of Tibullus, Propertius, Virgil and Ovid. Horace in his 
odes and epodes was not content with the soft Alexandrian 
models, but aimed at achieving more vigorous effects by an 
imitation of the older Greek models. 

Modern Versification. The main distinction between 



VERSE 



97 



classical and modern versification consists in the substitution of 
stress for quantity on the basis of metre, corresponding to a 
change of enunciation which set in in the late classical period. 
A syllable, in modern verse, is heavy or light, according as it is 
stressed or unstressed. 

The prosodies of Provence, France, Italy and Spain were de- 
rived from popular accentual Latin verse by a slow and intangible 
transition. Versification, deprived of all the regulated principles 
of rhythmical art, received in return the ornament of rhyme, 
without which the weak rhythm itself would practically have dis- 
appeared. A new species of rhythm, depending on the varieties of 
mood, was introduced, and stanzaic forms of great elaboration and 
beauty were invented. The normal line is of ten or eight syllables : 
the alexandrine of 12 appears later. In Provencal and early 
French the position of the caesura in each line was fixed by strict 
rules; in Italian these were relaxed. Dante, in the De Vulgari 
Eloquently gives very minute, although somewhat obscure, ac- 
counts of the essence and invention of stanzaic form (cobla in 
Provencal), in which the Romance poetries excelled from the 
first. The stanza was a group of lines formed on a regular and 
recurrent arrangement of rhymes. It was natural that the poets of 
Provence should carry to an extreme the invention of stanzaic 
forms, for their language was extravagantly rich in rhymes. They 
invented complicated poetic structures of stanza within stanza, 
and the eanzo as written by the great troubadours is a marvel of 
ingenuity such as could scarcely be repeated in any other language. 

In French poetry, successive masters corrected the national 
versification and drew closer round it the network of rules and 
principles. Immutable rules were laid down by Malherbe, and by 
Boileau in his Art Poetique (1674), and for more than a century 
they were implicitly followed by all writers of verse. It was the 
genius of Victor Hugo which first enfranchised the prosody of 
France, not by rebelling against the rules, but by widening their 
scope in all directions, and by asserting that, in spite of its 
limitations, French verse was a living thing. 

In very early times the inhabitants of the Germanic countries 
developed a prosodical system which owed nothing whatever to 
classical sources. The finest examples of this Teutonic verse are 
found in Icelandic and in Anglo-Saxon. The line consisted of two 
sections, each containing two strongly stressed syllables, and of 
these four syllables three (or at least two) were alliterated. In all 
ancient Teutonic verse three severe and consistent rules can be ob- 
served, viz., that the section, the strong accentuation, and above 
all the alliteration must be preserved. We find this to be the case 
in High and Low German, Icelandic, Anglo-Saxon, and in the re- 
vived alliterative English poetry of the i4th century, such as 
"Piers Plowman." 

English Metre* The first writer in whom there has been dis- 
covered a distinct rebellion against the methods of Anglo-Saxon 
versification is St. Godric, who died in 1170. Only three brief 
fragments of his poetry have been preserved, but there is no doubt 
that they show, for the first time, a regular composition in feet. 
A quotation will show the value of St. Godric *s invention: 

"Sainte | Nicholacs, | Codes | druth, 
Tymbre us | faire | sconC | hus, 
At thy | burth, | at thy | bare, 
SaintS | Nicholacs, | bring uswel thare." 

From this difficult stanza down to the metres of modern English 
the transition seems gradual and direct, while the tradition of 
Anglo-Saxon alliterative prosody is abruptly broken. There is still 
more definition of feet in the Poenta Morale (c. 1200). The 
Ormulum, which belongs to the early part of the i$th century, 
is monotonously regular. A further advance was made about 50 
years later in Genesis and Exodus, of which Saintsbury has said 
that "it contains more of the kernel of English prosody, properly 
so called, than any [other] single poem before Spenser." The 
phenomenon which we meet with in all these earliest attempts at 
purely English verse is the unconscious determination of writers, 
who had no views about prosody, to work the varying stresses of 
English with the kind of regularity which they heard in French 
and Latin. 



Between 1210 and 1340 not one English poem of importance 
is known to have been written in the old alliterative measure of the 
Anglo-Saxons. But at the latter date there set in a singular reac- 
tion in favour of alliteration, a movement which culminated, after 
producing some beautiful romances, in the satires of Langland. 
Those writers, and they were many, who preserved foot-scansion 
and rhyme, during this alliterative reaction, became ever closer 
students of contemporary French verse, and in the favourite octo- 
syllabic metre "the uncompromising adoption of the French, or 
syllabically uniform, system is the first thing noticeable" (Saints- 
bury). This tendency of Middle English metre culminates in the 
work of John Gower, which is singularly polished in its rhyming 
octosyllabics, although unquestionably nerveless still, and inelastic. 

It is, however, to Chaucer that we turn for far greater con- 
tributions to English verse. He it was who first, with full conscious- 
ness of power as an artist, adopted the use of elaborate stanzas, 
always in following of the French; he it was who first gained free- 
dom of sound by a variation of pause, and by an alternation of 
trochaic and iambic movement. It is the lack of these arts which 
keeps Gower and his predecessors so stiff. In particular Chaucer, 
in his first period, invented rime-royal, a stanzaic form (in seven 
decasyllabic lines, rhymed a b a b b c c), peculiarly English in 
character, which was dominant in our literature for more than 
200 years; it was used in the long romance of Troilus and 
Creseide, where English metre for the first time displays its beauty 
to the full. It seems to have been originally called riding-rhyme, 
the name by which Gascoigne describes it (1575). 

Throughout the isth and early i6th centuries there began to 
arise the popular ballads. The introduction of the loose, elastic 
ballad-quatrain, with its melodious tendency to refrain, was a mat- 
ter of great importance in the metamorphosis of British verse. The 
degenerate forms employed by the English 15th-century poets in 
attempting more regular prosody were in some measure corrected 
by the greater exactitude of the Scotch writers, particularly of 
D unbar, who was by far the most accomplished mctrist between 
Chaucer and Spenser. But Wyatt (1503-42) was the great 
pioneer. He introduced, from France and Italy, the prosodical 
principles of the Renaissance order and coherency, concentration 
and definition of sound and that although his own powers in 
metre were far from being highly developed. He and his more 
gifted disciple Surrey introduced into English verse the sonnet 
(not of the pure Italian type, but as a quatorzain with a final 
couplet) as well as other short lyric forms. To Surrey, moreover, 
we owe the introduction from Italian of blank verse. 

With the heroic couplet, with blank verse, and with a variety 
of short lyric stanzaic measures, the equipment of British verse 
might now be said to be complete. For the moment, however, 
towards the middle of the i6th century, all these excellent metres 
seemed to be abandoned in favour of an awkward couplet of 14 
feet. It was to break up this nerveless measure that the remark- 
able reforms of the close of the century were made, and the dis- 
coveries of Wyatt and Surrey were brought, long after their deaths, 
into general practice. In drama, the doggerel of an earlier age re- 
tired before a blank verse, which was at first entirely pedestrian 
and mechanical, but struck out variety and music in the hands of 
Marlowe and Shakespeare. But the central magician was Spenser, 
in whom there arose a master of pure verse whose range and skill 
were greater than those of any previous writer of English, and 
before whom Chaucer himself must withdraw. His great work was 
that of solidification and emancipation, but he also created a noble 
form which bears his name, that Spenserian stanza of nine lines 
closing with an alexandrine, which lends itself in the hands of 
great poets, and great poets only, to magnificent narrative effects. 

It was at this moment that a final attempt was made to dises- 
tablish the whole scheme of English metre, and to substitute 
for it unrhymed classic measures. In the year 1579 this heresy 
was powerful at Cambridge, and a vigorous attempt was made 
to include Spenser himself among its votaries. It failed, and with 
this failure it may be said that all the essential questions connected 
with English poetry were settled. (E. G.; X.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. For the nature of verse see E. A. Sonnenschein, 
What is Rhythm? (1925). For classical verse; W. Christ, Metrik der 



9 8 



VERTEBRATA VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY 



Griechen und Romer (2nd ed. 1879) ; W. R. Hardic, Res Mctrica 
(1920); U. von Wilamowitz-Moellcndorff, Griechische Verskunst 
(1921) ; W. M. Lindsay, Early Latin Verse (1922). For old Teutonic 
verse: E. Sievers, Altgermanische Metrik (1905) ; for the transition to 
modern prosody: H. G. Atkins, History of German Versification 
(1923). For English verse: J. Schipper, Engtische Metrik (1881) ; J. B. 
Mayor, Chapters on English Metre (2nd ed. 1901) ; T. S. Omond, A 
Study of Metre (iqo.O ; G. Saintsbury, History of English Prosody (3 
vols., 1906-09). For French: Theodor de Banville, Petit Traite de 
prosodie fran^aise (2nd ed. 1872) ; L. E. Kastner, History of French 
Versification (1003) ; H. P. Thieme, Essai sur I'histoire du Vers Fran- 
cais (1916) ; A. Dorchain, L'art des Vers (new ed. 1917). For Italian: 
T. Casini, Le forme metriche italiane (1900); F. d'Ovidio, Versifica- 
zione Italiana (IQIO). For Spanish: E. Benot, Prosodia Castellana y 
Versificacion (3 vols., 1902). 

VERTEBRATA, one of the main subdivisions or phyla of 
the animal kingdom, including such familiar animal types as 
mammals (including man), birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, along 
with such less familiar types as lampreys and hagfish (Cyclosto* 
mata, q.v.). The name is not precisely equivalent to Chordata: 
the latter name is used to include in addition to typical verte- 
brates, the Tunicata (q.v.), which are universally accepted as 
degenerate relations of the vertebrates, and also certain other 
types such as Balanoglossus (q.v.) and Pterobranchia (q.v.) 
whose genetic affinity with the Vertebrata is more doubtful. 
The phylum is marked off from all others by a plan of bodily 
structure peculiar to itself, including (i) an axial supporting 
skeleton traversing the body longitudinally in the mesial plane, 
(2) a muscular system consisting primarily of longitudinal muscle- 
fibres situated to right and left of the axial skeleton, and (3) the 
concentration of the central nervous system and the main blood- 
vessels in longitudinal trunks in the region of the mesial plane, 
the nervous system dorsal to, and the great vessels, as well as the 
other main organs of the body, ventral to the axial skeleton. 

The axial skeleton in its primitive condition, as seen in one of 
the lower types or as a temporary phase in the embryos of the 
higher, consists of a stiff rod, the notochord, cellular in nature, 
its stiffness due to the distension of its constituent cells by fluid 
secreted in their interior. In the more typical vertebrates this 
continuous notochord gives place to a jointed chain of rigid 
vertebrae, giving increased flexibility combined with more effi- 
cient support. 

The muscular system shows the peculiarity that the longitud- 
inal fibres composing it are limited in length to that of a single 
mesoderm segment, so that the system consists of a series of 
paired blocks or myotomes, each composed of a mass of longi- 
tudinal fibres. The physiological significance of this arrangement 
is that contraction of the myotomes in turn from the head end 
backwards produces waves of lateral flexure which, driven back 
along the body and acting against the resistance of the external 
medium, bring about forward movement of the body as a whole. 
The construction of the body for such eel-like movement is per- 
haps the most fundamental feature of vertebrates and it is in 
accordance with it that the important longitudinal conducting 
organs of the body, such as central nervous system and main 
blood vessels, whose functions would be seriously interfered with 
by compression, are situated mesially. 

The adaptation of the vertebrate to forward movement in a 
definite direction carries with it correlated modifications in struc- 
ture of the terminal portions of the body. In front, special paired 
sense-organs are developed for the reception of impressions fro*n 
the outer world chemical (olfactory organs), or optical (eyes; 
peculiar in that they are myclonic, i,e. t developed out of the Bide 
of the tubular nerve cord) or mechanical (otocyst). There fol- 
lows in the neighbourhood of these sense-organs a concentration 
of the special nerve-centres, accommodated by expansion of the 
central nervous system to form the brain. The mouth too is 
situated near the anterior end, and the alimentary canal (pharynx) 
immediately behind the buccal cavity shows characteristic per- 
foration of its side-walls by a series of visceral clefts whose 
vascular walls form respiratory organs (gills). In compensation 
for the resulting weakening of the pharyngeal wall, the mass of 
tissue between adjacent clefts ("visceral arch") develops in its 
interior a skeletal hoop of cartilage or bone. These skeletal 



arches become modified in detail in various ways and, in the case 
of the anterior one, these modifications form the jaws that sup- 
port the margins of the mouth-opening. The mouth-opening of 
the primitive vertebrate appears to have been situated on the 
ventral side of the head under a forwardly projecting, over- 
hanging lobe, a position which it still retains in the shark-like 
fishes to-day. The anal opening similarly was possibly situated 
close to the hinder end of the body, but there is a characteristic 
tendency for it to become displaced forwards along the ventral 
side of the body, reaching its maximum in some of the teleostean 
fishes, where the anus is jugular. 

The Vertebrata in general possess two pairs of appendages or 
limbs pectoral and pelvic both liable to great modifications in 
adaptation to particular habits. The earliest known vertebrates 
(early ostracoderms) possessed no true limbs, and this limbless- 
ness is shared by the cyclostomes. These facts have led many 
authorities to believe that the vertebrates were originally without 
limbs. But it must be remembered that with the development of 
a specially elongated form of body, the limbs tend to disappear 
(many reptiles such as serpents and certain lizards: and the Apoda 
amongst Amphibia) and this disappearance may be so complete 
as to leave no vestige even in the embryo. 

The advancement of knowledge entails greater caution in 
accepting dogmatic conclusions as to the evolutionary history of 
the Vertebrata than was customary a few years ago. It is clear 
that the normal jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) of to-day 
fall naturally into two distinct sets: (i) Fish, constructed for 
swimming and (2) Tetrapods adapted for movement upon a solid 
substratum. 

The former fall into a number of subsidiary groups: Elasmo- 
branchii with Holocephali; Crossopterygii ; Actinopterygii, in- 
cluding a few more archaic types (sturgeons, gar-pike, bowfins) 
together with the vast assemblage of modern bony fishes or 
Teleostei; and the Dipnoi or lungfish. Each of these groups 
represents a terminal twig of the evolutionary tree. 

Existing tetrapods also fall into well-marked groups amphib- 
ians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Here again evolutionary con- 
clusions must be limited to broad general principles. On the 
whole the amphibians are the most archaic while the birds are 
the most highly evolved. The mammals hold their dominating 
position not in virtue of high organization in general but rather 
in virtue of their special development of brain. 

In earlier days it was also customary to debate the claims 
of various groups of invertebrates to represent the ancestral type 
from which the vertebrates originated. Here again the advance 
of knowledge has indicated the need for greater caution. 

In the opinion of the writer of this article our present-day 
knowledge of the facts of vertebrate morphology forbids our 
going farther than to suggest that amongst the post-coelenterate 
phases of vertebrate evolution was a stage having "features in 
common" with annelids. It should be mentioned however that 
at the present time many zoologists are inclined to regard the 
echinoderms, and still more Balanoglossus and its allies, as being 
related to the ancestral stock of the vertebrates. (See FISHES, 
SELACHIANS, AMPHIBIA, REPTILES, BIRD, ORNITHOLOGY, MAM- 
MALIA, etc.) (J. G. K.) 

VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY. The science of embry- 
ology (q.v.) had its first beginnings in the study of the Verte- 
brata (q.v.), the group that includes those forms of life whose 
eggs and breeding habits naturally first attracted attention, and 
even to-day the mass of known embryological detail relating to 
vertebrates far exceeds that relating to any other phylum. Fur- 
ther there is no phylum of the animal kingdom which shows in so 
varying degrees the modifying influence of such factors as amount 
of yolk in the egg, external environmental conditions, etc. 

The Zygote. The vertebrate, like most animals, begins its 
existence as a single cell, the zygote or fertilized egg, formed by 
the fusion of two gametes, derived one from each parent. The 
zygote possesses in itself all the specific peculiarities of the com- 
plete individual of its species. To human observation, however, 
the zygotes of different animals do not exhibit any of the peculiari- 
ties differentiating the adults. Such peculiarities as they do pre- 



GASTRULATION] 



VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY 



99 



sent are in such comparatively trivial characters as size, shape, 
colour. Otherwise each zygote is to all appearance simply a 
typical cell with cytoplasm and nucleus. The superficial differ- 
ences have to do mainly with adaptive features enabling the 
young individual to remain for a more or less prolonged period 
within the shelter of an egg-shell. This is rendered possible in 
the first instance by the zygote possessing in its cytoplasm a store 
of yolk highly concentrated food-material which provides it 
with subsistence. The greater the amount of this yolk-capital 
stored away in the zygote, the greater its size: there is a rough 
proportion between size of egg and quantity of yolk. Thus in 
Amphioxus the zygote has a very minute trace of yolk in its 
cytoplasm and its diameter is about o-i mm.: in the extinct bird 
Aepyornis of Madagascar, judging from the size of the shell, the 
zygote may have been as much as 160 mm. in diameter. 

In the Mammalia of the most ancient type (Monotremata, 
g.v.), which still lay their eggs, these are large and richly yolked 
(Echidna 3-5 mm., Ornithorhynchus 2-5 mm.), and the young 
pass through the early development within the egg-shell. 

In the ordinary modern mammal, on the other hand, the egg 
is not laid in the ordinary sense. The zygote is retained within 
the uterus and there proceeds with its development, absorbing 
such nourishment as it requires from the mother. The store of 
yolk, no longer necessary, has disappeared and the zygote has 
reverted to the small size of from o-i mm. to 0-3 mm. in diameter. 

Peculiarities of colour are often due to the yolk, e.g., orange- 
yellow in the case of birds, salmon-pink in Lepidosiren, green in 
Amid. Yolk is not however the only cause of coloration of the 
vertebrate zygote. Particularly among the Amphibia, where the 
egg develops under conditions of exposure to the harmful influ- 
ence of daylight, the superficial layer of protoplasm shows the 
peculiar "upset" of its metabolism which results in dark brown 
or black melanin pigment, thus producing a protective, light- 
proof shelter over the deeper protoplasm. This is well seen in 
the black eggs of the ordinary frogs and toads. 

It will be borne in mind that the technical term zygote ex- 
presses the unicellular stage arising from the fusion of the two 
gametes. As the male gamete or spermatozoon is of quite insig- 
nificant bulk as compared with the macrogamete (unfertilized egg), 
the obvious features described for the zygote such as size and 
colour have been taken over by it from the macrogamete. The 
provision of a supply of capital in the form of yolk upon which 
the individual can subsist during its early stages is correlated 
with the fact that during these early stages it lives within the 
shelter of more or less elaborate protective envelopes. Such are 
seen in simple form in an ordinary frog, where the egg during its 
passage down the oviduct is coated with a thin layer of secretion 
possessing the quality of swelling enormously in bulk when placed 
in contact with water, the result being the familiar frog-spawn, 
where each egg lies in the centre of a sphere of clear jelly com- 
posed of the greatly swollen layer of oviducal secretion. 

The zygote is moored in the centre of the albumen by the 
axial strand of albumen of a denser, tougher consistency the 
"chalaza." If the egg-shell is rolled over, the chalaza, while keep- 
ing the zygote at its proper distance from the poles of the shell, 
allows it to rotate about the long axis of the shell, itself twisting 
in the process. Consequently the apical pole of the zygote, with its 
germinal disc less heavily weighted by yolk, always keeps upper- 
most next the warm body of the incubating hen even when the 
shell is turned over. 

Segmentation. The first visible phase in development is the 
segmentation or cleavage, by which the unicellular zygote resolves 
itself into the mass of cells constituting the embryo. As in other 
cases (see EMBRYOLOGY), the character of the segmentation is 
greatly influenced by the relative amount of the yolk and still 
more by its distribution within the zygote. Thus in the ordinary 
mammal, where there is practically no yolk, the zygote simply 
divides into two equal blast omeres, each of these again into two 
equal daughter-c^ells and so on. 

Gastrulation. In the Vertebrata, as in so many other cases, 
the process of segmentation, resulting in a blastula or hollow 
sphere of cells, is succeeded by gastrulation, resulting in the forma- 



tion of a more or less cup-shaped gastrula, composed of two layers 
of cells ectoderm and endoderm surrounding a cavity, the 
archenteron, with a wide opening to the exterior the primitive 
mouth or protostoma. 

Gastrulation is seen amongst vertebrates in its most primitive 
form in Amphioxus whejre the abapical hemisphere of the blastula, 
marked by its larger cells, becomes first flattened and then in- 
voluted (invaginated) into the interior of the apical hemisphere. 
The widely open protostoma becomes gradually narrowed through 
one lip of the gastrula, shown by later development to be the 
anterior lip, growing actively backwards so as gradually to cover 
in the cavity or archenteron, except at its hind-end where the 
persisting part of the protostoma remains as a small pore the 
blastopore. The study of subsequent stages shows that the por- 
tion of the embryo formed by this process of backgrowth, i.e., 
the roof of the archenteron, becomes the dorsal side of the em- 
bryo. It should be noted that there are two distinct processes 
at work: (i) the process of involution or invagination in which 
one wall of the blastula becomes inverted into the other, and (2) 
the process of overgrowth by which the archenteron becomes 
roofed in. 

The modifications in gastrulation accompanying increase in the 
amount of yolk are well seen in amphibians or dipnoans, where 
trie relative amount of yolk is intermediate between that of Amphi- 
oxus and that in meroblastic eggs. Here again segmentation re- 
sults in the formation of a blastula but, owing to the far greater 
amount of yolk stored in the abapical cells, the abapical wall of 
the blastula is so thick that by no possibility could it be invo- 
luted into the interior, as it was in Amphioxus. The result is that, 
to arrive at the stage corresponding to the end of gastrulation in 
Amphioxus, a somewhat different route is followed. Involution 
begins but makes little headway: overgrowth however takes place 
actively, the anterior lip of the gastrula growing backwards and 
roofing in the archenteron just as in Amphioxus. A new process 
however now makes its appearance, for the layer of small-celled 
ectoderm spreads gradually over the surface of the egg by a 
process of delamination or splitting off from the large underlying 
cells. In this way the whole of the large-celled yolky cells come 
to be completely covered in and the stage corresponding to that 
of Amphioxus with the small blastopore is reached. 

In the Amniota below mammals the egg is of similar large di- 
mensions. In the reptiles, it is still possible to recognize distinctly 
the processes of involution and overgrowth, but they arc clearly 
diminishing in importance and the archenteron to which they give 
rise is of little moment in the later development. In various rep- 
tiles the blastopore has been seen to take on eventually the form 
of a longitudinal slit, the side lips of which eventually undergo 
fusion over the greater part of its extent, and the line of fusion 
remaining marked by a kind of seam or scar along which the outer 
layer of cells or ectoderm is continuous with the underlying cells. 
This line along which such continuity exists is termed the prim- 
itive streak. In the birds, all obvious involution and overgrowth 
have disappeared, but there still appears as a conspicuous struc- 
ture during early stages the primitive streak which reptilian 
embryology shows to be a last vestige of a blastopore. 

In the ordinary Mammalia the early stages of development are, 
as has already been indicated, greatly modified. The modification 
is associated with two main causative factors: (i) the loss of the 
yolk, which is present in the more archaic vertebrates and (2) the 
development of the egg in a strictly confined space, owing to the 
presence of the shell-like tightly-fitting zona pellucida, followed, in 
some mammals, by being imbedded in the substance of the uterine 
wall. In the relatively primitive Indian tree-shrew Tupaia, this 
confinement of the blastula leads the apical part of its wall, 
where growth is most active, to dip down for a time into the 
cavity, and it would appear that this temporary involution of the 
apical pole in Tupaia gives the clue to one of the most puzzling 
peculiarities in the early development of the typical Mammalia. 
In such mammals segmentation results in a solid sphere of cells, 
into the interior of which fluid is secreted by the activity of the 
outer layer to produce a thin-walled blastocyst, distended with 
fluid and carrying at its apical pole, projecting into the cavity, an 



IOO 



VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY 



[NERVOUS SYSTEM 



'Inner mass" of cells, which later on flattens out and constitutes 
the most important formative portion of the blastocyst wall. The 
appearances in Tupaia clearly suggest that the inner mass of the 
ordinary mammal simply represents the actively growing apical 
portion of the blastocyst wall which had to find space for itself 
by bulging into the interior of the blastocyst, owing to the blasto- 
cyst being unable to expand as a whole. 

Mesoderm. Gastrulation leads to the establishment of the two 
primary cell-layers, ectoderm and endoderm, but in the verte- 
brate as in other coelomate animals, these constitute but a small 
fraction of the total mass of the body : by far the greater part is 
raesodermal in nature. In Amphioxus the mesoderm is repre- 
sented for a time by a series of coelenteric pouches of endoderm 
down each side of the body. Each of these becomes isolated, so 
that they form a series of closed compartments on each side. These 
are the .primitive mesoderm segments, and their cavities are the 
coelomic compartments. At this stage the mesoderm of Am- 
phioxus is comparable in certain ways with that of an annelid 
worm, but in its further development a striking and highly char- 
acteristic difference makes its appearance. In an annelid the 
coelomic compartments becoming distended with coelomic fluid 
form the wide body-cavity: their outer and inner walls provide 
the muscular layer of body-wall and enteric wall respectively: 
their headward and tailward walls applied to those of their neigh- 
bours form the coelomic septa : the portions of their mesial walls, 
where not separated by interposed alimentary canal, form the 
dorsal and ventral mesenteries. 

The difference seen in Amphioxus and in other vertebrates is 
that each mesoderm segment becomes divided into a dorsal and 
a ventral portion, which differ markedly in their further devel- 
opment. The dorsal, separated from the corresponding structures 
of the other side of the body by the interposed spinal cord and 
notochord, becomes a muscle segment or myotome: its portion 
of coelome, the myocoele, becomes obliterated by the apposition 
of inner and outer walls. The ventral portion of the mesoderm 
segment occupies the space between the endoderm and the body- 
wall: its portion of coelome forms the splanchnocoele or body- 
cavity. This ventral portion of the mesoderm the so-called 
lateral mesoderm of typical vertebrates develops two striking 
differences from the dorsal portion: it loses entirely its original 
segmentation, the splanchnocoele becoming continuous from end 
to end, and its outer wall no longer produces muscle. Thus while 
in the annelid the whole extent of the lateral wall of the body is 
provided directly with a lining of muscle, in Amphioxus this ap- 
plies only to the dorsal portion. With further development how- 
ever the myotome extends in a ventral direction, insinuating itself 
between the splanchnocoele and the ectoderm, and in this way the 
ventral portion of the body- wall in Amphioxus, and other verte- 
brates, becomes secondarily muscularized. 

In the Amniota where, in correlation with the thinness of the 
blastoderm, the mesoderm segment is flattened out into a sheet 
of cells, this mesial or paraxial source of mesoderm becomes ap- 
parently the chief one, and the mesoderm presents the appearance 
of growing out from the primitive streak region. 

Commonly included with the typical mesoderm is the mesen- 
chyme. This is a collective term to embrace cells which, assum- 
ing an amoeboid character, creep away from their point of origin 
in the embryo, wandering through its body, multiplying by fission 
and behaving as if they were independent organisms. Some of 
these retain their amoeboid wandering character and constitute 
the leucocytes: others become erythrocytes or red blood-cor- 
puscles: others become chromatophores : others settle down and 
form the packing tissue or connective tissue which forms the 
general framework of the body. 

The Skin. The skin of vertebrates is formed by the ectoderm, 
with a backing of tough connective tissue traversed in all direc- 
tions by fine fibres and constituting the dermis. In all members 
of the group above Amphioxus the epidermis, by cell-multiplica- 
tion, loses its original condition of being only one cell thick. In 
fish numerous epidermal cells become glandular and secrete slime, 
From the lungfish upwards, local aggregations of these cells form 
definite flask-shaped glands, opening by minute pores on the body- 



surface. These epidermal glands undergo specialization in various 
directions salivary glands, poison glands, sweat glands, milk 
glands, etc. In terrestrial vertebrates the superficial ectoderm cells 
become converted into keratin, forming a horny layer which 
obstructs evaporation, and these horny cells are shed from time 
to time as loose scurf, as coherent flakes, or as a continuous 
slough (e.g., snakes). In reptiles they form a hard layer, covering 
underlying bony plates in tortoise-shell or the surface of the head 
in reptiles generally, or forming, with a dense backing' of connec- 
tive tissue, the scales of ordinary reptiles. Innumerable special 
developments of the horny layer occur, some of which will be 
found described in other articles: such are claws, feathers, hair, 
hoofs, rhinoceros horn, whalebone, etc. 

The Nervous System, concerned with the relations of the 
individual to the outer world, develops, as might be expected, 
from the ectoderm. Normally its. first rudiment in the embryo 
consists of a thickening of the ectoderm along the dorsal surface 
the medullary plate. As development proceeds the edges of this 
curl upwards as the neural folds and these arching in towards 
one another, convert the originally flat plate first into a groove and 
later, by fusion of its edges in the mesial plane, into a closed 
neural tube. Of this, the portion in the head region becomes 
greatly enlarged to form the brain, while the remainder gives 
rise to the spinal cord. The brain was formerly described as 
differentiating in the form of three dilatations of the neural tube 
one behind the other, the so-called primary brain vesicles, giving 
rise to fore-, mid-, and hind-brain. Modern advances in compara- 
tive embryology show that this is not accurate. In most of the 
more primitive holoblastic vertebrates the brain first becomes 
differentiated into an anterior cerebrum and a posterior rhom- 
bencephalon, demarcated from one another by an upward fold of 
the brain floor. Of these the former becomes later differentiated 
into the thalamencephalon in front and the mesencephalon be- 
hind. The cerebral hemispheres, which in the higher mammals 
assume great importance, seem to arise primitively as paired 
outward bulgings of the side-wall of the brain towards its front 
end related to the sense of smell. The main part of the thala- 
mencephalon undergoes thickening of its side-walls (optic thala- 
mus) while its roof becomes for the most part degenerate, form- 
ing a thin membrane in intimate contact with a network of blood- 
vessels (choroid plexus) lying immediately outside it. At its hind 
end an outgrowth the pineal body develops which may remain 
a simple club-shaped or tubular structure, but in several cases 
becomes differentiated into two portions, the anterior of which 
(parapineal) develops into an eye (Sphenodon, various lizards). 

In front of the fold of the brain-floor already alluded -to, the 
floor of the thalamencephalon dips down as the infundibulum, and 
this becomes in the course of development closely associated with 
an independent structurethe pituitary body. In the more typi- 
cal vertebrates the two become inextricably involved with one 
another and it is customary to speak of the nervous part of the 
pituitary body. The pituitary ingrowth of the ectoderm is typi- 
cally a hollow pocket and in the surviving crossopterygians it re- 
tains this form through life, forming a gland which opens into 
the buccal cavity. In those vertebrates in which yolk is present 
at the site of its formation, the pituitary ingrowth is, as in other 
such cases, solid, developing its cavity secondarily. 

The organs of special seme arise as localized developments of 
the ectoderm. In the case of the olfactory organ and the audi- 
tory organ, the rudiment shows first as a localized thickening of 
the ectoderm, which then, through extension in area, becomes in- 
voluted below the surface of the skin as a saucer-like depression. 
Finally, the opening to the exterior becoming gradually con- 
stricted, the organ assumes the form of a more or less completely 
closed vesicle. In the case of the olfactory organ the closure is 
never complete, the function, that of chemical testing of the 
surrounding medium, necessitating free communication between 
its cavity, in the lining of which the sensory cells develop, and 
the outside. In the majority of vertebrates however partial closure 
takes place, to divide the opening into two one at each end of 
the organ and so render possible the drawing in of a current of 
the external medium through the organ. The first vertebrates that 



ALIMENTARY CANALJ 



VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY 



101 



have this power of "sniffing" are the lungnshes and the origin 
of the arrangement which makes this possible is well seen in' 
Protopterus, where the opening of the olfactory organ narrows, 
except at its two ends, so as to form a slit. The edges of the slit 
then undergo fusion and the original single opening is now repre- 
sented by two separate openings a considerable distance apart. 
As the anterior boundary of the buccal cavity becomes delimited, 
one, the anterior or external naris, is left outside and the other, 
posterior or internal naris, is enclosed within the buccal cavity, 
perforating its roof. In terrestrial vertebrates in general the 
olfactory organ becomes similarly provided with external and 
internal nares, though the process of development shows various 
modifications in detail. 

The early stages of development of the otocyst or rudiment of 
the auditory organ, are similar to those of the olfactory organ, 
but the reduction of the external opening goes further: in fact in 
all vertebrates except elasmobranchs, it becomes completely 
closed. The peculiar feature which distinguishes the vertebrate 
is that the usually pyriform otocyst of early stages undergoes a 
complicated process of modelling, whereby its wall comes to pro- 
ject into three hollow ridges situated in planes perpendicular to 
one another. The basal or attached portion of each of these be- 
coming obliterated except at its two ends, the ridge is converted 
into an arched tube the semicircular canal opening at each end 
into the cavity of the otocyst and filled, like the rest of the oto- 
cyst, with watery endolymph. In all except the most archaic 
vertebrates, the otocyst undergoes a still further process of 
modelling whereby its lower portion (saccule), which develops 
a special pocket-like outgrowth devoted to the sense of hearing, 
becomes more or less completely constricted off from the upper 
portion or utricle, carrying the semicircular canals. 

The vertebrate eye differs from the other sense-organs in that 
its main portion that containing the actual sensory cells is 
developed, not from the external ectoderm, but from the involuted 
portion of the ectoderm which forms the brain. In a typical case, 
as in a bird embryo, the optic rudiment consists in its earliest stage 
simply of the lateral portion of the wall of the thalamencephalon, 
which here extends outwards on each side so as to give the brain 
a T-shape. As development proceeds the optic rudiment becomes 
narrowed at its base to form the optic stalk, which later will 
become the optic nerve. The distal dilated portion gives rise 
to the retina, while the region of external ectoderm in contact with 
its outer end gives rise to the lens. In a typical case, e.g., a bird, 
the lens is at first simply a slight thickening of the ectoderm, but 
this soon sinks inwards to form a saucer-shaped depression of the 
surface, which, by a gradual narrowing of its opening, becomes 
converted into a closed vesicle. The deep wall of this becomes 
greatly thickened, its individual cells becoming tall and columnar, 
and gradually takes on the form of a biconvex lens, the outer 
wall forming a thin layer of epithelium covering its outer surface. 
As development goes on the cells of the lens become keratinized 
and transparent 

Meanwhile the original optic rudiment is undergoing differentia- 
tion. Its distal portion next the lens becomes involuted within the 
proximal portion